Results for 'formalized knolwledge'

512 found
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  1.  5
    On Some Formalized Conservation Results in Arithmetic.P. Clote, P. Hájek & J. Paris - 1990 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 30 (4):201-218.
    IΣ n andBΣ n are well known fragments of first-order arithmetic with induction and collection forΣ n formulas respectively;IΣ n 0 andBΣ n 0 are their second-order counterparts. RCA0 is the well known fragment of second-order arithmetic with recursive comprehension;WKL 0 isRCA 0 plus weak König's lemma. We first strengthen Harrington's conservation result by showing thatWKL 0 +BΣ n 0 is Π 1 1 -conservative overRCA 0 +BΣ n 0 . Then we develop some model theory inWKL 0 and illustrate (...)
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  2.  15
    Subalternation and Existence Presuppositions in an Unconventionally Formalized Canonical Square of Opposition.Dale Jacquette - 2016 - Logica Universalis 10 (2-3):191-213.
    An unconventional formalization of the canonical square of opposition in the notation of classical symbolic logic secures all but one of the canonical square’s grid of logical interrelations between four A-E-I-O categorical sentence types. The canonical square is first formalized in the functional calculus in Frege’s Begriffsschrift, from which it can be directly transcribed into the syntax of contemporary symbolic logic. Difficulties in received formalizations of the canonical square motivate translating I categoricals, ‘Some S is P’, into symbolic logical (...)
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  3.  16
    Coping with Unconsidered Context of Formalized Knowledge.Stefan Mandl & Bernd Ludwig - 2007 - In D. C. Richardson B. Kokinov (ed.), Modeling and Using Context. Springer. pp. 342--355.
    The paper focuses on a difficult problem when formalizing knowledge: What about the possible concepts that didn’t make it into the formalization? We call such concepts the unconsidered context of the formalized knowledge and argue that erroneous and inadequate behavior of systems based on formalized knowledge can be attributed to different states of the unconsidered context; either while formalizing or during application of the formalization. We then propose an automatic strategy to identify different states of unconsidered context inside (...)
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  4. Epistemology Formalized.Sarah Moss - 2013 - Philosophical Review 122 (1):1-43.
    This paper argues that just as full beliefs can constitute knowledge, so can properties of your credence distribution. The resulting notion of probabilistic knowledge helps us give a natural account of knowledge ascriptions embedding language of subjective uncertainty, and a simple diagnosis of probabilistic analogs of Gettier cases. Just like propositional knowledge, probabilistic knowledge is factive, safe, and sensitive. And it helps us build knowledge-based norms of action without accepting implausible semantic assumptions or endorsing the claim that knowledge is interest-relative.
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  5. The Concept of Truth in Formalized Languages.Alfred Tarski - 1936 - In A. Tarski (ed.), Logic, Semantics, Metamathematics. Oxford University Press. pp. 152--278.
  6.  46
    Has Grafen Formalized Darwin?Birch Jonathan - 2014 - Biology and Philosophy 29 (2):175-180.
    One key aim of Grafen’s Formal Darwinism project is to formalize ‘modern biology’s understanding and updating of Darwin’s central argument’. In this commentary, I consider whether Grafen has succeeded in this aim.
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  7.  24
    Jamesian Epistemology Formalized: An Explication of 'The Will to Believe'.Richard Pettigrew - 2016 - Episteme 13 (3):253-268.
    Famously, William James held that there are two commandments that govern our epistemic life: Believe truth! Shun error! In this paper, I give a formal account of James' claim using the tools of epistemic utility theory. I begin by giving the account for categorical doxastic states – that is, full belief, full disbelief, and suspension of judgment. Then I will show how the account plays out for graded doxastic states – that is, credences. The latter part of the paper thus (...)
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  8. Toward a Formalized Account of Attitudes: The Causal Attitude Network Model.Jonas Dalege, Denny Borsboom, Frenk van Harreveld, Helma van den Berg, Mark Conner & Han L. J. van der Maas - 2016 - Psychological Review 123 (1):2-22.
