Results for 'four causes'

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  1. The Four Causes.Boris Hennig - 2009 - Journal of Philosophy 106 (3):137-160.
    I will argue that Aristotle’s fourfold division of four causes naturally arises from a combination of two distinctions (a) between things and changes, and (b) between that which potentially is something and what it potentially is. Within this scheme, what is usually called the “efficient cause” is something that potentially is a certain natural change, and the “final cause” is, at least in a basic sense, what the efficient cause potentially is. I will further argue that the essences (...)
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    Prohibition-Era Aristotelianism: Parisian Theologians and the Four Causes.Spencer E. Young - 2011 - Bulletin de Philosophie Medievale 53:41 - 59.
    In this essay, I examine the reception and use of Aristotle’s four causes by twelfth- and thirteenth-century Latin Christian theologians, primarily at Paris. I pay special attention to the early thirteenth century, when Aristotle’s works on natural philosophy were officially prohibited in the French capital. By looking at a wide range of texts from both prominent and obscure theologians, I hope to contribute to an expanded view of the ways in which intellectuals in the Latin west received and (...)
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  3. Four Causes.Boris Hennig - 2016 - Borishennig.de.
    This is partly a book about Aristotle’s four causes (material, formal, efficient, and final cause), partly a systematic discussion of the relation between form and matter, causation, and teleology. Its overall aim is to show that the four causes form a system, so that the form of a natural thing relates to its matter as the final cause of a natural process relates to its efficient cause. It reaches two highly distinctive conclusions. The first is that (...)
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  4.  7
    The Four Causes of ADHD: Aristotle in the Classroom.Marino Pérez-Álvarez - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  5. The Four Causes in Aristotle's Embryology.Mohan Matthen - 1989 - Apeiron 22 (4):159 - 179.
  6.  30
    A Category-Based Diagram of the Scholastic Doctrine of Four Causes.J. Raymond Zimmer - 2006 - Semiotics:18-25.
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  7.  47
    The Four Causes.Rosamond Kent Sprague - 1968 - The Monist 52 (2):298-300.
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    The Four Causes: Aristotle’s Exposition and Ours.Rosamond Kent Sprague - 1968 - The Monist 52 (2):298-300.
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  9.  10
    The Logical Foundations of the Four Causes.John B. Noone - 1957 - Modern Schoolman 35 (4):287-294.
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    The Logical Foundations of the Four Causes. Noone - 1958 - Modern Schoolman 35 (4):287-294.
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    The "Four Causes" in the Bhagavad GītāThe "Four Causes" in the Bhagavad Gita.Ananda K. Coomaraswamy - 1937 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 57 (4):415.
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    How Much of Aristotle's Four Causes Can Be Found in the German Legal Method to Interpret Laws?Verena Klappstein - 2016 - Archiv Fuer Rechts Und Sozialphilosphie 102 (3):405-440.
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  13.  3
    Art and the Four Causes.Newton P. Stallknecht - 1934 - Journal of Philosophy 31 (26):710-717.
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  14. Four Causes of Reality.William Crews - 1969 - New York: Philosophical Library.
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  15. The Logical Foundations of the Four Causes.John B. Noone Jr - 1957 - Modern Schoolman 35 (4):287-294.
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    Structuralism, Functionalism, and the Four Aristotelian Causes.Olivier Rieppel - 1990 - Journal of the History of Biology 23 (2):291-320.
  17.  4
    The Significance of "Mimesis" in the Light of Aristotle's Doctrine of the Four Ontological Causes.Nathan Spiegel - 1975 - Revue Belge de Philologie Et D’Histoire 53 (1):5-23.
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  18. Four Theses on Probabilities, Causes, Propensities.Mauricio Suárez - unknown
    This volume defends a novel approach to the philosophy of physics: it is the first book devoted to a comparative study of probability, causality, and propensity, and their various interrelations, within the context of contemporary physics -- particularly quantum and statistical physics. The philosophical debates and distinctions are firmly grounded upon examples from actual physics, thus exemplifying a robustly empiricist approach. The essays, by both prominent scholars in the field and promising young researchers, constitute a pioneer effort in bringing out (...)
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  19. The Ontology of Aristotle's Final Cause.Rich Cameron - 2002 - Apeiron 35 (2):153-79.
