Results for 'genocide'

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  1.  9
    Campbell, Joseph Keim, Michael O'Rourke, and Harry S. Silverstein (Eds), Knowledge and Skepticism, Cambridge, MA and London: MIT Press, 2010, Pp. Viii+ 367,£ 25.95/£ 51.95. Canfield, John V., Becoming Human: The Development of Language, Self, and Self-Consciousness, Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave, 2007, Pp. Viii+ 186. [REVIEW]Claudia Card, Confronting Evils & Cambridge Genocide - 2010 - Mind 119 (475):475.
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  2.  89
    Confronting Evils: Terrorism, Torture, Genocide.Claudia Card - 2010 - Cambridge University Press.
    In this contribution to philosophical ethics, Claudia Card revisits the theory of evil developed in her earlier book The Atrocity Paradigm, and expands it to consider collectively perpetrated and collectively suffered atrocities. Redefining evil as a secular concept and focusing on the inexcusability - rather than the culpability - of atrocities, Card examines the tension between responding to evils and preserving humanitarian values. This stimulating and often provocative book contends that understanding the evils in terrorism, torture and genocide enables (...)
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  3. Is There a Duty to Militarily Intervene to Stop a Genocide?Uwe Steinhoff - forthcoming - In Christian Neuhäuser & Christoph Schuck (eds.), Military Interventions: Considerations from Philosophy and Political Science.
    Is there is a moral obligation to militarily intervene in another state to stop a genocide from happening (if this can be done with proportionate force)? My answer is that under exceptional circumstances a state or even a non-state actor might have a duty to stop a genocide (for example if these actors have promised to do so), but under most circumstances there is no such obligation. To wit, “humanity,” states, collectives, and individuals do not have an obligation (...)
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  4. Genocide and Human Rights: A Philosophical Guide.John K. Roth (ed.) - 2005 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
    Genocide is evil or nothing could be. It raises a host of questions about humanity, rights, justice, and reality, which are key areas of concern for philosophy. Strangely, however, philosophers have tended to ignore genocide. Even more problematic, philosophy and philosophers bear more responsibility for genocide than they have usually admitted. In Genocide and Human Rights: A Philosophical Guide, an international group of twenty-five contemporary philosophers work to correct those deficiencies by showing how philosophy can and (...)
     
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  5.  37
    Reparations for Historical Human Rights Violations: The International and Historical Dimensions of the Alien Torts Claims Act Genocide Case of the Herero of Namibia. [REVIEW]Jeremy Sarkin & Carly Fowler - 2008 - Human Rights Review 9 (3):331-360.
    Between 1904 and 1908, German colonialists in German South West Africa (GSWA, known today as Namibia) committed genocide and other international crimes against two indigenous groups, the Herero and the Nama. From the late 1990s, the Herero have sought reparations from the German government and several German corporations for what occurred more than a hundred years ago. This article examines and contextualizes the issues concerning reparations for historical human rights claims. It describes and analyzes the events in GSWA at (...)
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  6. “Transitional Justice in Post-Genocide Rwanda: An Integrative Approach”.Lynne Tirrell - 2015 - In Claudio Corradetti, Nir Eisikovits & Jack Rotondi (eds.), Theorizing Transitional Justice. Ashgate.
    An imperfect “politics of justice” seems to be inevitable in the aftermath of genocide. In Rwanda, this is especially true, given the scale of the atrocities, the breadth of participation, and the need to build a justice system from scratch while establishing security and restoring the rule of law. Official contexts for survivor testimony and corresponding perpetrator punishment are crucial for establishing shared norms and narratives, but these processes can destabilize social relations in important ways. Accordingly, without development, these (...)
     
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  7.  5
    Genocide, Diversity, and John Dewey's Progressive Education.Marianna Papastephanou - 2016 - Metaphilosophy 47 (4-5):627-655.
    This article discusses how John Dewey's “Report and Recommendation upon Turkish Education” and some of Dewey's related travel narratives reflect “civilizing mission” imperatives and involve multiple utopian operations that have not yet attracted political-philosophical attention. Such critical attention would reveal Dewey's misjudgments concerning issues of diversity, geopolitics, and global justice. Based on an ethicopolitical reading of the relevant sources, the aim here is to expose developmentalist and colonial vestiges, to raise searching questions, and to obtain a heightened view on the (...)
