Results for 'health equity'

989 found
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  1.  28
    Incorporating Health Equity Into COVID-19 Reopening Plans: Policy Experimentation in California.Emily A. Largent, Govind Persad, Michelle M. Mello, Danielle M. Wenner, Daniel B. Kramer, Brownsyne Tucker Edmonds & Monica Peek - 2021 - American Journal of Public Health 1 (1):e1-e8.
    California has focused on health equity in the state’s COVID-19 reopening plan. The Blueprint for a Safer Economy assigns each of California’s 58 counties into 1 of 4 tiers based on 2 metrics: test positivity rate and adjusted case rate. To advance to the next less-restrictive tier, counties must meet that tier’s test positivity and adjusted case rate thresholds. In addition, counties must have a plan for targeted investments within disadvantaged communities, and counties with more than 106 000 (...)
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  2.  11
    Advancing health equity in prelicensure nursing curricula: Findings from a critical review.Anna Graefe, Christine Mueller, Linda Bane Frizzell & Carolyn M. Porta - forthcoming - Nursing Inquiry:e12629.
    Nurses play a crucial role in reducing health disparities and advancing health equity for individuals and communities. The future nursing workforce relies on their nursing education to prepare them to promote health equity. Nursing educators prepare students through a variety of andragogical learning strategies in the classroom and in clinical experiences and by intentionally updating and revising curricular content to address knowledge and competency gaps. This critical review aimed to determine the extent to which (...) equity concepts are explicitly present in prelicensure undergraduate nursing curricula globally. Of 434 articles screened, 22 articles describing 20 studies met inclusion criteria. Frequency and quantity of health equity content, concepts and topics, teaching strategies, evaluation strategies, and the overall extent of integration varied widely. Notably, only two articles described overall well‐integrated explicit health equity content, and there was little attention to whether students transfer this learning into practice. A focus on individualism rather than population and community was noted, highlighting the presence of whiteness in nursing. Results from this review confirm that nursing education has room to improve with respect to health equity in the curricula. (shrink)
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  3.  60
    Health Equity in Public Health: Clarifying our Commitment.Maxwell J. Smith - 2015 - Public Health Ethics 8 (2):173-184.
    Health equity is increasingly identified as a principal goal to be achieved through public health policies and activities. However, what is to be measured in the assessment of health equity and how inequities in health ought to be redressed are among the pressing questions that must be answered if health equity is to serve as a meaningful and consistent ethical guide for measurement and intervention in public health. In this article I (...)
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  4.  17
    Health equity and social justice.Fabienne Peter - 2001 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 18 (2):159–170.
    There is consistent and strong empirical evidence for social inequalities in health, as a vast and fast growing literature shows. In recent years, these findings have helped to move health equity high on international research and policy agendas. This paper examines how the empirical identification of social inequalities in health relates to a normative judgment about health inequities and puts forward an approach which embeds the pursuit of health equity within the general pursuit (...)
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  5.  12
    Health equity knowledge development: A conversation with Black nurse researchers.Cheryl L. Cooke, Doris M. Boutain, JoAnne Banks & Linda D. Oakley - 2022 - Nursing Inquiry 29 (1).
    Can the institutional systems that prepare Black nurse researchers question the ways their systemic pathways have impacted health equity knowledge development in nursing? We invite our readers to keep this question in mind and engage with our conversation as Black nurse researchers, scholars, educators, and clinicians. The purpose of our conversation, and this article, is to explore the transactional impact of knowledge development pathways and Black faculty retention pathways on the state of health equity knowledge in (...)
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  6.  12
    An Antiracist Health Equity Agenda for Education.Thalia González, Alexis Etow & Cesar De La Vega - 2022 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 50 (1):31-37.
    With growing public health and health equity challenges brought to the forefront — following racialized health inequities resulting from COVID-19 and a national reckoning around the deaths of unarmed Black victims at the hands of police — an antiracist health equity agenda has emerged naming racism a public health crisis.
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  7. Health Equity and Social Justice.Fabienne Peter - 2006 - In Sudhir Anand, Fabienne Peter & Amartya Sen (eds.), Public Health, Ethics, and Equity. Oxford University Press. pp. 93-106.
