Results for 'health as a value'

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  1. Health as a Theoretical Concept.Christopher Boorse - 1977 - Philosophy of Science 44 (4):542-573.
    This paper argues that the medical conception of health as absence of disease is a value-free theoretical notion. Its main elements are biological function and statistical normality, in contrast to various other ideas prominent in the literature on health. Apart from universal environmental injuries, diseases are internal states that depress a functional ability below species-typical levels. Health as freedom from disease is then statistical normality of function, i.e., the ability to perform all typical physiological functions with (...)
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  2.  16
    Ethical Frameworks in Public Health Decision-Making: Defending a Value-Based and Pluralist Approach.Kalle Grill & Angus Dawson - forthcoming - Health Care Analysis:1-17.
    A number of ethical frameworks have been proposed to support decision-making in public health and the evaluation of public health policy and practice. This is encouraging, since ethical considerations are of paramount importance in health policy. However, these frameworks have various deficiencies, in part because they incorporate substantial ethical positions. In this article, we discuss and criticise a framework developed by James Childress and Ruth Bernheim, which we consider to be the state of the art in the (...)
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  3.  10
    Life and Health: A Value in Itself for Human Beings?Helen Watt - 2015 - HEC Forum 27 (3):207-228.
    The presence of a human being/organism—a living human ‘whole’, with the defining tendency to promote its own welfare—has value in itself, as do the functions which compose it. Life is inseparable from health, since without some degree of healthy functionality the living whole would not exist. The value of life differs both within a single life and between lives. As with any other form of human flourishing, the value of life-and-health must be distinguished from the (...)
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  4. Defending the Social Value of Knowledge as a Safeguard for Public Trust.S. Holzer Felicitas - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (7):559-567.
    The ‘socially valuable knowledge’ principle has been widely acknowledged as one of the most important guiding principles for biomedical research involving human subjects. The principle states that the potential of producing socially valuable knowledge is a necessary requirement, although not sufficient, for the ethical conduct of research projects. This is due to the assumption that the social value of knowledge avoids exploitation of research subjects and justifies the use of health resources. However, more recently, several authors have started (...)
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  5.  17
    Person, Society, and Value: Towards a Personalist Concept of Health.Paulina Taboada, Kateryna Fedoryka Cuddeback & Patricia Donohue-White (eds.) - 2002 - Kluwer Academic.
    A clear understanding of the concept of health plays a key role in defining what health care should comprise and in developing adequate strategies for overcoming the current "health care crisis". This volume is the result of an international and interdisciplinary cooperation between medicine and philosophy on the current debate on the concept of health.Besides offering a critical analysis of the WHO definition and a review of both ancient and contemporary conceptions of health, the cooperative (...)
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  6.  52
    Islamic Verdicts in Health Policy Discourse: Porcine‐Based Vaccines as a Case Study.Aasim I. Padela - 2013 - Zygon 48 (3):655-670.
    In this article, I apply a policy-oriented applied Islamic bioethics lens to two verdicts on the permissibility of using vaccines with porcine components. I begin by reviewing the decrees and then proceed to describe how they were used by health policy stakeholders. Subsequently, My analysis will highlight aspects of the verdict's ethico-legal arguments in order to illustrate salient legal concepts that must be accounted for when using Islamic verdicts as the basis for health policy. I will conclude with (...)
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  7.  7
    Health as a Secondary Property.Alex Broadbent - forthcoming - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
    In the literature on health, naturalism and normativism are typically characterized as espousing and rejecting, respectively, the view that health is objective and value-free. This article points out that there are two distinct dimensions of disagreement, regarding objectivity and value-ladenness, and thus arranges naturalism and normativism as diagonal opposites on a two-by-two matrix of possible positions. One of the remaining quadrants is occupied by value-dependent realism, holding that health facts are value-laden and objective. (...)
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  8.  21
    Health as a Basic Human Need: Would This Be Enough?Thana Cristina de Campos - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 40 (2):251-267.
