Each of us makes a number of decisions, from the less important to those with far-reaching consequences. As members of different groups, we are also actors of groupdecisionmaking. In order to make a rational decision, a choice-making procedure must satisfy a number of assumptions of rationality. In addition, when it comes to group decisions, those procedures should also be “fair.” However, it is not possible to define a procedure of choice-making that (...) would transform individual orders of alternatives based on preferences of perfectly rational individuals into a single social order and still meet conditions of rationality and ethics. The theory of deliberative democracy appeared in response to the impossibility of Social Choice theory. The basic assumption of deliberative democracy is that individuals adjust their preferences taking into account interests of the community. They are open for discussion with other group members and are willing to change their attitudes in order to achieve common interests. Ideally, group members come to an agreement during public discussion . Still, this concept cannot completely overcome all the difficulties posed by the theory of social choice. Specifically, there is no solution for strategic and manipulative behavior of individuals. Also, the concept of deliberative democracy faces certain problems particular to this approach, such as, to name but a few, problems with the establishment of equality of participants in the debate and their motivation, as well as problems with the organization of public hearings. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47009: Evropske integracije i društveno-ekonomske promene privrede Srbije na putu ka EU i br. 179015: Izazovi i perspektive strukturnih promena u Srbiji: Strateški pravci ekonomskog razvoja i usklađivanje sa zahtevima EU]. (shrink)
Applying the framework of ecological rationality, the authors studied the adaptivity of groupdecisionmaking. In detail, they investigated whether groups apply decision strategies conditional on their composition in terms of task-relevant features. The authors focused on the recognition heuristic, so the task-relevant features were the validity of the group members' recognition and knowledge, which influenced the potential performance of group strategies. Forty-three three-member groups performed an inference task in which they had to infer (...) which of two German companies had the higher market capitalization. Results based on the choice data support the hypothesis that groups adaptively apply the strategy that leads to the highest theoretically achievable performance. Time constraints had no effect on strategy use but did have an effect on the proportions of different types of arguments. Possible mechanisms underlying the adaptive use of recognition in groupdecisionmaking are discussed. (shrink)
This study compares computer-supported groups, i.e., groups using group support systems (GSS), and face-to-face groups using ethical decision-making tasks. A laboratory experiment was conducted using five-person groups of information systems professionals. Face-to-face (FTF) and GSS groups were compared in terms of their decision outcomes and group members' reactions. The results revealed that computer-supported and face-to-face groups showed no significant difference in terms of the decision outcomes of choice shift and decision polarity. However, FTF (...) groups reached their decisions more quickly and they were more successful in attaining group consensus than GSS groups. Subjects evaluated face-to-face communication more favorably than GSS interaction on most post-group measures related to perceived group processes and satisfaction. Despite these outcomes, some possibilities for using GSS technology in an ethical decisionmaking context are examined. (shrink)
q-Rung orthopair fuzzy number is a flexible and superior fuzzy information description tool which can provide stronger expressiveness than intuitionistic fuzzy number and Pythagorean fuzzy number. Muirhead mean operator and its dual form geometric MM operator are two all-in-one aggregation operators for capturing the interrelationships of the aggregated arguments because they are applicable in the cases in which all arguments are independent of each other, there are interrelationships between any two arguments, and there are interrelationships among any three or more (...) arguments. Archimedean T-norm and T-conorm are superior operations that can generate general and versatile operational rules to aggregate arguments. To take advantage of qROFN, MM operator, GMM operator, and ATT in multicriteria groupdecisionmaking, an Archimedean MM operator, a weighted Archimedean MM operator, an Archimedean GMM operator, and a weighted Archimedean GMM operator for aggregating qROFNs are presented to solve the MCGDM problems based on qROFNs in this paper. The properties of these operators are explored and their specific cases are discussed. On the basis of the presented operators, a method for solving the MCGDM problems based on qROFNs is proposed. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated via a numerical example, a set of experiments, and qualitative and quantitative comparisons. The demonstration results suggest that the proposed method has satisfying generality and flexibility at aggregating q-rung orthopair fuzzy information and capturing the interrelationships of criteria and the attitudes of decision makers and is feasible and effective for solving the MCGDM problems based on qROFNs. (shrink)
This paper focuses on the comparison of individual and groupdecision-making, in a stochastic inter-temporal problem in two decision environments, namely risk and ambiguity. Using a consumption/saving laboratory experiment, we investigate behaviour in four treatments: individual choice under risk; group choice under risk; individual choice under ambiguity and group choice under ambiguity. Comparing decisions within and between decision environments, we find an anti-symmetric pattern. While individuals are choosing on average closer to the theoretical (...) optimal predictions, compared to groups in the risk treatments, groups tend to deviate less under ambiguity. Within decision environments, individuals deviate more when they choose under ambiguity, while groups are better planners under ambiguity rather than under risk. Our results extend the often observed pattern of individuals behaving more optimally under risk, to its dynamic dimension. (shrink)
