Results for 'formal symbol'

1000+ found
Order:
  1. The Symbol Grounding Problem.Stevan Harnad - 1990 - Physica D 42:335-346.
    There has been much discussion recently about the scope and limits of purely symbolic models of the mind and about the proper role of connectionism in cognitive modeling. This paper describes the symbol grounding problem : How can the semantic interpretation of a formal symbol system be made intrinsic to the system, rather than just parasitic on the meanings in our heads? How can the meanings of the meaningless symbol tokens, manipulated solely on the basis of (...)
    Direct download (11 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   283 citations  
  2. Connecting Object to Symbol in Modeling Cognition.Stevan Harnad - 1992 - In A. Clark & Ronald Lutz (eds.), Connectionism in Context. Springer Verlag. pp. 75--90.
    Connectionism and computationalism are currently vying for hegemony in cognitive modeling. At first glance the opposition seems incoherent, because connectionism is itself computational, but the form of computationalism that has been the prime candidate for encoding the "language of thought" has been symbolic computationalism (Dietrich 1990, Fodor 1975, Harnad 1990c; Newell 1980; Pylyshyn 1984), whereas connectionism is nonsymbolic (Fodor & Pylyshyn 1988, or, as some have hopefully dubbed it, "subsymbolic" Smolensky 1988). This paper will examine what is and is not (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   35 citations  
  3.  33
    On Symbol Grounding.W. K. Yeap - 1993 - Idealistic Studies 23 (2/3):179-185.
    The symbol grounding problem is concerned with the question of how the knowledge used in AI programs, expressed as tokens in one form or another or simply symbols, could be grounded to the outside world. By grounding the symbols, it is meant that the system will know the actual objects, events, or states of affairs in the world to which each symbol refers and thus be worldly-wise. Solving this problem, it was hoped, would enable the program to understand (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  4.  13
    [Symbol] o-Categoricity Over a Predicate.Anand Pillay - 1983 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 24:527-536.
  5.  35
    Overcoming Instructor‐Originated Math Anxiety in Philosophy Students: A Consideration of Proven Techniques for Students Taking Formal Logic.Brian Macpherson - 2016 - Metaphilosophy 47 (1):122-146.
    Every university student has his or her nemesis. Biology and social science students anticipate with great apprehension their required statistics course, while many philosophy students live in fear of formal logic. Math anxiety is the common thread uniting all of them. This article argues that since formal logic is an algebra requiring similar kinds of symbol-manipulation skills needed to succeed in a basic mathematics course, then if logic students have math anxiety, this can impede their progress. Further, (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  6.  4
    A Note on "R"[Symbol] Matrices.Robert K. Meyer - 1983 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 24:450-472.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  7.  30
    Political Ramifications of Formal Ugliness in Kant’s Aesthetics.Christopher Buckman - 2018 - Idealistic Studies 48 (3):195-209.
    Kant’s theory of taste supports his political theory by providing the judgment of beauty as a symbol of the good and example of teleological experience, allowing us to imagine the otherwise obscure movement of nature and history toward the ideal human community. If interpreters are correct in believing that Kant should make room for pure judgments of ugliness in his theory of taste, we will have to consider the implications of such judgments for Kant’s political theory. It is here (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  8.  3
    The beginnings of a formal language for conceptual analysis of processes in macro-chemistry.Michèle Friend - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 22 (1):31-42.
    I present a formal language that imposes a structure on processes in macro-chemistry. Each symbol in the language invites a type of analysis that is carried out either by looking into the semantics if the language or by looking at the context. Every formal language has assumptions underlying it. The assumptions made in developing the formal language are meant to help with conceptual analysis by inviting certain types of question.
    Direct download (2 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  9. The beginnings of a formal language for conceptual analysis of processes in macro-chemistry.Michèle Friend - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 22 (1):31-42.
    I present a formal language that imposes a structure on processes in macro-chemistry. Each symbol in the language invites a type of analysis that is carried out either by looking into the semantics if the language or by looking at the context. Every formal language has assumptions underlying it. The assumptions made in developing the formal language are meant to help with conceptual analysis by inviting certain types of question.