    Modern philosophy is, for what appear to be good reasons, uniformly hostile to sui generis final causes. And motivated to develop philosophically and scientifically plausible interpretations, scholars have increasingly offered reductivist and eliminitivist accounts of Aristotle's teleological commitment. This trend in contemporary scholarship is misguided. We have strong grounds to believe Aristotle accepted unreduced sui generis teleology, and reductivist and eliminitivist accounts face insurmountable textual and philosophical difficulties. We offer Aristotelians cold comfort by replacing his apparent view with failed (...)
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  20.  24
    Making Room for Matter: Material Causes in the Phaedo and the Physics.David Ebrey - 2014 - Apeiron 47 (2):245–265.
    It is often claimed that Socrates rejects material causes in the Phaedo because they are not rational or not teleological. In this paper I argue for a new account: Socrates ultimately rejects material causes because he is committed to each change having a single cause. Because each change has a single cause, this cause must, on its own, provide an adequate explanation for the change. Material causes cannot provide an adequate explanation on their own and so Socrates (...)
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  21.  5
    The Reality of Formal Causes.James Robert Brown - 2005 - In Gereon Wolters & Martin Carrier (eds.), Homo Sapiens Und Homo Faber. De Gruyter.
    Aristotle claimed there are four causes (and four corresponding types of explanation). The scientific revolution eliminated formal and final, leaving efficient and material. It is argued here that there is a role for formal causes in the sciences, especially in physics.
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  22.  80
    Agents, Causes, and Events: Essays on Indeterminism and Free Will.Timothy O'Connor (ed.) - 1995 - Oxford University Press.
    Many philosophers are persuaded by familiar arguments that free will is incompatible with causal determinism. Yet, notoriously, past attempts to articulate how the right type of indeterminism might secure the capacity for autonomous action have generally been regarded as either demonstrably inadequate or irremediably obscure. This volume gathers together the most significant recent discussions concerning the prospects for devising a satisfactory indeterministic account of freedom of action. These essays give greater precision to traditional formulations of the problems associated with indeterministic (...)
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  23.  16
    Four Pillars of Statisticalism.Denis M. Walsh, André Ariew & Mohan Matthen - 2017 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 9 (1).
    Over the past fifteen years there has been a considerable amount of debate concerning what theoretical population dynamic models tell us about the nature of natural selection and drift. On the causal interpretation, these models describe the causes of population change. On the statistical interpretation, the models of population dynamics models specify statistical parameters that explain, predict, and quantify changes in population structure, without identifying the causes of those changes. Selection and drift are part of a statistical description (...)
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  24.  70
    By Their Properties, Causes and Effects: Newton's Scholium on Time, Space, Place and Motion--I. The Text.R. Rynasiewicz - 1995 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 26 (1):133-153.
    As I have read the scholium, it divides into three main parts, not including the introductory paragraph. The first consists of paragraphs one to four in which Newton sets out his characterizations of absolute and relative time, space, place, and motion. Although some justificatory material is included here, notably in paragraph three, the second part is reserved for the business of justifying the characterizations he has presented. The main object is to adduce grounds for believing that the absolute quantities (...)
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  25. Agents, Causes, and Events.Timothy O'Connor (ed.) - 1995 - Oxford University Press USA.
    Many philosophers are persuaded by familiar arguments that free will is incompatible with causal determinism. Yet, notoriously, past attempts to articulate how the right type of indeterminism might secure the capacity for autonomous action have generally been regarded as either demonstrably inadequate or irremediably obscure. This volume gathers together the most significant recent discussions concerning the prospects for devising a satisfactory indeterministic account of freedom of action. These essays give greater precision to traditional formulations of the problems associated with indeterministic (...)
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  26.  1
    Who Approves Fraudulence? Configurational Causes of Consumers’ Unethical Judgments.Leischnig Alexander & G. Woodside Arch - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-14.
    Corrupt behavior presents major challenges for organizations in a wide range of settings. This article embraces a complexity theoretical perspective to elucidate the causal patterns of factors underlying consumers’ unethical judgments. This study examines how causal conditions of four distinct domains combine into configurational causes of unethical judgments of two frequent forms of corrupt consumer behavior: shoplifting and fare dodging. The findings of fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analyses indicate alternative, consistently sufficient “recipes” for the outcomes of interest. This study (...)
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  27. By Their Properties, Causes and Effects: Newton's Scholium on Time, Space, Place and Motion—I. The Text.Robert Rynasiewicz - 1995 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 26 (1):133-153.