How to aggregate decision information in heterogeneous multiattribute groupdecisionmaking is vital. The aim of this paper is to develop an approach to aggregating decision data into intuitionistic triangular fuzzy numbers for heterogeneous MAGDM problems with real numbers, interval numbers, triangular fuzzy numbers, trapezoidal fuzzy numbers, and triangular intuitionistic fuzzy number. Using the relative closeness of technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution and geometry entropy method, we first present a general approach (...) to aggregating heterogeneous information into ITFNs, which takes the group consistency of experts into account. Based on the collective intuitionistic triangular fuzzy decision matrix and extended TOPSIS, a multiple objective mathematical program is constructed to determine the optimal attribute weights. Subsequently, a new method to solve HMAGDM problems is presented based on the aforementioned discussion. A trustworthy service selection example is provided to verify the practicality and effectiveness of the proposed method. (shrink)
This paper investigates the hesitant fuzzy linguistic multiple attribute groupdecision-making problem with the heterogeneous relationship among the attribute variables that cannot be solved by most existing decision-making methods. To address this problem, a new operator is introduced based on partitioning attribute variables into different sets according to their interrelationship. This operator is called the extended Heronian mean operator. To obtain each expert’s comprehensive values of the alternatives in the hesitant fuzzy linguistic MAGDM problem, we (...) investigate the EHM operator under a hesitant fuzzy linguistic environment and propose the hesitant fuzzy linguistic EHM operator and the hesitant fuzzy linguistic linear support degree weighted EHM operator. In addition, the axiom definition of a linguistic type similarity measure of hesitant fuzzy linguistic term sets is proposed. The weight of the experts can be determined based on this type similarity measure. Finally, a practical case is presented to demonstrate the steps of our method, and a comparison analysis illustrates its feasibility and effectiveness. (shrink)
Inspired by the nonlinear weighted average operator, this paper proposes several generalized power average operators to aggregate hesitant fuzzy linguistic decision information. It is worth noting that the new operators take both the location and date weight information and the relative closeness of the decision-making information into consideration, a characteristic that results in objectivity and fairness in a groupdecisionmaking. Moreover, we demonstrate some useful properties of the operators and discuss their associations. A (...) new approach based on the designed operators is then proposed for hesitant fuzzy linguistic multiple attribute groupdecision-making problems, in which the attribute weights are known or unknown. Finally, this paper demonstrates the efficiency and feasibility of the proposed method through a numerical example. (shrink)
This paper presents a theory and computational model of the role of emotions in groupdecisionmaking. After reviewing the role of emotions in individual decisionmaking, it describes social and psychological mechanisms by which emotional and other information is transmitted between individuals. The processes by which these mechanisms can contribute to group consensus are modeled computationally using a program, HOTCO 3, which has been used to simulate simple cases of emotion-based group (...) class='Hi'>decisionmaking. (shrink)
Two important tasks in multiattribute groupdecision-making are to describe the attribute values and to generate a ranking of all alternatives. A superior tool for the first task is linguistic interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy number, and an effective tool for the second task is aggregation operator. To date, nearly ten AOs of LIVIFNs have been presented. Each AO has its own features and can work well in its specific context. But there is not yet an AO of LIVIFNs (...) that can offer desirable generality and flexibility in aggregating attribute values and capturing attribute interrelationships and concurrently reduce the influence of unreasonable attribute values. To this end, a linguistic interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy Archimedean power Muirhead mean operator and its weighted form, which have such capabilities, are presented in this paper. Firstly, the generalised expressions of the AOs are established by a combination of the Muirhead mean operator and the power average operator under the Archimedean T-norm and T-conorm operations of LIVIFNs. Then the properties of the AOs are explored and proved, their specific expressions are constructed, and the special cases of the specific expressions are discussed. After that, a new method for solving the MAGDM problems based on LIVIFNs is designed on the basis of the weighted AO. Finally, the designed method is illustrated via a practical example, and the presented AOs are evaluated via experiments and comparisons. (shrink)
Clinical Ethics and the Dynamics of GroupDecision-Making: Applying the Psychological Data to Decisions Made by Ethics Committees Content Type Journal Article Pages 207-228 DOI 10.1007/s10730-009-9096-7 Authors Erica K. Rangel, Saint Louis University Department of Health Care Ethics 6333 North Rosebury Ave #3W St. Louis MO 63105 USA Journal HEC Forum Online ISSN 1572-8498 Print ISSN 0956-2737 Journal Volume Volume 21 Journal Issue Volume 21, Number 2.