    Direct download (2 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  10.  1
    The beginnings of a formal language for conceptual analysis of processes in macro-chemistry.Michèle Friend - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 22 (1):31-42.
    I present a formal language that imposes a structure on processes in macro-chemistry. Each symbol in the language invites a type of analysis that is carried out either by looking into the semantics if the language or by looking at the context. Every formal language has assumptions underlying it. The assumptions made in developing the formal language are meant to help with conceptual analysis by inviting certain types of question.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  11.  2
    Degrees of Unsolvability and Strong Forms of LAMBDA R + LAMBDA R [Symbol] LAMBDA R.Thomas G. McLaughlin - 1977 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 18:545.
  12.  10
    On the Connections of the First-Order Functional Calculus with [Symbol] o Propositional Calculus.Juliusz Reichbach - 1965 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 6:73.
  13. Virtual Symposium on Virtual Mind.Patrick Hayes, Stevan Harnad, Donald Perlis & Ned Block - 1992 - Minds and Machines 2 (3):217-238.
    When certain formal symbol systems (e.g., computer programs) are implemented as dynamic physical symbol systems (e.g., when they are run on a computer) their activity can be interpreted at higher levels (e.g., binary code can be interpreted as LISP, LISP code can be interpreted as English, and English can be interpreted as a meaningful conversation). These higher levels of interpretability are called "virtual" systems. If such a virtual system is interpretable as if it had a mind, is (...)
    Direct download (17 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  14.  79
    Semantics and the Computational Paradigm in Computational Psychology.Eric Dietrich - 1989 - Synthese 79 (April):119-41.
    There is a prevalent notion among cognitive scientists and philosophers of mind that computers are merely formal symbol manipulators, performing the actions they do solely on the basis of the syntactic properties of the symbols they manipulate. This view of computers has allowed some philosophers to divorce semantics from computational explanations. Semantic content, then, becomes something one adds to computational explanations to get psychological explanations. Other philosophers, such as Stephen Stich, have taken a stronger view, advocating doing away (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  15. Semantics and the Computational Paradigm in Cognitive Psychology.Eric Dietrich - 1989 - Synthese 79 (1):119-141.
    There is a prevalent notion among cognitive scientists and philosophers of mind that computers are merely formal symbol manipulators, performing the actions they do solely on the basis of the syntactic properties of the symbols they manipulate. This view of computers has allowed some philosophers to divorce semantics from computational explanations. Semantic content, then, becomes something one adds to computational explanations to get psychological explanations. Other philosophers, such as Stephen Stich, have taken a stronger view, advocating doing away (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   15 citations  
  16.  33
    Grounding Symbolic Capacity in Robotic Capacity.Stevan Harnad - unknown
    According to "computationalism" (Newell, 1980; Pylyshyn 1984; Dietrich 1990), mental states are computational states, so if one wishes to build a mind, one is actually looking for the right program to run on a digital computer. A computer program is a semantically interpretable formal symbol system consisting of rules for manipulating symbols on the basis of their shapes, which are arbitrary in relation to what they can be systematically interpreted as meaning. According to computationalism, every physical implementation of (...)
    Direct download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  17.  16
    Grounding as a Side‐Effect of Grounding.Staffan Larsson - 2018 - Topics in Cognitive Science 10 (2):389-408.
    In relation to semantics, “grounding” has two relevant meanings. “Symbol grounding” is the process of connecting symbols to perception and the world. “Communicative grounding” is the process of interactively adding to common ground in dialog. Strategies for grounding in human communication include, crucially, strategies for resolving troubles caused by various kinds of miscommunication. As it happens, these two processes of grounding are closely related. As a side-effect of grounding an utterance, dialog participants may adjust the meanings they assign to (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  18. Quantum Linguistics and Searle's Chinese Room Argument.J. M. Bishop, S. J. Nasuto & B. Coecke - 2011 - In V. C. Muller (ed.), Philosophy and Theory of Artificial Intelligence. Springer. pp. 17-29.