    Although the value of health is universally agreed upon, its definition is not. Both the WHO and the UN define health in terms of well-being. They advocate a globally shared responsibility that all of us — states, international organizations, pharmaceutical corporations, civil society, and individuals — bear for the health (that is, the well-being) of the world's population. In this paper I argue that this current well-being conception of health is troublesome. Its problem resides precisely (...)
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  9.  7
    Health as a Normative Concept: Towards a New Conceptual Framework.K. Fedoryka - 1997 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 22 (2):143-160.
    One of the main concerns in defining health is determining its status in relation to value. The main proposals in this direction generally assume a strict dichotomy between descriptive and evaluative dimensions. This essay argues that such a dichotomy leads to a theoretical inconsistency, which becomes evident once a definition of health is practically operative. A new conceptual framework uniting these two moments is proposed as an alternative, capable of preserving the fundamental insights of both descriptive and (...)
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  10.  15
    Structures of Virtue as a Framework for Public Health Ethics.Michael D. Rozier - 2016 - Public Health Ethics 9 (1):37-45.
    Virtue ethics has a rich history; yet, its application in health ethics has been minimal compared to other major ethical frameworks. Even more, its application to health policy and population-level questions has been almost nonexistent. A new concept in moral theology, structures of virtue, provides impetus for ethicists to consider how virtue ethics can be a valuable addition to existing frameworks in public health ethics. This article offers a basic overview of virtue ethics and its value (...)
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  11.  23
    A Systemic and Value-Based Approach to Strategic Reform of the Mental Health System.Michael McCubbin & David Cohen - 1999 - Health Care Analysis 7 (1):57-77.
    Most writers now recognize that mental health policy and the mental health system are extremely resistant to real changes that reflect genuine biopsychosocial paradigms of mental disorder. Writers bemoaning the intransigence of the mental health system tend to focus on a small analytical level, only to find themselves mired in the rationalities of the existing system. Problems are acknowledged to be system-wide, yet few writers have used a method of analysis appropriate for systemic problems. Drawing upon the (...)
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  12.  36
    Praxis Makes Perfect: Illness as a Bridge Between Biological Concepts of Disease and Social Conceptions of Health.K. W. M. Fulford - 1993 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 14 (4).
    Analyses of biological concepts of disease and social conceptions of health indicate that they are structurally interdependent. This in turn suggests the need for a bridge theory of illness. The main features of such a theory are an emphasis on the logical properties of value terms, close attention to the features of the experience of illness, and an analysis of this experience as action failure, drawing directly on the internal structure of action. The practical applications of this theory (...)
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  13.  48
    Health as an Objective Value.James G. Lennox - 1995 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 20 (5):499-511.
    Variants on two approaches to the concept of health have dominated the philosophy of medicine, here referred to as ‘reductionist’ and ‘relativis’. These two approaches share the basic assumption that the concept of health cannot be both based on an empirical biological foundation and be evaluative, and thus adopt either the view that it is ‘objective’ or evaluative. It is here argued that there are a subset of value concepts that are formed in recognition of certain fundamental (...)
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  14.  23
    A Closer Look at Health and Disease as Prerequisites for Diagnosis and Prognosis.Norbert Paul - 2010 - Medicine Studies 2 (2):95-100.
    Health and illness are key concepts of medicine but they also have essential significance for each and every one of our lives. For this reason, social value systems are inevitably integrated into medicine through the concept of health and illness. In turn, medical knowledge and medico-scientific notions are perpetually incorporated into societal perceptions of health and illness. Generally, such integration usually occurs via an extended concept of health and illness, which is to be discussed in (...)
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  15.  1
    Defining and Negotiating the Social Value of Research in Public Health Facilities: Perceptions of Stakeholders in a Research‐Active Province of South Africa.Elizabeth Lutge, Catherine Slack & Douglas Wassenaar - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (2):128-135.
    This article reports on qualitative research conducted in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, among researchers and gate-keepers of health facilities in the province. Results suggest disparate but not irreconcilable perceptions of the social value of research in provincial health facilities. This study found that researchers tended to emphasize the contribution of research to the generation of knowledge and to the health of future patients while gate-keepers of health facilities tended to emphasize its contribution to the healthcare system (...)
