Results for 'health disparities'

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  1.  17
    Health Disparities, Systemic Racism, and Failures of Cultural Competence.Jeffrey T. Berger & Dana Ribeiro Miller - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (9):4-10.
    Health disparities are primarily driven by structural inequality including systemic racism. Medical educators, led by the AAMC, have tended to minimize these core drivers of health disparities. Ins...
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  2.  20
    Social Health Disparities in Clinical Care: A New Approach to Medical Fairness.Klaus Puschel, Enrico Furlan & Wim Dekkers - 2015 - Public Health Ethics:phv034.
    Social health disparities are increasing in most countries around the world. During the past two decades, a large amount of evidence has emerged about the health consequences of social inequalities. Despite such evidence, the concept of medical fairness, as traditionally defined by the World Medical Association, has remained unchallenged and even reinforced by some scholars who emphasize that doctors should remain neutral to the socioeconomic status of their patients when providing clinical care. The inconsistency between public (...) and clinical care perspectives raises tension between a narrow interpretation of the ethics of justice, which stresses the importance of equality and impartiality, and the ethics of care, which highlights the importance of particularity and individuality in clinical practice. This article analyzes the concept of medical fairness using the emerging evidence that demonstrates the impact of social health disparities on clinical care. It proposes a new approach of medical fairness based on equity rather than on equality and provides a consistent ethical framework based on Paul Ricoeur’s three levels of medical judgments. This integrative framework provides a better balance between public health and clinical care in medical practice. (shrink)
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  3.  30
    Health Disparities and Autonomy.Andrew Courtwright - 2008 - Bioethics 22 (8):431-439.
    Disparities in socioeconomic status correlate closely with health, so that the lower a person's social position, the worse his health, an effect that the epidemiologist Michael Marmot has labeled the status syndrome. Marmot has argued that differences in autonomy, understood in terms of control, underlie the status syndrome. He has, therefore, recommended that the American medical profession champion policies that improve patient autonomy. In this paper, I clarify the kind of control Marmot sees as connecting differences in (...)
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  4.  10
    Reducing Health Disparities and Enhancing the Responsible Conduct of Research Involving LGBT Youth.Celia B. Fisher & Brian Mustanski - 2014 - Hastings Center Report 44 (s4):S28-S31.
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  5.  26
    Structural Racism and Health Disparities: Reconfiguring the Social Determinants of Health Framework to Include the Root Cause.Ruqaiijah Yearby - 2020 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 48 (3):518-526.
    The government recognizes that social factors cause racial inequalities in access to resources and opportunities that result in racial health disparities. However, this recognition fails to acknowledge the root cause of these racial inequalities: structural racism. As a result, racial health disparities persist.
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  6. Global Health Disparity and Pharmaceutical Companies’ Obligation to Assist.Anita Ho - 2017 - In Dien Ho (ed.), Philosophical Issues in Pharmaceutics: Development, Dispensing, and Use. Springer.
    This chapter critically explores the extent to which pharmaceutical companies have a moral obligation to assist poor patients in least developed countries who currently have no or inadequate access to lifesaving medications. Focusing on the ongoing HIV/AIDS epidemic in LDCs, the first section of this essay begins with some background information of the disproportionate burden of HIV/AIDS in LDCs. The second section provides a brief overview of some of the salient arguments for holding multinational antiretroviral treatment manufacturers as morally responsible (...)
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  7.  3
    Health Disparities, Systemic Racism, and Failures of Cultural Competence: Authors’ Response to Commentaries.Jeffrey Todd Berger & Dana Ribeiro Miller - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (9):1-3.
    The health system is, in particular ways, a microcosm of society and both reflects and contributes to its ills of racism, inequities, and disparities. As such, the house of medicine is obligated to...
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  8.  20
    Exploratory Health Disparities Research: The Need to Provide a Tangible Benefit to Vulnerable Respondents.Christian Simon & Maghboeba Mosavel - 2010 - Ethics and Behavior 20 (1):1-9.
    This article examines the responsibilities of researchers who conduct exploratory research to provide a service to vulnerable respondents. The term “service” is used to denote the provision of a tangible benefit in relation to the research question that is apart from the altruistic research benefits. This article explores what this “service” could look like, who might be responsible for providing it, and the challenges associated with such a service. The article argues that not providing a tangible benefit to vulnerable research (...)
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  9. Social Justice, Health Disparities, and Culture in the Care of the Elderly.Peggye Dilworth-Anderson, Geraldine Pierre & Tandrea S. Hilliard - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (1):26-32.