Trapezoidal cubic fuzzy numbers are an extraordinary cubic fuzzy set on a real number set. TzCFNs are useful for dealing with well-known quantities in decision data and decisionmaking problems themselves. This paper is about multi-attribute groupdecisionmaking problems in which the attribute values are stated with TzCFNs, which are solved by developing a new decision method based on power average operators of TzCFNs. The new operation laws for TzCFNs are given. Hereby, (...) the power average operator of real numbers is extended to four kinds of power average operators of TzCFNs, involving the power average operator of TzCFNs, the weighted power average operator of TzCFNs, the power ordered weighted average operator of TzCFNs, and the power hybrid average operator of TzCFNs. In the proposed groupdecision method, the individual overall evaluation values of alternatives are generated by using the power average operator of TzCFNs. Applying the hybrid average operator of TzCFNs, the specific general evaluation standards of alternatives are then combined into the collective ones, which are used to rank the alternatives. The example analysis shows the practicality and effectiveness of the proposed method. (shrink)
Groupdecision-making is a very useful technique for ranking the group of alternatives. The ordered weighted distance operator is a new tool in groupdecision-making problems. In this paper, we apply the OWD operator on cubic information. We develop a new operator, the so-called cubic OWD operator, and study the different properties of it. We also discuss some particular cases of COWD. Finally, we develop a general algorithm for groupdecision-making (...) problems using the COWD operator and give an application to the groupdecision-making problem. (shrink)
The Puzzle of the Hats is a betting arrangement which seems to show that a Dutch book can be made against a group of rational players with common priors who act in the common interest and have full trust in the other players’ rationality. But we show that appearances are misleading—no such Dutch book can be made. There are four morals. First, what can be learned from the puzzle is that there is a class of situations in which credences (...) and betting rates diverge. Second, there is an analogy between ways of dealing with situations of this kind and different policies for sequential choice. Third, there is an analogy with strategic voting, showing that the common interest is not always served by expressing how things seem to you in social decision-making. (shrink)
In this paper, we introduce the notion of Einstein aggregation operators, such as the interval-valued Pythagorean fuzzy Einstein weighted averaging aggregation operator and the interval-valued Pythagorean fuzzy Einstein ordered weighted averaging aggregation operator. We also discuss some desirable properties, such as idempotency, boundedness, commutativity, and monotonicity. The main advantage of using the proposed operators is that these operators give a more complete view of the problem to the decision makers. These operators provide more accurate and precise results as compared (...) the existing method. Finally, we apply these operators to deal with multiple-attribute groupdecisionmaking under interval-valued Pythagorean fuzzy information. For this, we construct an algorithm for multiple-attribute groupdecisionmaking. Lastly, we also construct a numerical example for multiple-attribute groupdecisionmaking. (shrink)
Pythagorean fuzzy set is one of the successful extensions of the intuitionistic fuzzy set for handling uncertainties in information. Under this environment, in this paper, we introduce the notion of Pythagorean fuzzy Einstein hybrid averaging aggregation operator along with some of its properties, namely idempotency, boundedness, and monotonicity. PFEHA aggregation operator is the generalization of Pythagorean fuzzy Einstein weighted averaging aggregation operator and Pythagorean fuzzy Einstein ordered weighted averaging aggregation operator. The operator proposed in this paper provides more accurate and (...) precise results as compared to the existing operators. Therefore, this method plays a vital role in real-world problems. Finally, we applied the proposed operator and method to multiple-attribute groupdecisionmaking. (shrink)
Trapezoidal interval type-2 fuzzy sets are a special kind of type-2 fuzzy sets. TIT2FSs are useful in dealing with fuzziness inherent in decision data and the decision-making process. For multi-attribute groupdecision-making problems in which the attribute values and attribute weights are TIT2FSs, a new decision-making approach is proposed. On the basis of the concept of barycenters, a new approach to ranking TIT2FSs is given. Four kinds of geometric aggregation operators for TIT2FSs (...) are developed, including the TIT2FS weighted geometric average operator, TIT2FS ordered weighted geometric average operator, TIT2FS hybrid weighted geometric average operator, and extended TIT2FS hybrid weighted geometric average operator. The individual comprehensive values of alternatives are derived through the extended TIT2FS weighted geometric average operators. Using the TIT2FS hybrid weighted geometric average operator and the expert weights, the individual comprehensive values of alternatives are integrated into the collective ones, which are used to rank the alternatives. The practicability and effectiveness of the developed method are illustrated with a teaching quality assessment example. (shrink)
In this article, we propose an agent-based model of opinion diffusion and voting where influence among individuals and deliberation in a group are mixed. The model is inspired from social modeling, as it describes an iterative process of collective decision-making that repeats a series of interindividual influences and collective deliberation steps, and studies the evolution of opinions and decisions in a group. It also aims at founding a comprehensive model to describe collective decision-making as (...) a combination of two different paradigms: argumentation theory and ABM-influence models, which are not obvious to combine as a formal link between them is required. In our model, we find that deliberation, through the exchange of arguments, reduces the variance of opinions and the proportion of extremists in a population as long as not too much deliberation takes place in the decision processes. Additionally, if we define the correct collective decisions in the system in terms of the arguments that should be accepted, allowing for more deliberation favors convergence towards the correct decisions. (shrink)
The aim of this paper is to define some new operation laws for the trapezoidal linguistic cubic fuzzy number and Hamming distance. Furthermore, we define and use the trapezoidal linguistic cubic fuzzy TOPSIS method to solve the multi criteria decisionmaking method. The new ranking method for trapezoidal linguistic cubic fuzzy numbers are used to rank the alternatives. Finally, an illustrative example is given to verify and prove the practicality and effectiveness of the proposed method.