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  16.  18
    Towards a Suicide Free Society: Identify Suicide Prevention as Public Health Policy.A. R. Singh & S. A. Singh - 2003 - Mens Sana Monographs 1 (2):3.
    Suicide is amongst the top ten causes of death for all age groups in most countries of the world. It is the second most important cause of death in the younger age group (15-19 yrs.) , second only to vehicular accidents. Attempted suicides are ten times the successful suicide figures, and 1-2% attempted suicides become successful suicides every year. Male sex, widowhood, single or divorced marital status, addiction to alcohol ordrugs, concomitant chronic physical or mental illness, past suicidal attempt, adverse (...)
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  17.  9
    Challenging the Coherence of Social Justice as a Shared Nursing Value.Martin Lipscomb - 2011 - Nursing Philosophy 12 (1):4-11.
    Normative and prescriptive claims regarding social justice are often inadequately developed in the nursing literature and, in consequence, they must be rejected in their current form. Thus, claims regarding social justice are frequently presented as mere assertion or, alternatively, when assertions are supported that support may be weak . This paper challenges the coherence of social justice as a shared nursing value and it is suggested that claims regarding the concept should be tempered.
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  18. Public Health Ethics and Liberalism.Lubomira Radoilska - 2009 - Public Health Ethics 2 (2):135-145.
    This paper defends a distinctly liberal approach to public health ethics and replies to possible objections. In particular, I look at a set of recent proposals aiming to revise and expand liberalism in light of public health's rationale and epidemiological findings. I argue that they fail to provide a sociologically informed version of liberalism. Instead, they rest on an implicit normative premise about the value of health, which I show to be invalid. I then make explicit (...)
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  19.  2
    The Workers Opinions Have a Value in the Code of Ethics: Analysis of the Contributions of Workers in Virtual Forum Catalan Institute of Health.Eva Peguero, Anna Berenguera, Enriqueta Pujol-Ribera, Begoña Roman, Carmen M. Prieto & Núria Terribas - 2015 - BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):1-18.
    BackgroundThe Catalan Institute of Health is the largest health services public provider in Catalonia. “CIH Code of Ethics Virtual Forum”, was created within the Intranet of the CIH to facilitate participation among their employees. The current study aims to: a) Analyse the CIH workers’ assessment of their own, their colleagues’ and the organization’s observance of ethical values; b) Identify the opinions, attitudes, experiences and practices related to the ethical values from the discourse of the workers that contributed voluntarily (...)
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  20.  39
    Still Special, Despite Everything: A Liberal Defence of the Value of Healthcare in the Face of the Social Determinants of Health.Gabriele Badano - 2016 - Social Theory and Practice 42 (1):183-204.
    Recent epidemiological research on the social determinants of health has been used to attack an important framework, associated with Norman Daniels, that depicts healthcare as special. My aim is to rescue the idea that healthcare has special importance in society, although specialness will turn out to be mainly limited to clinical care. I build upon the link between Daniels's theory and the work of John Rawls to develop a conception of public justification liberalism that is suitable to the field (...)
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  21.  14
    Health as a Clinic-Epidemiological Concept.Marco Antonio Azevedo - 2015 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 21 (3):365-373.
    I propose a clinic-epidemiological concept of health as the best description of what physicians actually think about health within medical practice. Its aim is to be an alternative to the best approach in the philosophy of medicine about health, Christopher Boorse’s biostatistical theory. Contrary to Boorse’s ‘theoretical’ approach, I propose to take health as a practical clinical concept. In the first two parts of the paper, I will present my complaints against Boorse’s view that health (...)
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  22.  20
    How Do Medical Device Manufacturers' Websites Frame the Value of Health Innovation? An Empirical Ethics Analysis of Five Canadian Innovations.P. Lehoux, M. Hivon, B. Williams-Jones, F. A. Miller & D. R. Urbach - 2012 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 15 (1):61-77.