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  8.  18
    Health Equity’s Missing Substance: (Re)Engaging the Normative in Public Health Discourse and Knowledge Making.Adam Wildgen & Keith Denny - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13 (3):247-258.
    Since 1984, the idea of health equity has proliferated throughout public health discourse with little mainstream critique for its variability and distance from its original articulation signifying social transformation and a commitment to social justice. In the years since health equity’s emergence and proliferation, it has taken on a seemingly endless range of invocations and deployments, but it most often translates into proactive and apolitical discourse and practice. In Margaret Whitehead’s influential characterization, achieving health (...)
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  9.  31
    Pursuing Health Equity: Zoning Codes and Public Health.Montrece McNeill Ransom, Amelia Greiner, Chris Kochtitzky & Kristin S. Major - 2011 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 39 (s1):94-97.
    Health equity can be defined as the absence of disadvantage to individuals and communities in health outcomes, access to health care, and quality of health care regardless of one’s race, gender, nationality, age, ethnicity, religion, and socioeconomic status. Health equity concerns those disparities in public health that can be traced to unequal, systemic economic, and social conditions. Despite significant improvements in the health of the overall population, health inequities in America (...)
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  10.  17
    Pursuing Health Equity: Zoning Codes and Public Health.Montrece McNeill Ransom, Amelia Greiner, Chris Kochtitzky & Kristin S. Major - 2011 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 39 (s1):94-97.
    Health equity can be defined as the absence of disadvantage to individuals and communities in health outcomes, access to health care, and quality of health care regardless of one’s race, gender, nationality, age, ethnicity, religion, and socioeconomic status. Health equity concerns those disparities in public health that can be traced to unequal, systemic economic, and social conditions. Despite significant improvements in the health of the overall population, health inequities in America (...)
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  11.  53
    Health equity through action on the social determinants of health’: taking up the challenge in nursing.Linda Reutter & Kaysi Eastlick Kushner - 2010 - Nursing Inquiry 17 (3):269-280.
  12. Why Health Equity?Amartya Sen - 2006 - In Sudhir Anand, Fabienne Peter & Amartya Sen (eds.), Public Health, Ethics, and Equity. Oxford University Press.
     
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  13.  36
    Achieving Health Equity on a Global Scale through a Community-Based, Public Health Framework for Action.Laura Anderko - 2010 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 38 (3):486-489.
    Despite good intentions and decades of discussion addressing the need for transformative changes globally to reduce poverty and improve health equity, little progress has been made. A fundamental shift in framing the current conversation is critical to achieve “health for all,” moving away from the traditional approaches that use the more narrowly focused medical model, which is intent on treating and curing disease. A public health framework for action is needed, which recognizes and confronts the complex, (...)
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  14.  11
    Achieving Health Equity on a Global Scale through a Community-Based, Public Health Framework for Action.Laura Anderko - 2010 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 38 (3):486-489.
    As a worldwide economic crisis emerged at the end of 2008, international health agencies were quick to highlight its predictable impact on health in the poorest of communities. The World Health Organization underscored the need for a multisectoral approach to the crisis, “seeking health gains through demonstrating the importance of health in all policies” and whether current investments in health addressed the broader social determinants of health. However, despite good intentions and decades of (...)
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  15.  16
    Health Equity Is No Spectator Sport: The Radical Rooting of a Post-Pandemic Bioethics.Abraham M. Nussbaum & Matthew Allen - 2022 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 65 (4):586-595.
    ABSTRACT:The relationship between equality and equity has been theorized and described in many ways. Recently, this relationship has been popularly illustrated via a meme depicting three people watching a baseball game while standing on boxes. The meme's analogy, that achieving health equity is the ability to view a spectator sport, is a neoliberal account of health. The analogy defines equality at the expense of equity, characterizes health as individualistic, describes health equity as (...)
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  16.  20
    Intersectoral action for health equity as it relates to climate change in Canada: contributions from critical systems heuristics.Chris Buse - 2013 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (6):1095-1100.