    Older minority Americans experience worse health outcomes than their white counterparts, exhibiting the need for social justice in all areas of their health care. Justice, fairness, and equity are crucial to minimizing conditions that adversely affect the health of individuals and communities. In this paper, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is used as an example of a health care disparity among elderly Americans that requires social justice interventions. Cultural factors play a crucial role in AD screening, diagnosis, and (...)
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  10.  2
    Teaching About Health Disparities: Pedagogy, Curriculum, and Learning Theory.Michelle J. Clarke, Shannon Laughlin-Tommaso & Amy Seegmiller Renner - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (9):18-20.
    Berger and Miller argue that contemporary medical education directed toward “cultural competency” fails to address the structural inequities and systemic racism underpinning health dispariti...
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  11.  4
    Global Health Disparities: Can Liberal Perfectionism Better Address the Problem?Eman Ahmed & Kristien Hens - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (9):48-50.
    In his article, Ismaili M’hamdi argues that a neutralist approach in public health policy might turn into a gap that separates citizens who endure preventable poor conditions from the state...
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  12. Materializing Systemic Racism, Materializing Health Disparities.Vanessa Carbonell & Shen-yi Liao - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (9):16-18.
    The purpose of cultural competence education for medical professionals is to ensure respectful care and reduce health disparities. Yet as Berger and Miller (2021) show, the cultural competence framework is dated, confused, and self-defeating. They argue that the framework ignores the primary driver of health disparities—systemic racism—and is apt to exacerbate rather than mitigate bias and ethnocentrism. They propose replacing cultural competence with a framework that attends to two social aspects of structural inequality: health and (...)
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  13.  11
    Health Disparities Among LGBT Older Adults and the Role of Nonconscious Bias.Mary Beth Foglia & Karen I. Fredriksen-Goldsen - 2014 - Hastings Center Report 44 (s4):S40-S44.
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  14.  2
    Bridging Health Disparity Gaps Through the Use of Medical Legal Partnerships in Patient Care: A Systematic Review.Omar Martinez, Jeffrey Boles, Miguel Muñoz-Laboy, Ethan C. Levine, Chukwuemeka Ayamele, Rebecca Eisenberg, Justin Manusov & Jeffrey Draine - 2017 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 45 (2):260-273.
    Over the past two decades, we have seen an increase in the use of medical-legal partnerships in health-care and/or legal settings to address health disparities affecting vulnerable populations. MLPs increase medical teams' capacity to address social and environmental threats to patients' health, such as unsafe housing conditions, through partnership with legal professionals. Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses guidelines, we systematically reviewed observational studies published from January 1993-January 2016 to investigate the capacity (...)
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  15.  9
    Health Disparities, Social Distancing, and Belonging in Pre- and Post- Covid-19 United States.Sana Loue - 2020 - Postmodern Openings 11 (1Sup2):59-64.
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  16.  10
    Conducting Health Disparities Research with Criminal Justice Populations: Examining Research, Ethics, and Participation.Pamela Valera, Stephanie Cook, Ruth Macklin & Yvonne Chang - 2014 - Ethics and Behavior 24 (2):164-174.
    This study explored the challenges of informed consent and understanding of the research process among Black and Latino men under community supervision. Between February and October 2012, we conducted cognitive face-to-face interviews using open-ended questions on the significant areas of research participation among 259 men aged 35 to 67 under community supervision in Bronx, New York. Content analysis of the open-ended questions revealed limited knowledge concerning the understanding of research participation. The study participants appeared to generally understand concepts such as (...)
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  17.  17
    Vaccine Passports and Health Disparities: A Perilous Journey.Nancy S. Jecker - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics:medethics-2021-107491.
    This paper raises health equity concerns about the use of passports for domestic and international travel to certify COVID-19 vaccination. Part I argues that for international travel, health equity objections undercut arguments defending vaccine passports, which are based on tholding people responsible, protecting global health, safeguarding individual liberty and continuing current practice. Part II entertains a proposal for a scaled down vaccine passport for domestic use in countries where vaccines are widely and equitably available. It raises (...) equity concerns related to racial profiling and fairness to people who are vaccine cautious. Part III sets forth a proposal for a flexible pass that certifies people who have been vaccinated, tested, previously infected or granted a conscientious objection. It sets ethical guidelines for the timing and use of flexible passes that promote equity, public health education, antidiscrimination, privacy and flexibility. (shrink)
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  18.  21
    The Racist Underbelly of Health Disparities in America.Danish Zaidi & Nneka Sederstrom - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (10):25-26.
