Results for 'free riding'

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  1.  97
    Historical Emissions and Free-Riding.Axel Gosseries - 2004 - Ethical Perspectives 11 (1):36-60.
    Should the current members of a community compensate the victims of their ancestor’s emissions of greenhouse gases? I argue that the previous generation of polluters may not have been morally responsible for the harms they caused.I also accept the view that the polluters’ descendants cannot be morally responsible for their ancestor’s harmful emissions. However, I show that, while granting this, a suitably defined notion of moral free-riding may still account for the moral obligation of the polluters’ descendants to (...)
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  2.  97
    Moral Free Riding.Garrett Cullity - 1995 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 24 (1):3-34.
    This paper presents a moral philosophical account of free riding, specifying the conditions under which failing to pay for nonrival goods is unfair. These conditions do not include the voluntary acceptance of the goods: this controversial claim is supported on the strength of a characterization of the kind of unfairness displayed in paradigm cases of free riding. Thus a "Principle of Fairness" can potentially serve as a foundation for political obligations. The paper also discusses the relation (...)
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  3.  27
    Climate Change and Free Riding.Steve Vanderheiden - 2014 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 11 (4):1-27.
    Does the receipt of benefits from some common resource create an obligation to contribute toward its maintenance? If so, what is the basis of this obligation? I consider whether individual contributions to climate change can be impugned as wrongful free riding upon the stability of the planet's climate system, when persons enjoy its benefits but refuse to bear their share of its maintenance costs. Two main arguments will be advanced: the first urges further modification of H.L.A. Hart’s “principle (...)
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  4.  74
    On the Structural Aspects of Collective Action and Free-Riding.Raimo Tuomela - 1992 - Theory and Decision 32 (2):165-202.
    1. One of the main aims of this paper is to study the possibilities for free-riding type of behavior in various kinds of many-person interaction situations. In particular it will be of interest to see what kinds of game-theoretic structures, defined in terms of the participants' outcome-preferences, can be involved in cases of free-riding. I shall also be interested in the related problem or dilemma of collective action in a somewhat broader sense. By the dilemma of (...)
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  5.  4
    Medical Brain Drain: Free-Riding, Exploitation, and Global Justice.Merten Reglitz - 2016 - Moral Philosophy and Politics 3 (1): 67-81.
    In her debate with Michael Blake, Gillian Brock sets out to justify emigration restrictions on medical workers from poor states on the basis of their free-riding on the public investment that their states have made in them in form of a publicly funded education. For this purpose, Brock aims to isolate the question of emigration restrictions from the larger question of responsibilities for remedying global inequalities. I argue that this approach is misguided because it is blind to decisive (...)
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  6.  16
    Book ReviewsRichard Tuck,. Free Riding.Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2008. Pp. 223. $35.00. [REVIEW]S. M. Amadae - 2008 - Ethics 119 (1):211-216.
    This review of Richard Tuck's Free Riding conveys Tuck's crucial distinction between the logic of collective action which fails due to the problem of causal negligibility, and free riding, which has been modeled as a Prisoner's Dilemma and involves casually impacting another actor in an adverse manner. Tuck also distinguishes the practice of voting which he argues neither fails due to the worry of causal negligibility or due to free riding; instead it represents a (...)
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  7.  7
    Carbon Sink Conservation and Global Justice: Benefitting, Free Riding and Non-Compliance.Fabian Schuppert - 2016 - Res Publica 22 (1):99-116.
    It is often assumed that in order to avoid the most severe consequences of global anthropogenic climate change we have to preserve our existing carbon sinks, such as for instance tropical forests. Global carbon sink conservation raises a host of normative issues, though, since it is debatable who should pay the costs of carbon sink conservation, who has the duty to protect which sinks, and how far the duty to conserve one’s carbon sinks actually extends, especially if it conflicts with (...)
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  8.  63
    Fairness, Free-Riding and Rainforest Protection.C. Armstrong - 2016 - Political Theory 44 (1):106-130.
    If dangerous climate change is to be avoided, it is vital that carbon sinks such as tropical rainforests are protected. But protecting them has costs. These include opportunity costs: the potential economic benefits which those who currently control rainforests have to give up when they are protected. But who should bear those costs? Should countries which happen to have rainforests within their territories sacrifice their own economic development, because of our broader global interests in protecting key carbon sinks? This essay (...)