    Viewed in the light of the remarkable performance of ‘Watson’ - IBMs proprietary artificial intelligence computer system capable of answering questions posed in natural language - on the US general knowledge quiz show ‘Jeopardy’, we review two experiments on formal systems - one in the domain of quantum physics, the other involving a pictographic languaging game - whereby behaviour seemingly characteristic of domain understanding is generated by the mere mechanical application of simple rules. By re-examining both experiments in the (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  19. Grounding Symbols in Sensorimotor Categories with Neural Networks.Stevan Harnad - 1995 - Institute of Electrical Engineers Colloquium on "Grounding Representations.
    It is unlikely that the systematic, compositional properties of formal symbol systems -- i.e., of computation -- play no role at all in cognition. However, it is equally unlikely that cognition is just computation, because of the symbol grounding problem (Harnad 1990): The symbols in a symbol system are systematically interpretable, by external interpreters, as meaning something, and that is a remarkable and powerful property of symbol systems. Cognition (i.e., thinking), has this property too: Our (...)
    Direct download (13 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  20.  21
    On the Difficulty of Really Considering a Radical Novelty.Derek Partridge - 1995 - Minds and Machines 5 (3):391-410.
    The fundamental assumptions in Dijkstra''s influential article on computing science teaching are challenged. Dijkstra''s paper presents the radical novelties of computing, and the consequent problems that we must tackle through a formal, logic-based approach to program derivation. Dijkstra''s main premise is that the algorithmic programming paradigm is the only one, in fact, the only possible one. It is argued that there is at least one other, the network-programming paradigm, which itself is a radical novelty with respect to the implementation (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  21. A Uniform Theory of Conditionals.William B. Starr - 2014 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 43 (6):1019-1064.
    A uniform theory of conditionals is one which compositionally captures the behavior of both indicative and subjunctive conditionals without positing ambiguities. This paper raises new problems for the closest thing to a uniform analysis in the literature (Stalnaker, Philosophia, 5, 269–286 (1975)) and develops a new theory which solves them. I also show that this new analysis provides an improved treatment of three phenomena (the import-export equivalence, reverse Sobel-sequences and disjunctive antecedents). While these results concern central issues in the study (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   33 citations  
  22. Computational Complexity and Godel's Incompleteness Theorem. McGraw-Hill - unknown
    Given any simply consistent formal theory F of the state complexity L(S) of finite binary sequences S as computed by 3-tape-symbol Turing machines, there exists a natural number L(F ) such that L(S) > n is provable in F only if n < L(F ). On the other hand, almost all finite binary sequences S satisfy L(S) > L(F ). The proof resembles Berry’s..
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  23.  34
    Computing the Motor-Sensor Map.Oswald Wiener & Thomas Raab - 2004 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (3):423-424.
    “Articulate models” subservient to formal intelligence are imagined to be heterarchies of automata capable of performing the “symbolic (quasi-spatial) syntheses” of Luria (1973), where “quasi-spatial” points to the abstract core of spatiality: the symbol productions, combinations, and substitutions of algebraic reckoning. The alleged cognitive role of internal “topographic images” and of “efference copies” is confronted with this background and denied.
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  24.  96
    Nature as a Network of Morphological Infocomputational Processes for Cognitive Agents.Gordana Dodig Crnkovic - 2017 - Eur. Phys. J. Special Topics 226 (2):181-195.
    This paper presents a view of nature as a network of infocomputational agents organized in a dynamical hierarchy of levels. It provides a framework for unification of currently disparate understandings of natural, formal, technical, behavioral and social phenomena based on information as a structure, differences in one system that cause the differences in another system, and computation as its dynamics, i.e. physical process of morphological change in the informational structure. We address some of the frequent misunderstandings regarding the natural/morphological (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  25. An Occurrence Description Logic.Farshad Badie & Hans Götzsche - forthcoming - Logical Investigations.