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  8.  96
    Ethical Criticism of the Bible: The Case of Divinely Mandated Genocide.Wes Morriston - 2012 - Sophia 51 (1):117-135.
    Taking as a test case biblical texts in which the God of Israel commands the destruction other nations, the present paper defends the legitimacy and the necessity of ethical criticism of the Bible. It takes issue with the suggestions of several contemporary Christian philosophers who have recently defended the view that (in Israel’s early history) God had good and morally sufficient reasons for commanding genocide.
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  9.  70
    Collective Action and the Peculiar Evil of Genocide.Bill Wringe - 2006 - Metaphilosophy 37 (3-4):376–392.
    There is a common intuition that genocide is qualitatively distinct from, and much worse than, mass murder. If we concentrate on the most obvious differences between genocidal killing and other cases of mass murder it is difficult to see why this should be the case. I argue that many cases of genocide involve not merely individual evil but a form of collective action manifesting a collective evil will. It is this that explains the moral distinctiveness of genocide. (...)
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  10.  15
    Genocide in Jewish Thought.David Patterson - 2012 - Cambridge University Press.
    1. Introduction: a name, not an essence -- 2. Why Jewish thought and what makes it Jewish? -- 3. Deadly philosophical abstraction -- 4. The stranger in your midst -- 5. Nefesh: the soul as flesh and blood -- 6. The environmentalist contribution to genocide -- 7. Torture -- 8. Hunger and homelessness -- 9. Philosophy, religion, and genocide -- 10. A concluding reflection on body and soul.
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  11.  61
    Easy to Remember?: Genocide and the Philosophy of Religion. [REVIEW]John K. Roth - 2010 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 68 (1-3):31-42.
    Philosophers of religion have written a great deal about the problem of evil. Their reflections, however, have not concentrated, at least not extensively or sufficiently, on the particularities of evil that manifest themselves in genocide. Concentrating on some of those particularities, this essay reflects on genocide, which has sometimes been called the crime of crimes, to raise questions such as: how should genocide affect the philosophy of religion and what might philosophers of religion contribute to help check (...)
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  12.  76
    Genocide and Human Rights: A Philosophical Guide - Edited by John K. Roth. [REVIEW]Aleksandar Jokic - 2007 - Philosophical Books 48 (1):94-96.
    Having followed the literature on genocide since the beginning of 1990s I have been often struck that academic writing on genocide is very much like non-professional pursuits in youth sports: anything is considered 'a good try'. The French have a good phrase for what I mean here: n'importe quoi. Works exhibiting no sound methodology, replete with irrational claims without factual basis and beliefs about foreigners adopted on faith limited only by a 'the worse the better' criterion of plausibility (...)
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  13.  15
    Genocide Reconsidered: A Pragmatist Approach.Erik Schneiderhan - 2013 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 43 (3):280-300.
    The recent literature on genocide shows signs of taking what might be called a “processual turn,” with genocide increasingly understood as a contingent process rather than a singular event. But while this second generation's turn may be clear to those within the literature, the theory guiding the change is insufficiently specified. The theory regarding process and contingency is implicit, and, as such, genocide theory does not realize its full generative potential. The primary goal of this article is (...)
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  14. Studying Genocide: A Pragmatist Approach to Action-Engendering Discourse.Lynne Tirrell - 2013 - In Graham Hubbs & Douglas Lind (eds.), Pragmatism, Law, and Language. Routledge.
    Drawing on my recent work using inferential role semantics and elements of speech act theory to analyze the role of derogatory terms (a.k.a. ‘hate speech’, or ‘slurs’) in the 1994 genocide of the Tutsi in Rwanda, as well as the role of certain kinds of reparative speech acts in post-genocide Rwanda, this paper highlights key pragmatist commitments that inform the methods and goals of this practical analysis of real world events. In “Genocidal Language Games”, I used conceptual tools (...)
     
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  15.  40
    Claudia Card's Concept of Social Death: A New Way of Looking at Genocide.James Snow - 2016 - Metaphilosophy 47 (4-5):607-626.