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  9. Expert Testimony and Epistemological Free-Riding: The Mmr Controversy.Stephen John - 2011 - Philosophical Quarterly 61 (244):496-517.
    Using the controversy over the MMR vaccine, I consider the reasons why non-experts should defer to experts, and I sketch a model for understanding cases where they fail to defer. I first suggest that an intuitively plausible model of the expert/non-expert relationship is complicated by shifting epistemic standards. One possible moderate response to this challenge, based on a more complex notion of non-experts' relationship with experts, seems unappealing as an account of the MMR controversy. A more radical suggestion is that (...)
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  10.  60
    Why One Should Do One's Bit: Thinking About Free Riding in the Context of Public Health Ethics.M. van den Hoven - 2012 - Public Health Ethics 5 (2):154-160.
    Vaccination programmes against infectious diseases aim to protect individuals from serious illness but also offer collective protection once a sufficient number of people have been immunized. This so-called ‘herd immunity’ is important for individuals who, for health reasons, cannot be immunized or who respond less well to vaccines. For these individuals, it is pivotal that others establish group protection. However, herd immunity can be compromised when people deliberately decide not to be immunized and benefit from the herd’s protection. These agents (...)
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  11.  10
    Free-Riding and Research Ethics.Fritz Allhoff - 2005 - American Journal of Bioethics 5 (1):50 – 51.
    In "Rethinking Research Ethics," Rosamond Rhodes argues that everyone has a responsibility to participate in research ethics programs (Rhodes 2005). After discussing the moral underpinnings upon which such a claim might rest, this article brings up two concerns in response to Rhodes' claim. The first worry is pragmatic: Rhodes argues that the focus in research ethics should be on the hypothetical consent of idealized moral agents, an approach that is constrained by practical considerations. The second objection is that, in most (...)
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  12.  35
    We-Intentions, Free-Riding, and Being in Reserve.Raimo Tuomela & Kaarlo Miller - 1992 - Erkenntnis 36 (1):25 - 52.
    A person can intend to achieve his own personal aims and ends, but he can also intend to promote the goals of his groups or collectives. In many cases of collective action these two types of intention will coincide, but they need not, and when they clash, collective action dilemmas, like free-riderism, will emerge. In this paper we discuss and analyze a central kind of group-intentions termed we-intentions, and distinguish between absolute and conditional we-intentions. The analyses of the latter (...)
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  13.  19
    Free Riding and Organ Donation.Walter Glannon - 2009 - Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (10):590-591.
    With the gap between the number of transplantable organs and the number of people needing transplants widening, many have argued for moving from an opt-in to an opt-out system of deceased organ donation. In the first system, individuals must register their willingness to become donors after they die. In the second system, it is assumed that individuals wish to become donors unless they have registered an objection to donation. Opting out has also been described as presumed consent. Spain has had (...)
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  14.  5
    Émissions historiques et free-riding.Axel Gosseries - 2003 - Archives de Philosophie du Droit 47:301-331.
    Doit-on attendre des membres actuels d'une communauté qu'ils compensent les victimes des émissions de gaz à effet de serre causées par leurs ancêtres? Nous défendons l'idée que les générations précédentes de pollueurs peuvent très bien ne pas être mo-ralement responsables des dommages qu'elles ont causés. Et nous acceptons aussi la position selon laquelle les descendants d'une génération de pollueurs ne sauraient être tenus pour res-ponsables des dommages engendrés par leurs ancêtres. Il n'en subsiste pas moins que même si l'on effectue (...)
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  15.  6
    Discussion: Hampton on Free Riding.Gordon G. Sollars - 2003 - Economics and Philosophy 19 (2):311-320.
    Jean Hampton has argued that an important case of the free-rider problem has the structure of a battle-of-the-sexes game, rather than the Prisoner's Dilemma, as is often assumed. This case occurs when the collective good to be produced is a ‘step’ or ‘lumpy’ good, one that is produced in a single production step. Battle of the Sexes is a coordination game, with stronger equilibria than games such as the Prisoner's Dilemma or Chicken. Hampton argues that, because of this difference, (...)
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  16.  52
    An Epistemic Free-Riding Problem?Christian List & Philip Pettit - 2004 - In Philip Catton & Graham Macdonald (eds.), Karl Popper: Critical Appraisals. Routledge.