In this paper, we introduce the concept of the Pythagorean hesitant fuzzy set, which is the generalization of the intuitionistic hesitant fuzzy set under the restriction that the square sum of its membership degrees is ≤1. In decisionmaking with PHFSs, aggregation operators play a key role because they can be used to synthesize multidimensional evaluation values represented as Pythagorean hesitant fuzzy values into collective values. Under PHFS environments, Pythagorean hesitant fuzzy ordered weighted averaging and Pythagorean fuzzy ordered (...) weighted geometric operators are used to aggregate the Pythagorean hesitant fuzzy values. The main advantage of these operators is that they provide more accurate and valuable results. Furthermore, these operators are applied to decision-making problems in which experts provide their preferences in the Pythagorean hesitant fuzzy environment to show the validity, practicality, and effectiveness of the new approach. Finally, we compare the proposed approach to the existing methods. (shrink)
The study’s two aims are: to investigate whether groups, as compared to individuals, show a different degree of Endowment Effect during the negotiating of intangible assets, such as leisure time and to gain some insight into the underlying mechanism behind groups’ decision-making processes. A total of 138 graduate students were randomly assigned to 35 groups of 3 members each; and 33 were randomly labeled as “individuals.” The study simulated two scenarios in which the students, both individuals and groups, (...) had to decide what their demands from the university authorities were—once as “sellers” and another time as “buyers” in regard to their own leisure time. The findings indicate the presence of an Endowment Effect in both individuals and groups. However, groups significantly amplified the Endowment Effect in comparison to individuals. The mechanism which best explains why groups tend to amplify negotiating decisions was found to be the “Majority Rule,” but the “leader” also influences such amplification. (shrink)
This research extends our understanding of ethical decisionmaking on the part of leaders by merging social role and self-construal perspectives. Interdependent self-construal is generally seen as enhancing concern for justice and moral values. Across two studies, we tested the prediction that non-leading group members’ interdependent self-construal would be associated with lower levels of unethical decisionmaking on behalf of their group but that, in contrast, this relationship would be weaker for leaders, given their (...) social role. These predictions were experimentally tested by assigning participants to the role of leader or non-leading group member, and assessing the association between their interdependent self-construal and their unethical decisionmaking. Across both studies, interdependence predicted less unethical decisionmaking on behalf of one’s group for non-leading group members. However, the leader role was shown to weaken, and even reverse, this relationship. This research demonstrates that self-construal influences group-based ethical decisionmaking, but that the nature of this influence is moderated by social role. (shrink)
This paper is a first attempt to study the problem of aggregation of individual ordinal probabilistic beliefs in an Arrowian framework. We exhibit some properties an aggregation rule must fulfil; in particular we prove the existence of a “quasi-dictator”.
The notion of ecological rationality implies that the accuracy of a decision strategy depends on features of the information environment in which it is tested. We demonstrate that the performance of a group may be strongly affected by the decision strategies used by its individual members and specify how this effect is moderated by environmental features. Specifically, in a set of simulation studies, we systematically compared four decision strategies used by the individual group members: two (...) linear, compensatory decision strategies and two simple, noncompensatory heuristics. Individual decisions were aggregated by using a majority rule. To assess the ecological rationality of the strategies, we varied the distribution of cue validities, the quantity, and the quality of shared information. Group performance strongly depended on the distribution of cue validities. When validities were linearly distributed, groups using a compensatory strategy achieved the highest accuracy. Conversely, when cue validities followed a J-shaped distribution, groups using a simple lexicographic heuristic performed best. While these effects were robust across different quantities of shared information, the quality of shared information exerted stronger effects on group performance. Consequences for prescriptive theories on groupdecisionmaking are discussed. (shrink)