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  19.  30
    Issues of “Cost, Capabilities, and Scope” in Characterizing Adoptees' Lack of “Genetic-Relative Family Health History” as an Avoidable Health Disparity: Response to Open Peer Commentaries on “Does Lack of ‘Genetic-Relative Family Health History’ Represent a Potentially Avoidable Health Disparity for Adoptees?”.Thomas May, James P. Evans, Kimberly A. Strong, Kaija L. Zusevics, Arthur R. Derse, Jessica Jeruzal, Alison LaPean Kirschner, Michael H. Farrell & Harold D. Grotevant - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics 16 (12):4-8.
    Many adoptees face a number of challenges relating to separation from biological parents during the adoption process, including issues concerning identity, intimacy, attachment, and trust, as well as language and other cultural challenges. One common health challenge faced by adoptees involves lack of access to genetic-relative family health history. Lack of GRFHx represents a disadvantage due to a reduced capacity to identify diseases and recommend appropriate screening for conditions for which the adopted person may be at increased risk. (...)
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  20.  55
    Racial/Ethnic Health Disparities and Ethics.Howard Brody, Jason E. Glenn & Laura Hermer - 2012 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 21 (3):309-319.
  21.  7
    Truth and Reconciliation of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities: A Case Study of COVID-19.Alice B. Popejoy - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (3):79-83.
    “Structural racism in the COVID-19 pandemic: moving forward” offers a nuanced and important critique of racial and ethnic health disparities starkly illuminated by COVID-19....
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  22.  34
    Debating the Cause of Health Disparities.Dorothy Roberts - 2012 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 21 (3):332-341.
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  23.  6
    Addressing COVID-19 Health Disparities & Latinidad.Nicole Martinez-Martin - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (3):98-99.
    After the November 2020 U.S. presidential election, many political analysts looked at the voting patterns of Latinx communities with consternation and surprise. Some analysts noted that “Latinx” ha...
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  24. The Innate Mind: Health Disparities Affecting Gay and Bisexual Men in the United States.Peter Carruthers, Stephen Laurence & Stephen Stich - 2008 - Oxford University Press USA.
    This is the third volume of a three-volume set on The Innate Mind. The extent to which cognitive structures, processes, and contents are innate is one of the central questions concerning the nature of the mind, with important implications for debates throughout the human sciences. By bringing together the top nativist scholars in philosophy, psychology, and allied disciplines these volumes provide a comprehensive assessment of nativist thought and a definitive reference point for future nativist inquiry. The Innate Mind: Volume 3: (...)
     
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  25.  59
    Justice, Stigma, and the New Epidemiology of Health Disparities.Andrew M. Courtwright - 2009 - Bioethics 23 (2):90-96.
    Recent research in epidemiology has identified a number of factors beyond access to medical care that contribute to health disparities. Among the so-called socioeconomic determinants of health are income, education, and the distribution of social capital. One factor that has been overlooked in this discussion is the effect that stigmatization can have on health. In this paper, I identify two ways that social stigma can create health disparities: directly by impacting health-care seeking behaviour (...)
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  26.  8
    Despairing About Health Disparities.Leonard M. Fleck - 2017 - Hastings Center Report 47 (5):43-44.
    I have never doubted that the problem of inequalities in health status and access to needed care is a difficult ethical and political challenge. After reading the essays in Understanding Health Inequalities and Justice: New Conversations across the Disciplines, edited by Mara Buchbinder, Michele Rivkin-Fish, and Rebecca Walker, I concluded that despair was the only suitable response in the face of daunting ethical and political complexity. The editors of this volume have three questions in mind that they asked (...)
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  27. Ethics of Patient Activation: Exploring its Relation to Personal Responsibility, Autonomy and Health Disparities.Sophia H. Gibert, David DeGrazia & Marion Danis - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics 43 (10):670-675.
    Discussions of patient-centred care and patient autonomy in bioethics have tended to focus on the decision-making context and the process of obtaining informed consent, leaving open the question of how patients ought to be counselled in the daily maintenance of their health and management of chronic disease. Patient activation is an increasingly prominent counselling approach and measurement tool that aims to improve patients’ confidence and skills in managing their own health conditions. The strategy, which has received little conceptual (...)
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  28.  4
    An Open Dialogue on Health Disparities and Structural Racism: Response to Open Peer Commentaries.Maya Sabatello, Mary Jackson Scroggins, Greta Goto, Alicia Santiago, Alma McCormick, Kimberly Jacoby Morris, Christina R. Daulton, Carla L. Easter & Gwen Darien - forthcoming - American Journal of Bioethics:1-3.
    In our target article, we proposed the use of community engagement and the establishment of a Truth and Reconciliation Commission as pathways for promoting social just...