    One of the hallmark themes of Karl Popper’s approach to the social sciences was the insistence that when social scientists are members of the society they study, then they are liable to affect that society. In particular, they are liable to affect it in such a way that the claims they make lose their validity. “The interaction between the scientist’s pronouncements and social life almost invariably creates situations in which we have not only to consider the truth of such pronouncements, (...)
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  17.  29
    Free Riding and Foul Dealing.Philip Pettit - 1986 - Journal of Philosophy 83 (7):361-379.
  18.  23
    Free Riding and the Prisoner's Dilemma.Raimo Tuomela - 1988 - Journal of Philosophy 85 (8):421-427.
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  19.  12
    Paper Four: Non-Compliance: Fair or Free-Riding[REVIEW]Paul T. Menzel - 1995 - Health Care Analysis 3 (2):113-115.
  20.  18
    Pettit's 'Free Riding and Foul Dealing'.David Schmidtz - 1988 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 66 (2):230 – 233.
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  21.  34
    Free Riding.Dale Murray - 2010 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 7 (3):417-419.
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  22.  11
    Environmental Free-Riding and the Limited Scope of Interactive Justice A Comment on Axel Gosseries.Geert Demuijnck - 2004 - Ethical Perspectives 11 (1):61.
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  23. Is P2P Downloading of MP3 Files an Objectionable Form of Free-Riding?Geert Demuijnck - 2008 - In A. Gosseries & A. Strowel (eds.), Intellectual Property and Theories of Justice. Basingstoke & N.Y.: Palgrave McMillan.
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  24.  4
    Cooperative Justice and English as a Lingua Franca: The Tension Between Optimism and Anglophones Free Riding.David Robichaud - 2015 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 18 (2):164-177.
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  25.  13
    Free Riding.S. T. Kuhn - 2010 - Philosophical Review 119 (1):112-115.
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  26.  2
    Free Riding and Foul Dealing.Philip Pettit - 1986 - Journal of Philosophy 83 (7):361.
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  27.  2
    The Cat's Grand Strategy: Pieter de la Court on Holland and the Challenges and Prospects of Free-Riding Behaviour During the General Crisis of the Seventeenth Century.Paul Schuurman - 2015 - History of European Ideas 41 (3):338-356.
  28.  1
    Preschoolers Are Sensitive to Free Riding in a Public Goods Game.Martina Vogelsang, Keith Jensen, Sebastian Kirschner, Claudio Tennie & Michael Tomasello - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  29. Illegal Downloading, Free Riding and Justice.Geert Demuijnck - 2012 - In Annabelle Lever (ed.), New Frontiers in the Philosophy of Intellectual Property. cambridge university press.
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  30. Free Riding and the Prisoner's Dilemma.Raimo Tuomela - 1988 - Journal of Philosophy 85 (8):421.
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  31.  14
    Environmental Free-Riding and the Limited Scope of Interactive Justice.Geert Demuijnck - 2004 - Ethical Perspectives 11 (1):61-71.
  32.  47
    The Ethics of "Commercial Bribery": Integrative Social Contract Theory Meets Transaction Cost Economics. [REVIEW]D. Bruce Johnsen - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 88 (S4):791 - 803.
    This article provides an ISCT analysis of commercial bribery focused on transaction cost economics. In the language of Antitrust, commercial bribery is a form of vertical arrangement subject to the same efficiency analysis that has found other vertical arrangements potentially beneficial to consumers. My analysis shows that actions condemned as commerical bribery in the Honda case (1996) may well have benefited Honda's dealer network once promotional free riding and other forms of rent seeking by dealers are considered. I (...)
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  33.  10
    Harvesting the Uncollected Fruits of Other People’s Intellectual Labour.Cristian Timmermann - 2017 - Acta Bioethica 23 (2):259-269.
    Intellectual property regimes necessarily create artificial scarcity leading to wastage, both by blocking follow-up research and hindering access to those who are only able to pay less then the actual retail price. After revising the traditional arguments to hinder access to people’s intellectual labour we will examine why we should be more open to allow free-riding of inventive efforts, especially in cases where innovators have not secured the widest access to the fruits of their research and failed to (...)