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  9.  15
    Hiring a Hospital Staff Clinical Ethicist: Creating a Formalized Behavioral Interview Model. [REVIEW]Nneka Mokwunye, Virginia Brown, John Lynch & Evan DeRenzo - 2010 - HEC Forum 22 (1):51-63.
    This paper presents the behavioral interview model that we developed to formalize our hiring practices when we, most recently, needed to hire a new clinical ethicist to join our staff at the Center for Ethics at Washington Hospital Center.
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  10. Can Mathematics Be Formalized?Harvey Friedman - manuscript
    It has been accepted since the early part of the Century that there is no problem formalizing mathematics in standard formal systems of axiomatic set theory. Most people feel that they know as much as they ever want to know about how one can reduce natural numbers, integers, rationals, reals, and complex numbers to sets, and prove all of their basic properties. Furthermore, that this can continue through more and more complicated material, and that there is never a real problem.
     
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  11.  44
    Formalized and Artificial Languages.W. A. Verloren van Themaat - 1962 - Synthese 14 (4):320-326.
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  12.  25
    What is a Formalized Ontology Today? An Example of IIC.Janusz Kaczmarek - 2008 - Bulletin of the Section of Logic 37 (3-4):238-244.
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  13.  92
    Why Cognitive Science is Not Formalized Folk Psychology.Martin J. Pickering & Nick Chater - 1995 - Minds and Machines 5 (3):309-337.
    It is often assumed that cognitive science is built upon folk psychology, and that challenges to folk psychology are therefore challenges to cognitive science itself. We argue that, in practice, cognitive science and folk psychology treat entirely non-overlapping domains: cognitive science considers aspects of mental life which do not depend on general knowledge, whereas folk psychology considers aspects of mental life which do depend on general knowledge. We back up our argument on theoretical grounds, and also illustrate the separation between (...)
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  14.  14
    The Problem of Mental Causation Formalized.Jens Harbecke - 2010 - Mind and Matter 8 (1):63-91.
    By formalizing the problem of mental causation, we first prove rigorously that the premises of the problem are jointly incompatible. Before the background of the formalizations, we clarify and assess the anti-physicalist argument by Scott Sturgeon and the supervenience argument by Jaegwon Kim. We demonstrate that, contrary to what has sometimes been contended, the negation of the non-identity premise of Kim's version of the supervenience argument is not tantamount to the claim that all mental events are identical to physical events, (...)
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  15. Mathematical Logic and Formalized Theories.Robert Rogers - 1971 - Amsterdam: North-Holland Pub. Co..
     
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  16.  18
    An Abstract Property of Formalized Languages Which Contain Hilberts Ε-Symbol.Albert Leisenring - 1968 - Zeitschrift fur mathematische Logik und Grundlagen der Mathematik 14 (6):81-92.
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  17.  29
    Higher Complexity Search Problems for Bounded Arithmetic and a Formalized No-Gap Theorem.Neil Thapen - 2011 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 50 (7-8):665-680.
    We give a new characterization of the strict $\forall {\Sigma^b_j}$ sentences provable using ${\Sigma^b_k}$ induction, for 1 ≤ j ≤ k. As a small application we show that, in a certain sense, Buss’s witnessing theorem for strict ${\Sigma^b_k}$ formulas already holds over the relatively weak theory PV. We exhibit a combinatorial principle with the property that a lower bound for it in constant-depth Frege would imply that the narrow CNFs with short depth j Frege refutations form a strict hierarchy with (...)
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  18.  19
    Remarks on Formalized Proof and Consequence.L. Gumański - 1969 - Studia Logica 25 (1):158-158.
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  19.  10
    Degrees of Unsolvability Associated with Classes of Formalized Theories.Solomon Feferman - 1957 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 22 (2):161-175.
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  20.  12
    Sentences Undecidable in Formalized Arithmetic: An Exposition of the Theory of Kurt Gödel.Andrzej Mostowski - 1952 - Greenwood Press.
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  21.  14
    The Formal and the Formalized: The Cases of Syllogistic and Supposition Theory.Catarina Dutilh Novaes - 2015 - Kriterion: Revista de Filosofia 56 (131):253-270.