    Scholarship in the multidisciplinary field of genocide studies often emphasizes body counts and the number of biological deaths as a way of measuring and comparing the severity and scope of individual genocides. The prevalence of this way of framing genocide is problematic insofar it risks marginalizing the voices and experiences of victims who may not succumb to biological death but nevertheless suffer the loss of family members and other loved ones, and suffer the destruction of relationships, as well (...)
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  16.  40
    Lies, Damned Lies, and Genocide.Siobhan Nash-Marshall & Rita Mahdessian - 2013 - Metaphilosophy 44 (1-2):116-144.
    This article analyzes the claim that “deliberate denial [of genocide] is a form of aggression that ought to be regarded as a contribution to genocidal violence in its own right.” Its objective is to demonstrate that the claim is substantially correct: there are instances of genocide negation that are genocidal acts. The article suggests that one such instance is contained in a letter sent to Professor Robert Jay Lifton by Turkey's ambassador to the United States. The article is (...)
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  17.  10
    Genocide and the Religious Imaginary in Rwanda.Christopher C. Taylor - 2013 - The Oxford Handbook of Religion and Violence:268-279.
    This chapter, which concentrates on the violent imaginaries that informed the reports and deeds of the 1994 Rwandan genocide, reviews the perseverance of pre-colonial notions of a sacred king whose “wild sovereignty” and inability to promote the flow of imaana earns him fateful sacrifice. The term imaana denotes a supreme being and, in a more generalized way, a “diffuse, fecundating fluid” of celestial origin whose activity upon livestock, land, and people brought fertility and abundance. As imaana's earthly representative, the (...)
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  18.  32
    Transitional Justice and “Genocide”: Practical Ethics for Genocide Narratives.Aleksandar Jokic - 2014 - The Journal of Ethics 18 (1):23-46.
    In the wake of the Cold War a characteristic style of genocide narratives emerged in the West. For the most part, philosophers did not pay attention to this development even though they are uniquely qualified to address arguments and conceptual issues discussed in this burgeoning genocide genre. While ostensibly a response to a specific recent article belonging to the genre, this essay offers an outline of an ethics of genocide narratives in the form of four lessons on (...)
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  19.  17
    Educating a New Generation: The Model of the “Genocide and Human Rights University Program”. [REVIEW]Joyce Apsel - 2011 - Human Rights Review 12 (4):465-486.
    This paper examines the design and teaching of "Genocide and Human Rights," an innovative, higher education course introduced in 2002 to provide training for a new generation of scholars and teachers. The course was developed and funded by a small non-profit organization, the Zoryan Institute, in Toronto, Canada. One purpose of the course is to teach about the Armenian genocide within a comparative genocide and human rights framework. Another goal is to fill a gap in the curriculum (...)
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  20.  14
    Broadening the Concept of Genocide in Lithuania's Criminal Law and the Principle Nullum Crimen Sine Lege.Justinas Žilinskas - 2009 - Jurisprudencija: Mokslo darbu žurnalas 118 (4):333-348.
    The present article discusses the broadening of the concept of genocide in Lithuanian national criminal law with regard to the principle of nullum crimen sine lege. The broadened definition, which includes two groups, social and political raises serious problems when the national provisions on genocide are applied retroactively. However, in the case of Lithuania, such a broadening of the definition may be interpreted not as an introduction of distinct independent groups, but of groups that closely overlap with the (...)
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  21. Tracking Hate Speech Acts as Incitement to Genocide in International Criminal Law.Shannon Fyfe - 2017 - Leiden Journal of International Law 30 (2):523-548.
    In this article, I argue that we need a better understanding of the theoretical underpinnings of the current debates in international law surrounding hate speech and inchoate crimes. I construct a theoretical basis for speech acts as incitement to genocide, distinguishing these speech acts from speech as genocide and speech denying genocide by integrating international law with concepts drawn from speech act theory and moral philosophy. I use the case drawn on by many commentators in this area (...)
     
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  22. Clarifying the Concept of Genocide.Mohammed Abed - 2006 - Metaphilosophy 37 (3-4):308–330.
  23.  25
    Humanitarian Intervention and the Problem of Genocide and Atrocity.Jennifer Kling - 2018 - In Andrew Fiala (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Pacifism and Nonviolence. London, UK: Routledge. pp. 327-346.