    As I have read the scholium, it divides into three main parts, not including the introductory paragraph. The first consists of paragraphs one to four in which Newton sets out his characterizations of absolute and relative time, space, place, and motion. Although some justificatory material is included here, notably in paragraph three, the second part is reserved for the business of justifying the characterizations he has presented. The main object is to adduce grounds for believing that the absolute quantities (...)
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  28.  9
    Reducing Irrationality of Legal Methodology by Realistic Description of Interpretative Tools and Teaching the Causes of Irrationality in Legal Education.Hans Paul Prümm - 2009 - Jurisprudencija: Mokslo darbu žurnalas 115 (1):199-219.
    Lawyers pretend as if the process of application of laws, as well as its outcome, could be an analytic-deductive derivation; especially law students learn that legal decision-making is primarily a logic process. But we know that application of laws depends on analytic-logical as well as on voluntaristic (wilful) elements. Exact relations between these components are unknown and will be unknown. At most German law schools students as the most important imperative tool learn the so called “Auslegung” through the use of (...)
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  29.  11
    Critical Realism and Causality: Tracing the Aristotelian Legacy.Stephen Pratten - 2009 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 39 (2):189-218.
    Rom Harré's generative account of causality has been drawn on heavily by advocates of critical realism. Yet Harré argues that critical realists often exaggerate the extent to which powerful causal explanations of social phenomena can be developed. Certain proponents of critical realism have responded to Harré's criticisms by suggesting that it is useful to consider the relevant issues in relation to the familiar Aristotelian classification of four causes. In this paper I contribute to this debate and pursue a (...)
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  30.  15
    The Proactive Corporation: Its Nature and Causes[REVIEW]Jon M. Shepard, Michael Betz & Lenahan O'Connell - 1997 - Journal of Business Ethics 16 (10):1001-1010.
    We argue that the stakeholder perspective on corporate social responsibility is in the process of being enlarged. Due to the process of institutional isomorphism, corporations are increasingly adopting organizational features designed to promote proactivity over mere reactivity in their stakeholder relationships. We identify two sources of pressure promoting the emergence of the proactive corporation -- stakeholder activism and the recognition of the social embeddedness of the economy. The final section describes four organizational design dimensions being installed by the more (...)
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  31. God's General Concurrence with Secondary Causes: Why Conservation is Not Enough.Alfred J. Freddoso - 1991 - Philosophical Perspectives 5:553-585.
    After an exposition of some key concepts in scholastic ontology, this paper examines four arguments presented by Francisco Suarez for the thesis, commonly held by Christian Aristotelians, that God's causal contribution to effects occurring in the ordinary course of nature goes beyond His merely conserving created substances along with their active and passive causal powers. The postulation of a further causal contribution, known as God's general concurrence (or general concourse), can be viewed as an attempt to accommodate an element (...)
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  32. Aristotle's Four Becauses.Max Hocutt - 1974 - Philosophy 49 (190):385 - 399.
    What has traditionally been labelled ‘Aristotle's theory of causes’ would be more intelligible if construed as ‘Aristotle's theory of explanations’, where the term ‘explanation’ has substantially the sense of Hempel and Oppenheim, who construe explanations as deductions. For Aristotle, specifying ‘causes’ is constructing demonstrations.
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  33.  47
    Making Something Happen. Where Causation and Agency Meet.Geert Keil - 2007 - In Francesca Castellani & Josef Quitterer (eds.), Agency and Causation in the Human Sciences. Mentis. pp. 19-35.
    1. Introduction: a look back at the reasons vs. causes debate. 2. The interventionist account of causation. 3. Four objections to interventionism. 4. The counterfactual analysis of event causation. 5. The role of free agency. 6. Causality in the human sciences. -- The reasons vs. causes debate reached its peak about 40 years ago. Hempel and Dray had debated the nature of historical explanation and the broader issue of whether explanations that cite an agent’s reasons are causal (...)
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  34.  64
    Euthanasia and the Active-Passive Distinction.Bruce R. Reichenbach - 1987 - Bioethics 1 (1):51-73.
    I consider four recently suggested difference between killing and letting die as they apply to active and passive euthanasia : taking vs. taking no action; intending vs. not intending the death of the person; the certainty of the result vs. leaving the situation open to other possible alternative events; and dying from unnatural vs. natural causes. The first three fail to constitute clear differences between killing and letting die, and "ex posteriori" cannot constitute morally significant differences. The last (...)