  17.  9
    EDITORS’ INTRODUCTION: Transgender Health Equity and the Law.Heather Walter-McCabe & Alexander Chen - 2022 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 50 (3):401-408.
    The sheer gamut of issues impacting transgender health equity may seem overwhelming. This article seeks to introduce readers to the breadth of topics addressed in this symposium edition, exemplifying that transgender health equity is a global issue that demands an interdisciplinary approach.
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  18.  16
    Health Equity, School Discipline Reform, and Restorative Justice.Thalia González, Alexis Etow & Cesar De La Vega - 2019 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 47 (S2):47-50.
    Every day, students from marginalized communities disproportionately face adversity and trauma. It is well documented that exposure to adverse childhood experiences can impact children's ability to focus, learn, and even regulate their emotions. Many schools, rather than providing multi-tiered systems of support to address the root causes of behavior, place these students at greater risk of experiencing health disparities through the use of exclusionary school discipline practices. ESDs not only deny students important educational opportunities, but also can compound existing (...)
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  19. Bounded Justice and the Limits of Health Equity.Melissa S. Creary - 2021 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 49 (2):241-256.
    Programs, policies, and technologies — particularly those concerned with health equity — are often designed with justice envisioned as the end goal. These policies or interventions, however, frequently fail to recognize how the beneficiaries have historically embodied the cumulative effects of marginalization, which undermines the effectiveness of the intended justice. These well-meaning attempts at justice are bounded by greater socio-historical constraints. Bounded justice suggests that it is impossible to attend to fairness, entitlement, and equity when the basic (...)
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  20. Challenges and recommendations for wearable devices in digital health: Data quality, interoperability, health equity, fairness.Stefano Canali, Viola Schiaffonati & Andrea Aliverti - 2022 - PLOS Digital Health 1 (10):e0000104.
    Wearable devices are increasingly present in the health context, as tools for biomedical research and clinical care. In this context, wearables are considered key tools for a more digital, personalised, preventive medicine. At the same time, wearables have also been associated with issues and risks, such as those connected to privacy and data sharing. Yet, discussions in the literature have mostly focused on either technical or ethical considerations, framing these as largely separate areas of discussion, and the contribution of (...)
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  21.  13
    The Future of Health Equity in America: Addressing the Legal and Political Determinants of Health.Daniel E. Dawes - 2018 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 46 (4):838-840.
    There is much discourse and focus on the social determinants of health, but undergirding these multiple intersecting and interacting determinants are legal and political determinants that have operated at every level and impact the entire life continuum. The United States has long grappled with advancing health equity via public law and policy. Seventy years after the country was founded, lawmakers finally succeeded in passing the first comprehensive and inclusive law aimed at tackling the social determinants of (...), but that effort was short-lived. Today the United States is faced with another fork in the road relative to the advancement of health equity. This article draws on lessons from history and law to argue that researchers, providers, payers, lawmakers and the legal community have a moral, economic and national security imperative to address not only the negative outcomes of health disparities, but also the imbalance of inputs resulting from laws and policies which fail to employ an equity lens. (shrink)
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  22.  16
    Striving for Health Equity through Medical, Public Health, and Legal Collaboration.Joel B. Teitelbaum, Joanna Theiss & Colleen Healy Boufides - 2019 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 47 (S2):104-107.
    This article discusses the ways in which law functions as a determinant of health, historical collaborations between the health and legal professions, the benefits of creating medical-public health-legal collaborations, and how viewing law through a collaborative, population health lens can lead to health equity.
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  23.  13
    Health Equity and the Public Health Code of Ethics: Rebuilding Trust from the COVID-19 Pandemic.Georges C. Benjamin - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (3):8-10.
    Sabatello et al. make a compelling case for structural racism as the root cause of the health inequities experienced by communities of color during the COVID-19 pandemic. As public health pr...
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  24.  18
    Racism, healthcare access and health equity for people seeking asylum.Suzanne Willey, Kath Desmyth & Mandy Truong - 2022 - Nursing Inquiry 29 (1).