    We tend to think that mass atrocities and attempted genocides call for humanitarian intervention by other states. (Nonviolent intervention if possible, military intervention if need be.) In this chapter, I discuss these two related claims in turn. What, if anything, justifies humanitarian intervention in certain states by other states? Ought such interventions, if justified, be pacifist in nature, or is it legitimate in some cases to intervene violently? To discuss these questions, I draw primarily on principles and arguments found in (...)
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  24.  58
    Genocide and the Moral Agency of Ethnic Groups.Karen Kovach - 2006 - Metaphilosophy 37 (3-4):331–352.
  25.  36
    Between Genocide and “Genocide”.Berel Lang - 2011 - History and Theory 50 (2):285-294.
  26.  90
    Acknowledging and Rectifying the Genocide of American Indians: "Why is It That They Carry Their Lives on Their Fingernails?".William C. Bradford - 2006 - Metaphilosophy 37 (3-4):515–543.
  27.  12
    The Political Methodology of Genocide Denial.Elizabeth Strakosch - 2005 - Dialogue: Academy of the Social Sciences in Australia. 3 (3):1-23.
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  28. Buying Genocide, Part 3.Gary James Jason - 2017 - Liberty (9/26/17):1-11.
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  29.  3
    Reconciliation and Cultural Genocide: A Critique of Liberal Multicultural Strategies of Innocence.Elisabeth Paquette - 2020 - Hypatia 35 (1):143-160.
    The aim of this article is to interrogate the concept of cultural genocide. The primary context examined is the Government of Canada's recent attempt at reconciliation through the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Drawing on the work of Audra Simpson, Glen Sean Coulthard, Kyle Powys Whyte, Stephanie Lumsden, and Luana Ross, I argue that cultural genocide, like cultural rights, is depoliticized, thus limiting the political impact these concepts can invoke. Following Sylvia Wynter, I also argue that the aims of (...)
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  30. Genocide: A Normative Account.Larry May - 2010 - Cambridge University Press.
    Larry May examines the normative and conceptual problems concerning the crime of genocide. Genocide arises out of the worst of horrors. Legally, however, the unique character of genocide is reduced to a technical requirement, that the perpetrator's act manifest an intention to destroy a protected group. From this definition, many puzzles arise. How are groups to be identified and why are only four groups subject to genocide? What is the harm of destroying a group and why (...)
     
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  31. Genocide and Social Death.Claudia Card - 2003 - Hypatia 18 (1):63-79.
    : Social death, central to the evil of genocide (whether the genocide is homicidal or primarily cultural), distinguishes genocide from other mass murders. Loss of social vitality is loss of identity and thereby of meaning for one's existence. Seeing social death at the center of genocide takes our focus off body counts and loss of individual talents, directing us instead to mourn losses of relationships that create community and give meaning to the development of talents.
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  32.  15
    Genocide and Social Death.Claudia Card - 2003 - Hypatia 18 (1):63-79.
    Social death, central to the evil of genocide, distinguishes genocide from other mass murders. Loss of social vitality is loss of identity and thereby of meaning for one's existence. Seeing social death at the center of genocide takes our focus off body counts and loss of individual talents, directing us instead to mourn losses of relationships that create community and give meaning to the development of talents.
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  33.  35
    The Question of the Holocaust's Uniqueness: Was It Something More Than or Different From Genocide?Nigel Pleasants - 2016 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 33 (3):297-310.
    Dating back to the very beginning of our knowledge of the events that constituted the Holocaust, some historians, social scientists, philosophers, theologians and public intellectuals argue that it was a unique historical, or even trans-historical, event. The aim of this article is to clarify what the uniqueness question should be about and to ascertain whether there are good reasons for judging that the Holocaust is unique. It examines the core meanings of ‘unique’ that feature in the literature and identifies which (...)
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  34.  76
    Complicity and the Rwandan Genocide.Larry May - 2010 - Res Publica 16 (2):135-152.
    The Rwandan genocide of 1994 occurred due to widespread complicity. I will argue that complicity can be the basis for legal liability, even for criminal liability, if two conditions are met. First, the person’s actions or inactions must be causally efficacious at least in the sense that had the person not committed these actions or inactions the harm would have been made significantly less likely to occur. Second, the person must know that her actions or inactions risk contributing to (...)