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  35.  51
    Four Seasons in Femininity Orfour Men in a Woman's Life.Willy Apollon - 1993 - Topoi 12 (2):101-115.
    The feminine complaint that Alex's passion echoes, raising it to a level rarely attained, is not limited to the pursuit of sexual jouissance . Nor can it be reduced to an aversion on the part of women to a morality of the signifier, as maintained by a certain reading of Freud. Very precisely, the persistent note in feminine restlessness is a certain relationship of the subject to the insufficiency of the signifier, which the quest for love registers. The fact that (...)
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  36.  8
    Realism and Uncertainty of Unobservable Common Causes in Factor Analysis.Kent Johnson - 2016 - Noûs 50 (2):329-355.
    Famously, scientific theories are underdetermined by their evidence. This occurs in the factor analytic model, which is often used to connect concrete data to hypothetical notions. After introducing FA, three general topics are addressed. Underdetermination: the precise reasons why FA is underdetermined illuminates various claims about underdetermination, abduction, and theoretical terms. Uncertainties: FA helps distinguish at least four kinds of uncertainties. The prevailing practice, often encoded in statistical software, is to ignore the most difficult kinds, which are essential to (...)
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  37.  12
    Realism and Uncertainty of Unobservable Common Causes in Factor Analysis.Kent Johnson - 2016 - Noûs 50 (2):329-355.
    Famously, scientific theories are underdetermined by their evidence. This occurs in the factor analytic model, which is often used to connect concrete data to hypothetical notions. After introducing FA, three general topics are addressed. Underdetermination: the precise reasons why FA is underdetermined illuminates various claims about underdetermination, abduction, and theoretical terms. Uncertainties: FA helps distinguish at least four kinds of uncertainties. The prevailing practice, often encoded in statistical software, is to ignore the most difficult kinds, which are essential to (...)
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  38. Causes of Growth and Stagnation in the World Economy.Nicholas Kaldor - 2007 - Cambridge University Press.
    These lectures contain a masterful summing-up of Nicholas Kaldor's critique of the foundations of mainstream economic theory. They provide a clear account of his theoretical structures on regional differences, primary producers and manufacturers, and on differing market structures and the likely course of prices and quantities in different markets over time. The first four lectures are concerned with theory, history and explanation; the fifth consists of a detailed set of integrated policy proposals. The book is rounded off with a (...)
     
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  39. As quatro causas na filosofia da natureza de Aristóteles.Lucas Angioni - 2011 - Anais de Filosofia Clássica 10:1-19.
    I have two aims in this paper. First, I argue that, in Aristotle’s theory of the four causes, there is a basic and common feature by which all causes are causes: they all work in a triadic framework in which they explain why a given attribute holds of a given underlying thing. Secondly, I argue against a version of “compatibilism” according to which each kind of cause is complete in its own domain and does not compete (...)
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  40. Why the Five Ways? Aquinas’s Avicennian Insight Into the Problem of Unity in the Aristotelian Metaphysics and Sacra Doctrina.Daniel De Haan - 2012 - Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 86:141-158.
    This paper will argue that the order and the unity of St. Thomas Aquinas’s five ways can be elucidated through a consideration of St. Thomas’s appropriation of an Avicennian insight that he used to order and unify the wisdom of the Aristotelian and Abrahamic philosophical traditions towards the existence of God. I will begin with a central aporia from Aristotle’s Metaphysics. Aristotle says that the science of first philosophy has three different theoretical vectors: ontology, aitiology, and theology. But how can (...)
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  41. From Molecules to Phenotypes? The Promise and Limits of Integrative Biology.Massimo Pigliucci - 2003 - Basic and Applied Ecology 4:297-306.
    Is integrative biology a good idea, or even possible? There has been much interest lately in the unifica- tion of biology and the integration of traditionally separate disciplines such as molecular and develop- mental biology on one hand, and ecology and evolutionary biology on the other. In this paper I ask if and under what circumstances such integration of efforts actually makes sense. I develop by example an analogy with Aristotle’s famous fourcauses” that one can investigate concerning (...)
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  42. Aristotle on Causality.Andrea Falcon - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Each Aristotelian science consists in the causal investigation of a specific department of reality. If successful, such an investigation results in causal knowledge; that is, knowledge of the relevant or appropriate causes. The emphasis on the concept of cause explains why Aristotle developed a theory of causality which is commonly known as the doctrine of the four causes. For Aristotle, a firm grasp of what a cause is, and how many kinds of causes there are, is (...)