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  34.  35
    Free Will: The Positive Role of Illusion.Saul Smilansky - 1999 - In The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy. Bowling Green: Philosophy Doc Ctr. pp. 143-152.
    In the following essay, I attempt to defend a novel position on ‘the free will problem’. In particular, I intend to provide (in outline) a position based on the descriptively central and normatively crucial role of illusion in the free will issue. Illusion, I claim, is the vital but neglected key to the free will problem. The proposed position, which can be called ‘Illusionism’, can be defended independently from its derivation from P. F. Strawson’s ‘reactive-naturalism’. However, since (...)
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  35. Resisting Moral Permissiveness About Vaccine Refusal.Mark Navin - 2013 - Public Affairs Quarterly 27 (1):69-85.
    I argue that a parental prerogative to sometimes prioritize the interests of one’s children over the interests of others is insufficient to make the parental refusal of routine childhood vaccines morally permissible. This is because the moral permissibility of vaccine refusal follows from such a parental prerogative only if the only (weighty) moral reason in favor of vaccination is that vaccination is a means for promoting the interests of others. However, there are two additional weighty moral reasons in favor of (...)
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  36.  43
    Playing Fair and Following the Rules.Justin Tosi - 2017 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 14 (2):134-141.
    In his paper “Fairness, Political Obligation, and the Justificatory Gap” (published in the Journal of Moral Philosophy), Jiafeng Zhu argues that the principle of fair play cannot require submission to the rules of a cooperative scheme, and that when such submission is required, the requirement is grounded in consent. I propose a better argument for the claim that fair play requires submission to the rules than the one Zhu considers. I also argue that Zhu’s attribution of consent to people commonly (...)
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  37. 'Democracy and Voting: A Response to Lisa Hill'.Annabelle Lever - 2010 - British Journal of Political Science 40:925-929.
    Lisa Hill’s response to my critique of compulsory voting, like similar responses in print or in discussion, remind me how much a child of the ‘70s I am, and how far my beliefs and intuitions about politics have been shaped by the electoral conflicts, social movements and violence of that period. -/- But my perceptions of politics have also been profoundly shaped by my teachers, and fellow graduate students, at MIT. Theda Skocpol famously urged political scientists to ‘bring the state (...)
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  38.  13
    Do Shareholders Have Obligations to Stakeholders?Earl W. Spurgin - 2001 - Journal of Business Ethics 33 (4):287 - 297.
    The question of whether, and to what extent, business managers have obligations to stakeholders has been the principal theme in much of recent business ethics literature. The question of whether shareholders have obligations to stakeholders, however, has not been addressed sufficiently. I provide some needed attention to this matter by examining the positions of shareholders in the contemporary world of investing. Their positions are considerably different than that often envisioned by business ethicists and economists where shareholders determine the directions of (...)
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  39. Compulsory Voting: A Critical Perspective.Annabelle Lever - 2010 - British Journal of Political Science 40:897-915.
    Should voting be compulsory? This question has recently gained the attention of political scientists, politicians and philosophers, many of whom believe that countries, like Britain, which have never had compulsion, ought to adopt it. The arguments are a mixture of principle and political calculation, reflecting the idea that compulsory voting is morally right and that it is will prove beneficial. This article casts a sceptical eye on the claims, by emphasizing how complex political morality and strategy can be. Hence, I (...)
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  40.  34
    Sharing-Rule and Detection of Free-Riders in Cooperative Groups: Evolutionarily Important Deontic Reasoning in the Wason Selection Task.Kai Hiraishi & Toshikazu Hasegawa - 2001 - Thinking and Reasoning 7 (3):255 – 294.
    Taking a Darwinian approach, we propose that people reason to detect free-riders on the Wason Selection task with the sharing-rule; If one receives the resource, one is an in-group member (standard), or If one is an in-group member, one receives the resource (switched). As predicted, taking the resource-provider's perspective, both undergraduates and children (11 to 12 years old) checked for the existence of out-group members taking undeserved resource. Changing the perspective to that of the resource-recipient did not alter the (...)
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  41.  14
    The Use and Abuse of Metatags.Richard A. Spinello - 2002 - Ethics and Information Technology 4 (1):23-30.