    While every health care system stakeholder would seem to be concerned with obtaining the greatest value from a given technology, there is often a disconnect in the perception of value between a technology’s promoters and those responsible for the ultimate decision as to whether or not to pay for it. Adopting an empirical ethics approach, this paper examines how five Canadian medical device manufacturers, via their websites, frame the corporate “value proposition” of their innovation and seek (...)
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  23.  66
    Personal Responsibility for Health as a Rationing Criterion: Why We Don't Like It and Why Maybe We Should.A. M. Buyx - 2008 - Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (12):871-874.
    Whether it is fair to use personal responsibility of patients for their own health as a rationing criterion in healthcare is a controversial matter. A host of difficulties are associated with the concept of personal responsibility in the field of medicine. These include, in particular, theoretical considerations of justice and such practical issues as multiple causal factors in medicine and freedom of health behaviour. In the article, personal responsibility is evaluated from the perspective of several theories of justice. (...)
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  24.  19
    On Value-Judgements and Ethics in Health Technology Assessment.Bjørn Hofmann - 2005 - Poiesis and Praxis 3 (4):277-295.
    The widespread application of technology in health care has imposed a broad range of challenges. The field of health technology assessment (HTA) is developed in order to face some of these challenges. However, this strategy has not been as successful as one could hope. One of the reasons for this is that social and ethical considerations have not been integrated in the HTA process. Nowadays however, such considerations have been included in many HTAs. Still, the conclusions and recommendations (...)
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  25.  4
    The Photo-Instrument as a Health Care Intervention.J. E. Sitvast & T. A. Abma - 2012 - Health Care Analysis 20 (2):177-195.
    The aim of this study is to describe how hermeneutic photography and one application of hermeneutic photography in particular, namely the photo-instrument, can be used as a health care intervention that fosters meaning (re-)construction of mental illness experiences. Studies into the ways how patients construct meaning in illness narratives indicate that aesthetic expressions of experiences may play an important role in meaning making and sharing. The study is part of a larger research project devoted to understanding the photostories that (...)
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  26.  71
    Truth as a Value in Plato's Republic.Raphael Woolf - 2009 - Phronesis 54 (1):9-39.
    To what extent is possession of truth considered a good thing in the Republic? Certain passages of the dialogue appear to regard truth as a universal good, but others are more circumspect about its value, recommending that truth be withheld on occasion and falsehood disseminated. I seek to resolve this tension by distinguishing two kinds of truths, which I label 'philosophical' and 'non-philosophical'. Philosophical truths, I argue, are considered unqualifiedly good to possess, whereas non-philosophical truths are regarded as worth (...)
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  27.  35
    The Social Value of Health Research and the Worst Off.Nicola Barsdorf & Joseph Millum - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (2):105-115.
    In this article we argue that the social value of health research should be conceptualized as a function of both the expected benefits of the research and the priority that the beneficiaries deserve. People deserve greater priority the worse off they are. This conception of social value can be applied for at least two important purposes: in health research priority setting when research funders, policy-makers, or researchers decide between alternative research projects; and in evaluating the ethics (...)
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  28.  4
    Health as a Property of Engineered Living Systems.Sune Holm - 2013 - Bioethics 27 (8):419-425.
    This article considers naturalistic analyses of the concepts of health and disease in light of the possibility of constructing novel living systems. The article begins by introducing the vision of synthetic biology as the application of engineering principles to the construction of biological systems, the main analyses of the concepts of health and disease, and the standard theories of function in artefacts and organisms. The article then suggests that reflection on the possibility of artefactual organisms amounts to a (...)
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  29.  3
    Mental Health Consumer-Operated Services Organizations in the US: Citizenship as a Core Function and Strategy for Growth. [REVIEW]Sandra J. Tanenbaum - 2011 - Health Care Analysis 19 (2):192-205.
    Consumer-operated services organizations (COSOs) are independent, non-profit organizations that provide peer support and other non-clinical services to seriously mentally ill people. Mental health consumers provide many of these services and make up at least a majority of the organization’s leadership. Although the dominant conception of the COSO is as an adjunct to clinical care in the public mental health system, this paper reconceives the organization as a civic association and thereby a locus of citizenship. Drawing on empirical research (...)