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  43.  15
    The Causation Debate in Modern Philosophy, 1637-1739.Kenneth C. Clatterbaugh - 1998 - Routledge.
    The Causation Debate in Modern Philosophy examines the debate that began as modern science separated itself from natural philosophy in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The book specifically explores the two dominant approaches to causation as a metaphysical problem and as a scientific problem. As philosophy and science turned from the ideas of Aristotle that dominated western thought throughout the renaissance, one of the most pressing intellectual problems was how to replace Aristotelian science with its doctine of the four (...)
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  44.  72
    Causation and Explanation in Aristotle.Nathanael Stein - 2011 - Philosophy Compass 6 (10):699-707.
    Aristotle thinks that we understand something when we know its causes. According to Aristotle but contrary to most recent approaches, causation and explanation cannot be understood separately. Aristotle complicates matters by claiming that there are four causes, which have come to be known as the formal, material, final, and efficient causes. To understand Aristotelian causation and its relationship to explanation, then, we must come to a precise understanding of the four causes, and how they (...)
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  45. Aristotle's Motivation for Matter.David Ebrey - unknown
    Aristotle’s Motivation for Matter Why does Aristotle make matter so central to his account of the natural world, making it a principle of nature and one of the four causes? Although there is considerable interest in how Aristotle conceives of matter, scholars rarely investigate why he thinks of it as fundamental to the natural world. Some simply ask why Aristotle thinks there must be matter. Other interpreters do not even agree that we should ask this question; they claim (...)
     
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  46.  60
    Aristotle's Causal Pluralism.Nathanael Stein - 2011 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 93 (2):121-147.
    Central to Aristotle's metaphysics and epistemology is the claim that ‘ aitia ’ – ‘cause’ – is “said in many ways”, i.e., multivocal. Though the importance of the four causes in Aristotle's system cannot be overstated, the nature of his pluralism about aitiai has not been addressed. It is not at all obvious how these modes of causation are related to one another, or why they all deserve a common term. Nor is it clear, in particular, whether the (...)
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  47.  17
    A causalidade em Pedro da Fonseca.António Manuel Martins - 2009 - Veritas – Revista de Filosofia da Pucrs 54 (3):112-127.
    In this paper we intend to present briefly the way Fonseca deals with the doctrine of causation in his Commentaries on the Metaphysics of Aristotle. We shall begin with the presentation of the map of the disputations on causation in that work (I), then will refer to the position of Fonseca on the definition of cause (II), the relation between cause and principle (III) and, finally, his defense of the Aristotelian four causes (IV).
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  48.  3
    Metaphysics A.7, 988b16-21.Michail Peramatzis - 2017 - Philosophical Inquiry 41 (2-3):55-65.
    The last six lines of Aristotle's Metaphysics A.7 draw some important conclusions about Aristotle's predecessors' grasp of the four types of cause. Aristotle argues that his account of his predecessors supports his conception of the four causes and his claim that in first philosophy, too, we should seek to understand our subject-matter on the basis of these four causes. I offer a detailed textual and philosophical interpretation of these lines, connect them with Aristotle's argument in (...)
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    Part X of Hume's "Dialogues".William H. Capitan - 1966 - American Philosophical Quarterly 3 (1):82-85.
    In hume's dialogues, Part x, Philo presents the trilemma attributed to epicurus: "is God willing but unable to prevent evil? able but unwilling? both willing and able? whence, Then is evil?" some critics say philo is trying to disprove god's existence. Some say he is not. I say he grants God exists as the first cause in order to show natural religion is impossible. For natural religion must establish god's benevolence, But it cannot combat "moderate scepticism" to establish any moral (...)
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  50.  14
    A doutrina das causas finais na Antiguidade. 2. A teleologia na natureza, segundo Aristóteles.Roberto de Andrade Martins - 2013 - Filosofia E Hist’Oria da Biologia 8 (2):167-209.
    This paper describes the four causes accepted by Aristotle, and then focus upon his concept of final causes, especially emphasizing its use in the study of living beings. The article discusses several difficulties in interpreting Aristotle’s teleology, such as its relation with the concept of a providential god, and the difficulty of understanding goals in processes that do not include intelligent agency. The Aristotelian ideas on final causes are highly complex, and they are widely different from (...)
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