    Description Logics (DLs) are a family of well-known terminological knowledge representation formalisms in modern semantics-based systems. This research focuses on analysing how our developed Occurrence Logic (OccL) can conceptually and logically support the development of a description logic. OccL is integrated into the alternative theory of natural language syntax in `Deviational Syntactic Structures' under the label `EFA(X)3' (or the third version of Epi-Formal Analysis in Syntax, EFA(X), which is a radical linguistic theory). From the logical point of view, OccL (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  26.  88
    First Order Common Knowledge Logics.Frank Wolter - 2000 - Studia Logica 65 (2):249-271.
    In this paper we investigate first order common knowledge logics; i.e., modal epistemic logics based on first order logic with common knowledge operators. It is shown that even rather weak fragments of first order common knowledge logics are not recursively axiomatizable. This applies, for example, to fragments which allow to reason about names only; that is to say, fragments the first order part of which is based on constant symbols and the equality symbol only. Then formal properties of (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  27. Convergence to the Truth and Nothing but the Truth.Kevin T. Kelly & Clark Glymour - 1989 - Philosophy of Science 56 (2):185-220.
    One construal of convergent realism is that for each clear question, scientific inquiry eventually answers it. In this paper we adapt the techniques of formal learning theory to determine in a precise manner the circumstances under which this ideal is achievable. In particular, we define two criteria of convergence to the truth on the basis of evidence. The first, which we call EA convergence, demands that the theorist converge to the complete truth "all at once". The second, which we (...)
    Direct download (11 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  28.  82
    The Vagueness of Identity.Eli Hirsch - 1999 - Philosophical Topics 26 (1-2):139-158.
    The Evans-Salmon position on vague identity has deservedly elicited a large response in the literature. I think it is in fact among the most provocative metaphysical ideas to appear in recent years. I will try to show in this paper, however, that the position is vulnerable to a fundamental criticism that seems to have been virtually ignored in the many discussions of it. I take the Evans-Salmon position to consist of the following two theses: Thesis I. There cannot be objects (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   9 citations  
  29.  17
    Investigations on Slow Versus Fast Growing: How to Majorize Slow Growing Functions Nontrivially by Fast Growing Ones. [REVIEW]Andreas Weiermann - 1995 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 34 (5):313-330.
    Let T(Ω) be the ordinal notation system from Buchholz-Schütte (1988). [The order type of the countable segmentT(Ω)0 is — by Rathjen (1988) — the proof-theoretic ordinal the proof-theoretic ordinal ofACA 0 + (Π 1 l −TR).] In particular let ↦Ω a denote the enumeration function of the infinite cardinals and leta ↦ ψ0 a denote the partial collapsing operation on T(Ω) which maps ordinals of T(Ω) into the countable segment TΩ 0 of T(Ω). Assume that the (fast growing) extended Grzegorczyk (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  30.  11
    LSJ and the Problem of Poetic Archaism: From Meanings to Iconyms.M. S. Silk - 1983 - Classical Quarterly 33 (02):303-.
    ‘It is supposed’, declared the poet Wordsworth in 1802, ‘that by the act of writing in verse an author makes a formal engagement that he will gratify certain known habits of association; that he not only thus apprizes the reader that certain classes of ideas and expressions will be found in his book, but that others will be carefully excluded. This exponent or symbol held forth by metrical language must in different eras of literature have excited very different (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  31.  79
    Why Not Artificial Consciousness or Thought?Richard H. Schlagel - 1999 - Minds and Machines 9 (1):3-28.
    The purpose of this article is to show why consciousness and thought are not manifested in digital computers. Analyzing the rationale for claiming that the formal manipulation of physical symbols in Turing machines would emulate human thought, the article attempts to show why this proved false. This is because the reinterpretation of designation and meaning to accommodate physical symbol manipulation eliminated their crucial functions in human discourse. Words have denotations and intensional meanings because the brain transforms the physical (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  32.  76
    Levels of Functional Equivalence in Reverse Bioengineering: The Darwinian Turing Test for Artificial Life.Stevan Harnad - 1994 - Artificial Life 1 (3):93-301.