    The web creates manyopportunities for encroachment on intellectualproperty including trademarks. Our principaltask in this paper is an investigation into anunusual form of such encroachment: theimproper use of metatags. A metatag is a pieceof HTML code that provides summary informationabout a web page. If used in an appropriatemanner, these metatags can play a legitimaterole in helping consumers locate information. But the ``keyword'' metatag is particularlysusceptible to manipulation. These tags can beeasily abused by web site creators anxious tobait search engines and bring (...)
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  42.  26
    Objecting Morally.C. A. J. Coady - 1997 - Journal of Ethics 1 (4):375-397.
    Just war theory entails that some wars may be morally unjustifiable, and hence citizens may be right to object morally to their government''s waging of a war and to their being compelled to serve in it. Given the evils attendant upon even justified war, this fact sharply restricts any obligation to die for the state, and raises important questions about the appropriate state response to selective conscientious objectors. This paper argues that such people should be legally accommodated, and discusses objections (...)
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  43.  21
    Honor Among Thieves.Irina Meketa - 2015 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 18 (2):385-402.
    Traditional accounts of the fair play principle suggest that, under appropriate conditions, those who benefit from the cooperative labor of others acquire an obligation of repayment. However, these accounts have had little to say about the nature of such obligations within morally or legally problematic cooperative schemes, taking the matter to be either straightforward or unimportant. It is neither. The question of what sorts of fair play obligations obtain for those who benefit from illicit cooperative activity is a matter of (...)
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  44.  32
    Free Will.Saul Smilansky - 1999 - The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 1999:143-152.
    In the following essay, I attempt to defend a novel position on ‘the free will problem’. In particular, I intend to provide (in outline) a position based on the descriptively central and normatively crucial role of illusion in the free will issue. Illusion, I claim, is the vital but neglected key to the free will problem. The proposed position, which can be called ‘Illusionism’, can be defended independently from its derivation from P. F. Strawson’s ‘reactive-naturalism’. However, since (...)
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  45.  11
    Public Goods.Garrett Cullity - 2001 - In Lawrence C. Becker Charlotte B. Becker (ed.), Encyclopedia of Ethics, Vol. III. New York: Routledge. pp. 1413-16.
  46.  3
    Qui Bono? Justice in the Distribution of the Benefits and Burdens of Avoided Deforestation.Ed Page - 2016 - Res Publica 22 (1):83-97.
    In this paper, I explore the question of how the costs of undertaking an important type of climate change mitigation should be shared amongst states seeking an environmentally effective and equitable response to global climate change. While much of the normative literature on climate mitigation has focused on burden sharing within the context of reductions in emissions of greenhouse gas, I explore the question of how the costs of protecting tropical forests in order to harness their climate mitigation potential should (...)
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  47.  94
    Stakeholder Theory and A Principle of Fairness.Robert A. Phillips - 1997 - Business Ethics Quarterly 7 (1):51-66.
    Stakeholder theory has become a central issue in the literature on business ethics / business and society. There are, however, a number of problems with stakeholder theory as currently understood. Among these are: 1) the lack of a coherent justificatory framework, 2) the problem of adjudicating between stakeholders, and 3) the problem of stakeholder identification. In this essay, I propose that a possible source of obligations to stakeholders is the principle of fairness (or fair play) as discussed in the political (...)
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  48. Free Will and Luck.Alfred R. Mele - 2006 - Oxford University Press.
    Mele's ultimate purpose in this book is to help readers think more clearly about free will. He identifies and makes vivid the most important conceptual obstacles to justified belief in the existence of free will and meets them head on. Mele clarifies the central issues in the philosophical debate about free will and moral responsibility, criticizes various influential contemporary theories about free will, and develops two overlapping conceptions of free will--one for readers who are convinced (...)
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  49. Elbow Room: The Varieties of Free Will Worth Wanting.Daniel C. Dennett - 1984 - MIT Press.
    Essays discuss reason, self-control, self-definition, time, cause and effect, accidents, and responsibility, and explain why people want free will.
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  50. The Metaphysics of Free Will: An Essay on Control.John Martin Fischer - 1994 - Blackwell.
    The Metaphysics of Free Will provides a through statement of the major grounds for skepticism about the reality of free will and moral responsibility. The author identifies and explains the sort of control that is associated with personhood and accountability, and shows how it is consistent with causal determinism. In so doing, out view of ourselves as morally responsible agents is protected against the disturbing changes posed by science and religion.
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