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  35. Middle Agents as Marginalized: How the Rwanda Genocide Challenges Ethics From the Margins.Judith W. Kay - 2013 - Journal of the Society of Christian Ethics 33 (2):21-40.
    A narrow conception of who counts among the marginalized can blind ethicists to the precarious position of groups who function as middle agents between elites and the lower class. The imposition of middle agency on such groups is a form of oppression that leaves them vulnerable to abandonment and attack. In Rwanda, discourses emanating from colonialism, classism, and racism obscured the Tutsi as middle agents, despite white Catholics' dedication to the poor. By neglecting to recognize middle agency as a type (...)
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  36. The Psychology of Genocide.Kristen Monroe - 1995 - Ethics and International Affairs 9.
    Review of Final Solutions: Biology, Prejudice, and Genocide, ; Genocide Watch, ; Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland, ; Survivors: An Oral History of the Armenian Genocide, ; The Path to Genocide: Essays on Launching the Final Solution, ; and Why Genocide? The Armenian and Jewish Experiences in Perspective,.
     
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  37.  16
    Did God Command Genocide? A Challenge to the Biblical Inerrantist.Wesley Morriston - 2009 - Philosophia Christi 11 (1):7-26.
    Thoughtful Christians who hold the Old Testament in high regard must at some point come to terms with those passages in which God is said to command what appear to be moral atrocities. In the present paper, I argue that the genocide passages in the Old Testament provide us with a strong prima facie reason to reject biblical inerrancy—that in the absence of better reasons for thinking that the Bible is inerrant, a Christian should conclude that God did not (...)
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  38.  46
    Genocide and Sexual Atrocities: Hannah Arendt’s Eichmann in Jerusalem and Karadžić in New York.Natalie Nenadic - 2011 - Philosophical Topics 39 (2):117-144.
    International law has recently recognized that sexual atrocities can be acts of genocide. This precedent was pioneered through a landmark lawsuit in New York against Radovan Karadžić, head of the Bosnian Serbs, a case in which I played a central role. I argue that we may situate this development philosophically in relation to Hannah Arendt’s Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil. She aims to secure a better understanding of genocide than was achieved at the (...)
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  39. Ethics in an Age of Terror and Genocide: Identity and Moral Choice.Kristen Renwick Monroe - 2011 - Princeton University Press.
    What causes genocide? Why do some stand by, doing nothing, while others risk their lives to help the persecuted? Ethics in an Age of Terror and Genocide analyzes riveting interviews with bystanders, Nazi supporters, and rescuers of Jews during the Holocaust to lay bare critical psychological forces operating during genocide. Monroe's insightful examination of these moving--and disturbing--interviews underscores the significance of identity for moral choice. Monroe finds that self-image and identity--especially the sense of self in relation to (...)
     
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  40.  60
    Collective Responsibility, Armed Intervention and the Rwandan Genocide.Seumas Miller - 1998 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 12 (2):223-238.
    In this paper I explore the notion of collective moral responsibility as it pertains both to nation-states contemplating humanitarian armed intervention in international social conflicts, and as it pertains to social groups perpetrating human rights violations in such conflicts. I take the Rwandan genocide as illustrative of such conflicts and make use of it accordingly. I offer an individualist account of collective moral responsibility, according to which collective moral responsibility is a species of joint responsibility.
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  41.  45
    Feminist Perspectives on Global Warming, Genocide, and Card's Theory of Evil.Victoria Davion - 2009 - Hypatia 24 (1):160 - 177.
    This essay explores several moral issues raised by global warming through the lens of Claudia Card's theory of evil. I focus on Alaskan villages in the sub-Arctic whose residents must relocate owing to extreme erosion, melting sea ice, and rising water levels. I use Card's discussion of genocide as social death to argue that failure to help these groups maintain their unique cultural identities can be thought of as genocidal.
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  42.  11
    Between Genocide and "Genocide". [REVIEW]Berel Lang - 2011 - History and Theory 50 (2):285-294.
    The two books discussed here join a current pushback against the concept of genocide. Nichanian focuses on the Armenian “Aghed” , inferring from his view of that event’s undeniability that “genocide is not a fact” . May’s critique assumes that groups don’t really—“objectively”—exist, as individuals do; thus, genocide—group murder—also has an “as if” quality so far as concerns the group victimized. On the one hand, then, uniqueness and sacralization; on the other hand, reductionism and diffusion. Alas, the (...)