    Both Artificial Life and Artificial Mind are branches of what Dennett has called "reverse engineering": Ordinary engineering attempts to build systems to meet certain functional specifications, reverse bioengineering attempts to understand how systems that have already been built by the Blind Watchmaker work. Computational modelling (virtual life) can capture the formal principles of life, perhaps predict and explain it completely, but it can no more be alive than a virtual forest fire can be hot. In itself, a computational model (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  33. Computation in Cognitive Science: It is Not All About Turing-Equivalent Computation.Kenneth Aizawa - 2010 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 41 (3):227-236.
    It is sometimes suggested that the history of computation in cognitive science is one in which the formal apparatus of Turing-equivalent computation, or effective computability, was exported from mathematical logic to ever wider areas of cognitive science and its environs. This paper, however, indicates some respects in which this suggestion is inaccurate. Computability theory has not been focused exclusively on Turing-equivalent computation. Many essential features of Turing-equivalent computation are not captured in definitions of computation as symbol manipulation. Turing-equivalent (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  34.  39
    Moral Metaphorics, or Kant After Blumenberg: Towards an Analysis of the Aesthetic Settings of Morality.Alison Ross - 2011 - Thesis Eleven 104 (1):40-58.
    This paper examines the role of formal, aesthetic elements in motivating moral action. It proposes that Blumenberg’s analysis of the existential settings of myth and metaphor provide a useful framework to consider the conception and function of the aesthetic symbol in Kantian moral philosophy. In particular, it explores the hypothesis that Blumenberg’s analysis of ‘pregnance’ and ‘rhetoric’ are useful for identifying and evaluating the processes involved in self-persuasion to the moral perspective.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  35. La Pointure du Symbole.Jean-Yves Beziau (ed.) - 2014 - Petra.
    Dans un texte désormais célèbre, Ferdinand de Saussure insiste sur l’arbitraire du signe dont il vante les qualités. Toutefois il s’avère que le symbole, signe non arbitraire, dans la mesure où il existe un rapport entre ce qui représente et ce qui est représenté, joue un rôle fondamental dans la plupart des activités humaines, qu’elles soient scientifiques, artistiques ou religieuses. C’est cette dimension symbolique, sa portée, son fonctionnement et sa signification dans des domaines aussi variés que la chimie, la théologie, (...)
    Direct download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  36.  54
    Phenomenology and Artificial Intelligence: Husserl Learns Chinese.James R. Mensch - 1991 - Husserl Studies 8 (2):107-127.
    For over a decade John Searle's ingenious argument against the possibility of artificial intelligence has held a prominent place in contemporary philosophy. This is not just because of its striking central example and the apparent simplicity of its argument. As its appearance in Scientific American testifies, it is also due to its importance to the wider scientific community. If Searle is right, artificial intelligence in the strict sense, the sense that would claim that mind can be instantiated through a (...) program of symbol manipulation, is basically wrong. No set of formal conditions can provide us with the characteristic feature of mind which is the intentionally of its mental contents. Formally regarded, such intentionally is an irreducible primitive. It cannot be analyzed into non-intentional (purely syntactic, symbolic) components. This paper will argue that this objection is based on a misunderstanding. Intentionality is not simply something given which is incapable of further analysis. It only appears so when we mistakenly abstract it from time. When we regard its temporal structure, it shows itself as a rule-governed, synthetic process, one capable of being instantiated both by machines and men. (shrink)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  37.  35
    Machine Understanding and the Chinese Room.Natika Newton - 1989 - Philosophical Psychology 2 (2):207-15.