    As a discipline, logic is arguably constituted of two main sub-projects: formal theories of argument validity on the basis of a small number of patterns, and theories of how to reduce the multiplicity of arguments in non-logical, informal contexts to the small number of patterns whose validity is systematically studied . Regrettably, we now tend to view logic 'proper' exclusively as what falls under the first sub-project, to the neglect of the second, equally important sub-project. In this paper, I discuss (...)
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  22.  3
    Some Applications of Formalized Consistency Proofs.G. Kreisel & Hao Wang - 1956 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 21 (4):404-405.
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  23.  16
    Book Review: Quantum Mechanics, Mathematics, Cognition and Action: Proposals for a Formalized Epistemology. Mioara Mugur-Schächter and Alwyn van der Merwe, Eds., Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2002, Xviii+ 493 Pp., $191.00 (Hardcover). ISBN 1-4020-1120-2. [REVIEW]Maria Luisa Dalla Chiara - 2004 - Foundations of Physics 34 (3):529-532.
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  24.  13
    The First Formalized Proof of the Indestructibility of a Subsistent Form.Edward Nieznański - 2013 - Studies in East European Thought 65 (1-2):65-73.
    The article presents a formalization of Thomas Aquinas proof for the indestructibility of the human soul. The author of the formalization—the first of its kind in the history of philosophy—is Father Joseph Maria Bocheński. The presentation involves no more than updating the logical symbolism used and accompanies the logical formulae with ordinary language paraphrases in order to ease the reader’s understanding of the formulae. “The fundamental idea of the Thomist proof is of utmost simplicity: things which are destructible are destructible (...)
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  25.  18
    Semantic Representation of the Probability of Formulas in Formalized Theories.Jerzy Łoś - 1963 - Studia Logica 14 (1):183 - 196.
  26.  21
    Two Kinds of Quotation Mark Expressions in Formalized Languages.Tadeusz Kubiński - 1965 - Studia Logica 17 (1):31 - 51.
  27.  22
    The Diagonal Method in Formalized Arithmetic. [REVIEW]G. Kreisel - 1953 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 3 (12):364-374.
  28.  17
    The Interpretation of Formalized Implication.Haskell B. Curry - 1959 - Theoria 25 (1):1-26.
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  29.  10
    Book Review: Quantum Mechanics, Mathematics, Cognition and Action: Proposals for a Formalized Epistemology. Mioara Mugur-Schächter and Alwyn van der Merwe, Eds., Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2002, Xviii + 493 Pp., $191.00 (Hardcover). ISBN 1-4020-1120-2. [REVIEW]Maria Luisa Dalla Chiara - 2004 - Foundations of Physics 34 (3):529-532.
  30.  14
    Hiring a Hospital Staff Clinical Ethicist: Creating a Formalized Behavioral Interview Model.O. Mokwunye Nneka, A. Brown Virginia, J. Lynch John & G. DeRenzo Evan - 2010 - HEC Forum 22 (1).
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  31.  12
    Sformalizowana Ontologia Orientacji Klasycznej [Formalized Ontology Inspired by Classical Philosophy].Kordula Świętorzecka - 2009 - Polish Journal of Philosophy 3 (2):140-142.
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  32.  10
    Formalized and Artificial Languages.Themaat W. A. Verloren Van - 1962 - Synthese 14 (4):320 - 326.
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  33.  5
    Review: Paul Carl Gilmore, The Effect of Griss' Criticism of the Intuitionistic Logic on Deductive Theories Formalized Within the Intuitionistic Logic. [REVIEW]David Nelson - 1956 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 21 (1):91-92.
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  34.  9
    Formalized Token Models and Duality in Semantics: An Algebraic Approach.Lars Hansen - 2004 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 69 (2):443 - 477.
    Employing the theory of Birkhoff polarities as a model of model theory yields an inductively defined dual structure which is a formalization of semantics and which allows for simple proofs of some new results for model theory.
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  35. Review: A. Janiczak, Undecidability of Some Simple Formalized Theories. [REVIEW]Wilhelm Ackermann - 1957 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 22 (2):217-217.