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  30.  76
    The Right to Health Care as a Right to Basic Human Functional Capabilities.Efrat Ram-Tiktin - 2012 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 15 (3):337 - 351.
    A just social arrangement must guarantee a right to health care for all. This right should be understood as a positive right to basic human functional capabilities. The present article aims to delineate the right to health care as part of an account of distributive justice in health care in terms of the sufficiency of basic human functional capabilities. According to the proposed account, every individual currently living beneath the sufficiency threshold or in jeopardy of falling beneath (...)
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  31. A 'Nudge' for Public Health Ethics: Libertarian Paternalism as a Framework for Ethical Analysis of Public Health Interventions?J. -F. Menard - 2010 - Public Health Ethics 3 (3):229-238.
    Is it possible to interfere with individual decision-making while preserving freedom of choice? The purpose of this article is to assess whether ‘libertarian paternalism’, a set of political and ethical principles derived from the observations of behavioural sciences, can form the basis of a viable framework for the ethical analysis of public health interventions. First, the article situates libertarian libertarianism within the broader context of the law and economics movement. The main tenets of the approach are then presented and (...)
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  32.  27
    Health as Normal Function: A Weak Link in Daniels's Theory of Just Health Distribution.Erik Krag - 2013 - Bioethics 27 (3):427-435.
    Drawing on Christopher Boorse's Biostatistical Theory (BST), Norman Daniels contends that a genuine health need is one which is necessary to restore normal functioning – a supposedly objective notion which he believes can be read from the natural world without reference to potentially controversial normative categories. But despite his claims to the contrary, this conception of health harbors arbitrary evaluative judgments which make room for intractable disagreement as to which conditions should count as genuine health needs and (...)
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  33.  2
    Reconfiguring Social Value in Health Research Through the Lens of Liminality.Agomoni Ganguli‐Mitra, Edward S. Dove, Graeme T. Laurie & Samuel Taylor‐Alexander - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (2):87-96.
    Despite the growing importance of ‘social value’ as a central feature of research ethics, the term remains both conceptually vague and to a certain extent operationally rigid. And yet, perhaps because the rhetorical appeal of social value appears immediate and self-evident, the concept has not been put to rigorous investigation in terms of its definition, strength, function, and scope. In this article, we discuss how the anthropological concept of liminality can illuminate social value and differentiate and reconfigure (...)
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  34.  24
    Privacy as a Value and as a Right.Judith Andre - 1986 - Journal of Value Inquiry 20 (4):309-317.
    Knowledge of others, then, has value; so does immunity from being known. The ability to extend one's knowledge has value; so does the ability to limit other's knowledge of oneself. I have claimed that no interest can count as a right unless it clearly outweighs opposing interests whose presence is logically entailed. I see no way to establish that my interest in not being known, simply as such, outweighs your desire to know about me. I acknowledge the intuitive (...)
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  35.  10
    Rationality as a Value of Culture.Vladislav A. Lektorsky - 2013 - Russian Studies in Philosophy 52 (1):40-52.
    The author presents two complementary understandings of rationality. He criticizes those who deny the continuing relevance of rationality as a cultural value as well as those who attach exaggerated importance to it.
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  36.  3
    “Screw Health”: Representations of Sex as a Health-Promoting Activity in Medical and Popular Literature. [REVIEW]Kristina Gupta - 2011 - Journal of Medical Humanities 32 (2):127-140.
    Recently, scientific and popular press articles have begun to represent sex as a health-promoting activity. A number of scientific studies have identified possible health benefits of sexual activity, including increased lifespan and decreased risk of certain types of cancers. These scientific findings have been widely reported on in the popular press. This "sex for health" discourse claims that sexual activity leads to quantifiable physical and mental health benefits in areas not directly related to sexuality. Analyzing this (...)
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  37.  2
    Knowledge as a Thick Concept: New Light on the Gettier and Value Problems.Brent G. Kyle - 2011 - Dissertation, Cornell University
    I argue that knowledge is a particular kind of concept known as a thick concept. Examples of thick concepts include courage, generosity, loyalty, brutality, and so forth. These concepts are commonly said to combine both evaluation and description, and one of the main goals of this dissertation is to provide a new account of how a thick concept combines these elements. It is argued that thick concepts are semantically evaluative, and that they combine evaluation and description in a way similar (...)