    John Searle has argued that one can imagine embodying a machine running any computer program without understanding the symbols, and hence that purely computational processes do not yield understanding. The disagreement this argument has generated stems, I hold, from ambiguity in talk of 'understanding'. The concept is analysed as a relation between subjects and symbols having two components: a formal and an intentional. The central question, then becomes whether a machine could possess the intentional component with or without the (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  38.  22
    Synthetic Semiotics: On Modelling and Simulating the Emergence of Sign Processes.Angelo Loula & Joao Queiroz - unknown
    Based on formal-theoretical principles about the sign processes involved, we have built synthetic experiments to investigate the emergence of communication based on symbols and indexes in a distributed system of sign users, following theoretical constraints from C.S.Peirce theory of signs, following a Synthetic Semiotics approach. In this paper, we summarize these computational experiments and results regarding associative learning processes of symbolic sign modality and cognitive conditions in an evolutionary process for the emergence of either symbol-based or index-based communication.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  39.  5
    LSJ and the Problem of Poetic Archaism: From Meanings to Iconyms.M. Silk - 1983 - Classical Quarterly 33 (2):303-330.
    ‘It is supposed’, declared the poet Wordsworth in 1802, ‘that by the act of writing in verse an author makes a formal engagement that he will gratify certain known habits of association; that he not only thus apprizes the reader that certain classes of ideas and expressions will be found in his book, but that others will be carefully excluded. This exponent or symbol held forth by metrical language must in different eras of literature have excited very different (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  40.  15
    Permissive Nominal Terms and Their Unification: An Infinite, Co-Infinite Approach to Nominal Techniques.G. Dowek, M. J. Gabbay & D. P. Mulligan - 2010 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 18 (6):769-822.
    Nominal terms extend first-order terms with binding. They lack some properties of first- and higher-order terms: Terms must be reasoned about in a context of ‘freshness assumptions’; it is not always possible to ‘choose a fresh variable symbol’ for a nominal term; it is not always possible to ‘α-convert a bound variable symbol’ or to ‘quotient by α-equivalence’; the notion of unifier is not based just on substitution. Permissive nominal terms closely resemble nominal terms but they recover these (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  41.  25
    Ritual Elements in Community*: KENNETH L. SCHMITZ.Kenneth L. Schmitz - 1981 - Religious Studies 17 (2):163-177.
    The Oxford English Dictionary says that a rite is ‘a formal procedure or act in a religious or other solemn observance’. The word comes into English through the French rite from the Latin ritus . Its original meaning escapes etymologists; and this is a mixed blessing, for we neither can nor must attempt a retrieval of its hidden roots. We are told by respectable etymologists that the word is associated from earliest times with Latin religious usage, but that even (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  42.  27
    Machine Understanding and the Chinese Room.Natika Newton - 1988 - Philosophical Psychology 1 (2):207 – 215.
    John Searle has argued that one can imagine embodying a machine running any computer program without understanding the symbols, and hence that purely computational processes do not yield understanding. The disagreement this argument has generated stems, I hold, from ambiguity in talk of 'understanding'. The concept is analysed as a relation between subjects and symbols having two components: a formal and an intentional. The central question, then becomes whether a machine could possess the intentional component with or without the (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  43.  4
    Permissive Nominal Terms and Their Unification: An Infinite, Co-Infinite Approach to Nominal Techniques (Vol 8, Pg 769, 2010). [REVIEW]Gilles Dowek, Murdoch J. Gabbay & Dominic Mulligan - 2012 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 20 (1):769-822.
    Nominal terms extend first-order terms with binding. They lack some properties of first- and higher-order terms: Terms must be reasoned about in a context of ‘freshness assumptions’; it is not always possible to ‘choose a fresh variable symbol’ for a nominal term; it is not always possible to ‘α-convert a bound variable symbol’ or to ‘quotient by α-equivalence’; the notion of unifier is not based just on substitution. Permissive nominal terms closely resemble nominal terms but they recover these (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  44.  52
    Architectural Notation and Computer Aided Design.Saul Fisher - 2000 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 58 (3):273-289.