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  29.  17
    A Pluralistic and Socially Responsible Philosophy of Epidemiology Field Should Actively Engage with Social Determinants of Health and Health Disparities.Sean A. Valles - 2019 - Synthese 198 (Suppl 10):2589-2611.
    Philosophy of epidemiology has recently emerged as a distinct branch of philosophy. The field will surely benefit from pluralism, reflected in the broad range of topics and perspectives in this special issue. Here, I argue that a healthy pluralistic field of philosophy of epidemiology has social responsibilities that require the field as a whole to engage actively with research on social determinants of health and health disparities. Practicing epidemiologists and the broader community of public health scientists (...)
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  30.  40
    Placebo Effects and Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities: An Unjust and Underexplored Connection.Phoebe Friesen & Charlotte Blease - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics Recent Issues 44 (11):774-781.
    While a significant body of bioethical literature considers how the placebo effect might introduce a conflict between autonomy and beneficence, the link between justice and the placebo effect has been neglected. Here, we bring together disparate evidence from the field of placebo studies and research on health inequalities related to race and ethnicity, and argue that, collectively, this evidence may provide the basis for an unacknowledged route by which health disparities are exacerbated. This route is constituted by (...)
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  31.  11
    Eliminating LGBTIQQ Health Disparities:The Associated Roles of Electronic Health Records and Institutional Culture.Edward J. Callahan, Shea Hazarian, Mark Yarborough & John Paul Sánchez - 2014 - Hastings Center Report 44 (s4):S48-S52.
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  32.  4
    Designing Health Care: A Community Health Science Solution for Reducing Health Disparities by Integrating Social Determinants and the Effects of Place.Mark J. DeHaven, Nora A. Gimpel, Daniel Gutierrez, Heather Kitzman‐Carmichael & Keri Revens - 2020 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 26 (5):1564-1572.
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  33.  38
    When Socially Determined Categories Make Biological Realities: Understanding Black/White Health Disparities in the U.S.Jonathan Michael Kaplan - 2010 - The Monist 93 (2):281-297.
  34.  5
    Commentary to ‘Social Health Disparities in Clinical Care: A New Approach to Medical Fairness’ by Puschel, Furlan and Dekkers.Berit Bringedal & Kristine Bærøe - 2017 - Public Health Ethics 10 (1).
    The commentary brings up two topics. The first concerns whether and how a patient’s socioeconomic status should count in clinical care. We provide a brief summary of Puschel and colleagues’ view and discuss it in relation to other accounts. We share their conclusion; considering SES in clinical care can be justified from a fairness perspective. Yet, we question the claim that this is a new perspective, and argue that the reason for the claim of novelty is an insufficient use of (...)
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  35.  24
    Feminist Intersectionality: Bringing Social Justice to Health Disparities Research.Jamie Rogers & Ursula A. Kelly - 2011 - Nursing Ethics 18 (3):397-407.
    The principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice are well established ethical principles in health research. Of these principles, justice has received less attention by health researchers. The purpose of this article is to broaden the discussion of health research ethics, particularly the ethical principle of justice, to include societal considerations — who and what are studied and why? — and to critique current applications of ethical principles within this broader view. We will use a feminist intersectional (...)
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  36.  4
    Causation and Injustice: Locating the Injustice of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities.Brian Hutler - forthcoming - Bioethics.
  37.  88
    In Support of a Broad Model of Public Health: Disparities, Social Epidemiology and Public Health Causation.Daniel S. Goldberg - 2009 - Public Health Ethics 2 (1):70-83.
    Corresponding Author, Health Policy & Ethics Fellow, Chronic Disease Prevention & Control Research Center, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, 1709 Dryden, Suite 1025, Houston, TX 77030, USA. Tel.: 713.798.5482; Fax: 713 798 3990; Email: danielg{at}bcm.edu ' + u + '@' + d + ' '//--> . Abstract This article defends a broad model of public health, one that specifically addresses the social epidemiologic research suggesting that social conditions are primary determinants of health. The article proceeds (...)
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  38.  4
    Filling a Federal Void: Promises and Perils of State Law in Addressing Women’s Health Disparities.Valarie K. Blake & Michelle L. McGowan - 2020 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 48 (3):485-490.
    Federal law often avoids setting minimum standards for women’s health and reproductive rights issues, leaving legislative and regulatory gaps for the states to fill as they see fit. This has mixed results. It can lead to state innovation that improves state-level health outcomes, informs federal health reform, and provides data on best practices for other states. On the other hand, some states may use the absence of a federal floor to impose draconian policies that pose risks to (...)
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  39. Integrating Mental Health Professionals in Residencies to Reduce Health Disparities.Jocelyn Fowler, Max Zubatsky & Emilee Delbridge - 2017 - International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine 52 (3):286-297.