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  38.  8
    One Health and Culling as a Public Health Measure.Zohar Lederman - 2016 - Public Health Ethics 9 (1):5-23.
    One of most pertinent and acute risks that the world is now facing is emerging or re-emerging zoonotic diseases. This article focuses on culling as a measure for zoonotic disease control, specifically the culling of 11,000 badgers as part of the Randomized Badger Culling Trial in the UK and the culling exercises in Singapore. The independent expert panel that devised the UK study concluded that reactive culling was ineffective in reducing the cases of bovine tuberculosis in cattle. The panel also (...)
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  39.  33
    Freedom as a Value: A Critique of the Ethical Theory of Jean-Paul Sartre.David Detmer - 1986 - Open Court.
    The purpose of the present work is twofold. On the one hand, it attempts to provide a critical exposition of the ethical theory of Jean-Paul Sartre. On the other hand, it strives to explain, and in a limited way to defend, the central thesis of that theory, namely, that freedom is the "highest," or most important, value. ;The study begins with an extensive discussion of Sartre's theory of freedom. Sartre's arguments for the freedom of consciousness are identified and presented, (...)
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  40.  41
    Republicanism as a Paradigm for Public Health--Some Comments.M. E. J. Nielsen - 2011 - Public Health Ethics 4 (1):40-52.
    Some theorists, worried about liberalism’s potential as a foundation for public health ethics, suggest that republicanism provides a better background of justification for public health policies, interventions, etc. In this article, this suggestion is put to the test, and it is argued that (i) contemporary (civic) republicanism and liberalism are not nearly as opposed as it is sometimes suggested, and that (ii) the kind of republicanism which one leading scholar in the field, Bruce Jennings, as an alternative to (...)
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  41.  32
    Morally Wrong Beauty as a Source of Value.León María José Alcaraz - 2011 - Nordic Journal of Aesthetics 22 (40-41).
    In this paper I would like to address the problem of the aesthetic value of damaged nature. A variety of arguments have been offered in order to ground the view that we cannot perceive damaged nature as beautiful, at least as soon as we are aware of its damaged condition. These arguments are usually offered in tandem with a view about what the correct appreciation of nature involves and, hence, are often supported by this view. I will try to (...)
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  42.  11
    Organisational Harmony as a Value in Family Businesses and Its Influence on Performance.M. Carmen Ruiz Jiménez, Manuel Carlos Vallejo Martos & Rocío Martínez Jiménez - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 126 (2):1-14.
    The aims of this research were twofold: first, to compare the levels of organisational harmony between family and non-family firms and, second, to study the influence of organisational harmony on family firms’ performance (profitability, longevity and group cohesion). Starting from a definition of organisational harmony as a value and considering the importance of the management of organisational values, we use the main topics indicated by the general literature (organisational climate, trust and participation) to analyse organisational harmony, as well as (...)
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  43.  2
    Value as a Social Fact: An Adverbial Approach.Louis Quéré - 2015 - Human Studies 38 (1):157-177.
    This paper outlines an adverbial approach of value, which it proposes as an alternative to a “nominalistic” one. It starts from a review of a recent book of a French economist, André Orléan, who develops, from the instance of money, a theory of value which he thinks valid for all social values. The paper criticizes the main presuppositions of Orléan’s model of value and tries to elaborate a more praxeological and a more social one.
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  44. Meaning as a Distinct and Fundamental Value: Reply to Kershnar.Thaddeus Metz - 2014 - Science, Religion and Culture 1 (2):101-106.
    In this article, I reply to a critical notice of my book, Meaning in Life: An Analytic Study, that Stephen Kershnar has published elsewhere in this issue of Science, Religion & Culture. Beyond expounding the central conclusions of the book, Kershnar advances two major criticisms of it, namely, first, that I did not provide enough evidence that meaning in life is a genuine value-theoretic category as something distinct from and competing with, say, objective well-being, and, second, that, even if (...)