    In his Languages of Art, Nelson Goodman proposes a theory of artistic notation that includes foundational requirements for any system of symbols we might use to specify and communicate the features of an artwork, in architecture or any other art form. Goodmans' theory usefully explains how notation can reveal linguistic-like phenomena of various art forms. But not all art forms can enjoy benefits of a full-blown notational system, in Goodman's view, and he suggests that architecture's symbol systems fall short (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  45. A Better Role System for OpenMath.Michael Kohlhase - unknown
    OpenMath is a standard for the representation and communication of mathematical objects, which are built up from symbols and variables using applications, binding expressions, and key-value attributions. OpenMath2 introduced a set of symbol roles that can be specified in content dictionaries to restrict the occurrences of the respective symbols. This yields a simple, high-level notion of well-formed objects. While this system is appealing in its simplicity, the definition of wellformedness is purely extensional without an intuitive or formal condition (...)
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  46.  1
    Philosophy as Verse-Performance: Five Poems and a Formalist Prospectus.Christopher Norris - 2017 - Performance Philosophy 2 (2):342-361.
    This article consists of five poems and an introductory essay. The poems are intended on the one hand to make a case for the currently underrated virtues of poetic formalism, i.e., for the revival of rhyme and meter as aspects of poetic practice. On the other they argue for a distinctly philosophical mode of poetry that embraces the values of conceptual or rational discourse as against a romantic-modernist conception premised on the intrinsic superiority of lyric, metaphor, symbol, analogy, and (...)
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  47.  10
    Meinong’s Multifarious Being and Russell’s Ontological Variable: Being in Two Object Theories Across Traditions at the Turn of the 20th Century.Ivory Pribram-Day - 2018 - Open Philosophy 1 (1):310-326.
    This paper discusses the problems of an ontological value of the variable in Russell’s philosophy. The variable is essential in Russell’s theory of denotation, which among other things, purports to prove Meinongian being outside of subsistence and existence to be logically unnecessary. I argue that neither Russell’s epistemology nor his ontology can account for the ontological value of the variable without running into qualities of Meinongian being that Russell disputed. The problem is that the variable cannot be logically grounded by (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  48.  75
    Moral Metaphorics: Kant After Blumenberg.Alison Ross - 2011 - Thesis Eleven 104 (1):40-58.
    This paper examines the role of formal, aesthetic elements in motivating moral action. It proposes that Blumenberg’s analysis of the existential settings of myth and metaphor provide a useful framework to consider the conception and function of the aesthetic symbol in Kantian moral philosophy. In particular, it explores the hypothesis that Blumenberg’s analysis of ‘pregnance’ and ‘rhetoric’ are useful for identifying and evaluating the processes involved in self-persuasion to the moral perspective.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  49.  10
    The Tragedy of the Kingdom: Simmel and Troeltsch on Prophetic Religion.Bradley E. Starr - 1996 - Journal of Religious Ethics 24 (1):141 - 167.
    Troeltsch and Simmel both feared that the loss of religion on a cultural scale would deprive the modern European world of a potentially effective resource for ethical and spiritual unity. To conserve this resource, Simmel argued for a purely formal spirituality that depended upon no doctrines and no institutions. Troeltsch concluded that on a cultural scale, Simmel's program was a recipe for spiritual and ethical suicide; he recommended instead the possibility of a liberal Christianity. In developing this possibility, Troeltsch (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  50. Frege’s Critique of Formalism.Sören Stenlund - 2018 - In Gisela Bengtsson, Simo Säätelä & Alois Pichler (eds.), New Essays on Frege: Between Science and Literature. Springer. pp. 75-86.
    This paper deals with Frege’s early critique of formalism in the philosophy of mathematics. Frege opposes meaningful arithmetic, according to which arithmetical formulas express a sense and arithmetical rules are grounded in the reference of the signs, to formal arithmetic, exemplified in particular by J. Thomae, whose “formal standpoint”, according to Frege, is that arithmetic should be understood as a manipulation of meaningless figures. However, Frege’s discussion of Thomae’s analogy between arithmetic and chess shows that Frege does not (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
1 — 50 / 1000