     
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  36.  2
    Feferman Solomon. Degrees of Unsolvability Associated with Classes of Formalized Theories.Hartley Rogers - 1962 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 27 (1):85-86.
  37.  11
    ‘Surveyablity’ Should Not Be Formalized.Charles F. Kielkopf - 1995 - Philosophia Mathematica 3 (2):175-178.
    There is a review of how Mark Addis has made a case that it would require great effort for scant philosophical profit to formalize a notion of surveyability as a metamathematical predicate demarcating strict finitistic mathematics. It is then suggested how the notion of surveyability is useful in informal philosophizing about mathematics.
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  38.  2
    Review: Andrzej Mostowski, Sentences Undecidable in Formalized Arithmetic. An Exposition of the Theory of Kurt Godel. [REVIEW]G. Hasenjaeger - 1954 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 19 (2):119-121.
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  39.  3
    Review: G. Kreisel, Hao Wang, Some Applications of Formalized Consistency Proofs. [REVIEW]G. Hasenjaeger - 1956 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 21 (4):404-405.
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  40.  1
    The Effects of Formalized and Trained Non-Reciprocal Peer Teaching on Psychosocial, Behavioral, Pedagogical, and Motor Learning Outcomes in Physical Education.Peter R. Whipp, Ben Jackson, James A. Dimmock & Jenny Soh - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  41.  1
    Janiczak A.. Undecidability of Some Simple Formalized Theories. Nach Dem Tode des Verf., von A. Mostowski Und A. Grzegorczyk Herausgegeben. Fundamenta Mathematicae, Bd. 40 , S. 131–139. [REVIEW]Wilhelm Ackermann - 1957 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 22 (2):217.
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  42.  1
    Ehrenfeucht A.. An Application of Gaṁes to the Completeness Problem for Formalized Theories. Fundamenta Mathematicae, Vol. 49 , Pp. 129–141. [REVIEW]Erwin Engeler - 1967 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 32 (2):281-282.
  43.  1
    Kreisel G. And Wang H.. Applications of Formalized Consistency Proofs II. Fundamenta Mathematicae, Vol. 45 No. 3 , Pp. 334–335. [REVIEW]G. Hasenjaeger - 1965 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 30 (1):99.
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  44.  1
    Mostowski Andrzej. Sentences Undecidable in Formalized Arithmetic. An Exposition of the Theory of Kurt Gödel. Studies in Logic and the Foundations of Mathematics. North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam 1952, VIII + 117 Pp. [REVIEW]G. Hasenjaeger - 1954 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 19 (2):119-121.
  45.  1
    Gilmore Paul Carl. The Effect of Griss' Criticism of the Intuitionistic Logic on Deductive Theories Formalized Within the Intuitionistic Logic. English with Dutch Samenvatting. Dissertation Amsterdam 1953, Viii + 25 Pp.Gilmore P. C.. The Effect of Griss' Criticism of the Intuitionistic Logic on Deductive Theories Formalized Within the Intuitionistic Logic. The Same Paper with Omission of the Preface and the Dutch Summary. Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, Proceedings, Series A, Vol. 56 , Pp. 162–186; Also Indagationes Mathematicae, Vol. 15 , Pp. 162–186. [REVIEW]David Nelson - 1956 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 21 (1):91-92.
  46. World Models in Formalized Systems of Theodicy.Edward Nieznański - 2011 - Studia Philosophiae Christianae 47 (1):89-96.
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  47.  2
    Review: A. Ehrenfeucht, An Application of Games to the Completeness Problem for Formalized Theories. [REVIEW]Erwin Engeler - 1967 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 32 (2):281-282.
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  48.  2
    Review: Solomon Feferman, Degrees of Unsolvability Associated with Classes of Formalized Theories; J. R. Shoenfield, Degrees of Formal Systems. [REVIEW]Hartley Rogers - 1962 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 27 (1):85-86.
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  49. Review: R. Feys, Results and Possibilities of Formalized Logic. [REVIEW]Norman M. Martin - 1952 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 17 (4):285-286.
     
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  50.  3
    Review: The Diagonal Method in Formalized Arithmetic. [REVIEW]G. Kreisel - 1953 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 3 (12):364 - 374.
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