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  45.  1
    Buddhism as a Value Source in the Course of New Identity and Lifestyle Formation in the Czech Republic.Jitka Cirklová - 2012 - Contemporary Buddhism 13 (2):263-279.
    This study is focused on cultural phenomena of contemporary Europe: the creation of a new religious identity without cultural precedent in European cultural history. It will concentrate on non-Asian Buddhist converts, who have adopted religious world views different from those of their ethnic heritage and the mainstream culture they live in and who use Buddhism as the value-source for their children's upbringing. The parents who, to a certain degree, master Buddhist practice and are attached to this particular religious culture, (...)
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  46. Caught in a Communicative Catch‐22? Translating the Notion of CSR as Shared Value Creation in a Danish CSR Frontrunner.Høvring Christiane Marie - 2017 - Business Ethics: A European Review 26 (4):369-381.
    There is a growing interest in how the notion of corporate social responsibility as shared value creation is translated in Scandinavia. However, current research seems to disregard that the specific institutional context is ambiguous, enabling the organization, and its internal stakeholders to translate the institutional logics into contradictory meanings of CSR as shared value creation. Building on the institutional logics perspective and the metaphor of translation, and framed within a case study of a Danish CSR frontrunner, this paper (...)
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  47. Intrinsic Value as a Reason for the Preservation of Minority Cultures.Albert W. Musschenga - 1998 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 1 (2):201-225.
    In the Netherlands, the policy of supporting the efforts of ethnic-cultural minorities to express and preserve their cultural distinctiveness, is nowadays considered as problematic because it might interfere with their integration into the wider society. The primary aim is now to reduce these groups' unemployment rate and to stimulate their participation in the wider society. In this article I consider how the notion of the intrinsic value of cultures, if sensible, might affect the policy regarding ethnic-cultural minorities. I develop (...)
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  48.  48
    Mandating Vaccination: What Counts as a "Mandate" in Public Health and When Should They Be Used?Matthew K. Wynia - 2007 - American Journal of Bioethics 7 (12):2 – 6.
    Recent arguments over whether certain public health interventions should be mandatory raise questions about what counts as a "mandate." A mandate is not the same as a mere recommendation or the standard of practice. At minimum, a mandate should require an active opt-out and there should be some penalty for refusing to abide by it. Over-loose use of the term "mandate" and the easing of opt-out provisions could eventually pose a risk to the gains that truly mandatory public (...) interventions, such as childhood vaccines, have provided over the last 50 years. Already, confusion about what counts as a mandate, and about what criteria should be used to determine when a public health intervention should be implemented as a mandate, has led to some inappropriate public policy decisions. For instance, by any reasonable criteria, the yearly influenza vaccine should be mandatory for health care workers. To enforce this mandate, those who refuse vaccination should be required to sign a waiver, and patients - especially those at high risk from flu - should be informed when they receive care from unvaccinated practitioners. (shrink)
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  49.  90
    Justice as a Family Value: How a Commitment to Fairness is Compatible with Love.Pauline Kleingeld & Joel Anderson - 2014 - Hypatia 29 (2):320-336.
    Many discussions of love and the family treat issues of justice as something alien. On this view, concerns about whether one's family is internally just are in tension with the modes of interaction that are characteristic of loving families. In this essay, we challenge this widespread view. We argue that once justice becomes a shared family concern, its pursuit is compatible with loving familial relations. We examine four arguments for the thesis that a concern with justice is not at home (...)
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  50. "Academic Freedom as a" Canonical Value".Robert M. O'Neil - 2009 - Social Research: An International Quarterly 76 (2):437-450.
    The central thesis of this article is that academic freedom has indeed become a "canonical value" of American higher education, though not for the reasons that conventional wisdom might posit. As recently as a half century ago, few university administrators or governing boards felt constrained in dismissing or refusing to hire outspoken professors. The quite remote risk of potential legal liability for such adverse action posed a minor deterrent. The Supreme Court's first recognition of academic freedom came only in (...)
     
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