    Health disparities in primary care remain a continual challenge for both practitioners and patients alike. Integrating mental health services into routine patient care has been one approach to address such issues, including access to care, stigma of health-care providers, and facilitating underserved patients’ needs. This article addresses examples of training programs that have included mental health learners and licensed providers into family medicine residency training clinics. Descriptions of these models at two Midwestern Family Medicine residency (...)
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  40.  2
    Racialized Disablement and the Need for Conceptual Analysis of “Racial Health Disparities”.Desiree Valentine - forthcoming - Bioethics.
  41.  9
    Relational Solidarity and COVID-19: An Ethical Approach to Disrupt the Global Health Disparity Pathway.Anita Ho & Iulia Dascalu - 2021 - Global Bioethics 32 (1):34-50.
    While the effects of COVID-19 are being felt globally, the pandemic disproportionately affects lower- and middle-income countries by exacerbating existing global health disparities. In this article, we illustrate how intersecting upstream social determinants of global health form a disparity pathway that compromises LMICs’ ability to respond to the pandemic. We consider pre-existing disease burden and baseline susceptibility, limited disease prevention resources, and unequal access to basic and specialized health care, essential drugs, and clinical trials. Recognizing that (...)
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  42.  22
    A Human Rights Approach to Health Disparities.Kristen Hessler - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (10):33-34.
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  43.  9
    Global Health, Human Rights, and Neoliberalism: The Need for Structural Frameworks When Addressing Mental Health Disparities.Farahdeba Herrawi, Jenny Logan, Chia-Po Cheng & Lisa Cosgrove - 2022 - Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 42 (1):52-60.
  44.  15
    Lack of Access to Genetic-Relative Family Health History: A Health Disparity for Adoptees?Inmaculada de Melo-Martín - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics 16 (12):43-45.
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  45.  1
    Embodiment and Ontologies of Inequality in Medicine: Towards an Integrative Understanding of Disease and Health Disparities.M. Austin Argentieri - 2018 - Body and Society 24 (3):125-152.
    In this article, I draw on my fieldwork creating protein models of hepatitis B at a biotech laboratory to think through how to approach the body and disease from ontological and phenomenological perspectives. I subsequently draw on Mariella Pandolfi’s work on how bodies can be made to suffer history and Paul Farmer’s work on global tuberculosis disparities to explore ways of analysing embodied activity as a means of identifying and clinically addressing enactments of social inequality and disease. I also (...)
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  46.  12
    The Potential of Shared Decision Making to Reduce Health Disparities.Jaime S. King, Mark H. Eckman & Benjamin W. Moulton - 2011 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 39 (s1):30-33.
    Current methods of obtaining an informed consent leave much to be desired. Patients rarely read consent forms or understand all of the risks, benefits, or alternatives associated with their treatment. Evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of treatment options often presents a more significant challenge for patients with lower levels of health literacy. This article reviews the evidence of shortcomings in our informed consent system and then explores the potential for a new approach to engage patients at all levels of (...)
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  47.  3
    The Potential of Shared Decision Making to Reduce Health Disparities.Jaime S. King, Mark H. Eckman & Benjamin W. Moulton - 2011 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 39 (s1):30-33.
    Current methods of obtaining an informed consent leave much to be desired. Patients rarely read consent forms or understand all of the risks, benefits, or alternatives associated with their treatment. Evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of treatment options often presents a more significant challenge for patients with lower levels of health literacy. This article reviews the evidence of shortcomings in our informed consent system and then explores the potential for a new approach to engage patients at all levels of (...)
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  48. Can Ethical Reasoning Contribute to Better Epidemiology? A Case Study in Research on Racial Health Disparities.Inmaculada de Melo-Martin & Kristen Intemann - 2007 - European Journal of Epidemiology 22 (4):215-21.
  49.  24
    An Analysis of Factors Underlying E-Health Disparities.Cynthia Baur - 2008 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 17 (4):417-428.
    The potential public and individual health consequences of unequal access to digital technologies have been recognized in the United States for at least a decade. Unequal access to the Internet and related technologies has been characterized as a ; naturalistic trends toward broader access across the population and targeted intervention to increase access are described as progress toward The problem of the digital divide has been characterized as one of healthcare justice. The idea that everyone should have access to (...)
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  50.  18
    The Law, the Market, and the Health of the Body PoliticPublic Health Law: Power, Duty, RestraintPublic Health in the Market: Facing Managed Care, Lean Government and Health Disparities.Dan Beauchamp, Lawrence O. Gostin & Nancy Milio - 2002 - Hastings Center Report 32 (4):44.
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