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  43.  59
    Impartiality and Evil: A Reconsideration Provoked by Genocide in Bosnia.Arne Johan Vetlesen - 1998 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 24 (5):1-35.
    Confronted with Adolf Eichmann, evildoer par excellence, Hannah Arendt sought in vain for any 'depth' to the evil he had wrought. How is the philosopher to approach evil ? Is the celebrated criterion of impartiality ill-equipped to guide judgment when its object is evil - as exhibited, for instance, in the recent genocide in Bosnia? This essay questions the ability of the neutral 'third party' to respond adequately to evil from a standpoint of avowed impartiality. Discussing the different roles (...)
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  44.  15
    An Alternative Approach to the Harm of Genocide.Christopher Macleod - 2012 - .
    It is a widely shared belief that genocide – the ‘crime of crimes’– is more morally significant than ‘mere’ large-scale mass murder. Various attempts have been made to capture that separate evil of genocide: some have attempted to locate it in damage done to individuals, while others have focused upon the harm done to collectives. In this article, I offer a third, neglected, option. Genocide damages humankind: it is here that the difference is to be found. I (...)
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  45.  37
    Bringing Reflective Judgement Into International Relations: Exploring the Rwandan Genocide.Naomi Head - 2010 - Journal of Global Ethics 6 (2):191-204.
    This article explores the role of reflective judgement in international relations through the lens of the Rwandan genocide in 1994. It argues that Hannah Arendt's writings on reflective judgement, and the dual perspectives of actor and spectator she articulates, offer us a set of conceptual tools with which to examine the failure of the international community to respond to the genocide as well as more broadly to understand the moral dilemmas posed by such crimes against humanity. Having identified (...)
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  46.  53
    Political Reconciliation, the Rule of Law, and Genocide.Colleen Murphy - 2007 - The European Legacy 12 (7):853-865.
    Political reconciliation involves the repairing of damaged political relationships. This paper considers the possibility and moral justifiability of pursuing political reconciliation in the aftermath of systematic and egregious wrongdoing, in particular genocide. The first two sections discuss what political reconciliation specifically requires. I argue that it neither entails nor necessitates forgiveness. Rather, I claim, political reconciliation should be conceptualized as the (re-)establishment of Fullerian mutual respect for the rule of law. When a society governs by law, publicly declared legal (...)
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  47.  45
    The Concept of Genocide Reconsidered.Mohammed Abed - 2015 - Social Theory and Practice 41 (2):328-356.
    Genocide is a violent process that aims at the liquidation of protected groups. Like individuals, groups can be killed in a variety of ways and for many different reasons. Only the intention of the perpetrator distinguishes genocide from other forms of mass violence. The implications of the account given are striking. Genocide is not in any sense distinctively heinous. Nor is it necessarily immoral. Under certain conditions, settlercolonialism, ethnic cleansing, and forced assimilation will count as instances of (...)
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  48.  11
    Comprehending Genocide: The Case of Rwanda.Paul J. Magnarella - 2000 - Global Bioethics 13 (1-2):23-43.
    In 1994 Rwanda erupted into one of the most appalling cases of genocide that the world had witnessed since World War II. Since genocide is the most aberrant of human behaviors, it cries out for explanation. This article offers an analysis and explanation of the Rwandan genocide utilizing the human materialism paradigm. It addresses the material, demographic, social and ideological elements of the problem.
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  49.  34
    A Century of Genocide.Mario Baccianini - 1986 - Telos: Critical Theory of the Contemporary 1986 (70):154-161.
    The fact diat die first formal recognition of die crime of genocide (crimen lesae humanitatis) took place at Nuremberg in 1945 is extremely significant. Those who, to quote Adorno, record the extermination camps as “working incidents” in the victorious advance of civilization, or see “the martyrdom of die Jews as an irrelevant episode in the context of universal history,” fail to grasp die dominating trait of twentieth century atrocities: the perverse secularization of die religious motivations of genocide in (...)
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  50. The Right to Life, Genocide and the Problem of Bystander State.D. H. Jones - 2005 - In John K. Roth (ed.), Genocide and Human Rights: A Philosophical Guide. Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 265--276.
     
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