    People seeking asylum are at risk of receiving poorer quality healthcare due, in part, to racist and discriminatory attitudes, behaviours and policies in the health system. Despite fleeing war and conflict; exposure to torture and traumatic events and living with uncertainty; people seeking asylum are at high‐risk of experiencing long‐term poor physical and mental health outcomes in their host country. This article aims to raise awareness and bring attention to some common issues people seeking asylum face when seeking (...)
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  25.  20
    Advancing Global Health Equity in the COVID-19 Response: Beyond Solidarity.Stephanie B. Johnson - 2020 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 17 (4):703-707.
    In the coming weeks and months SARS-CoV-2 may ravage countries with weak health systems and populations disproportionately affected by HIV, tuberculosis, and other infectious diseases. Without safeguards and proper attention to global health equity and justice, the effects of this pandemic are likely to exacerbate existing health and socio-economic inequalities. This paper argues that achieving global health equity in the context of COVID-19 will require that notions of reciprocity and relational equity are introduced (...)
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  26.  11
    Novel Integration of a Health Equity Immersion Curriculum in Medical Training.Kendra G. Hotz, Allison Silverstein & Austin Dalgo - 2024 - Journal of Medical Humanities 45 (2):193-199.
    Health disparities education is an integral and required part of medical professional training, and yet existing curricula often fail to effectively denaturalize injustice or empower learners to advocate for change. We discuss a novel collaborative intervention that weds the health humanities to the field of health equity. We draw from the health humanities an intentional focus retraining provider imaginations by centering patient narratives; from the field of health equity, we draw the linkage between (...)
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  27.  15
    Advancing Global Health Equity: The Role of the Liberal Arts in Health Professional Education.Abebe Bekele, Denis Regnier, Tomlin Paul, Tsion Yohannes Waka & Elizabeth H. Bradley - 2024 - Journal of Medical Humanities 45 (2):185-192.
    Much innovation has taken place in the development of medical schools and licensure exam processes across the African continent. Still, little attention has been paid to education that enables the multidisciplinary, critical thinking needed to understand and help shape the larger social systems in which health care is delivered. Although more than half of medical schools in Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States offer at least one medical humanities course, this is less common in Africa. We report (...)
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  28.  9
    Precision Public Health Equity: Another Utopian Mirage?Leonard Michael Fleck - 2024 - American Journal of Bioethics 24 (3):98-100.
    Galasso calls for “the actualization of the public health potential of precision medicine….as the best realistic contribution to health equity” (Galasso 2024, 83). Unfortunately, this is wishful th...
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  29.  15
    Health Equity in a Globalised World: Towards Constraining Global Greed?Allen Andrew Alvarez - 2013 - Asian Bioethics Review 5 (4):316-330.
  30.  34
    Designing research funding schemes to promote global health equity: An exploration of current practice in health systems research.Bridget Pratt & Adnan A. Hyder - 2018 - Developing World Bioethics 18 (2):76-90.
    International research is an essential means of reducing health disparities between and within countries and should do so as a matter of global justice. Research funders from high-income countries have an obligation of justice to support health research in low and middle-income countries that furthers such objectives. This paper investigates how their current funding schemes are designed to incentivise health systems research in LMICs that promotes health equity. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were performed with 16 grants (...)
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  31.  49
    Linking international research to global health equity: The limited contribution of bioethics.Bridget Pratt & Bebe Loff - 2011 - Bioethics 27 (4):208-214.
    Health research has been identified as a vehicle for advancing global justice in health. However, in bioethics, issues of global justice are mainly discussed within an ongoing debate on the conditions under which international clinical research is permissible. As a result, current ethical guidance predominantly links one type of international research (biomedical) to advancing one aspect of health equity (access to new treatments). International guidelines largely fail to connect international research to promoting broader aspects of (...) equity – namely, healthier social environments and stronger health systems. Bioethical frameworks such as the human development approach do consider how international clinical research is connected to the social determinants of health but, again, do so to address the question of when international clinical research is permissible. It is suggested that the narrow focus of this debate is shaped by high-income countries' economic strategies. The article further argues that the debate's focus obscures a stronger imperative to consider how other types of international research might advance justice in global health. Bioethics should consider the need for non-clinical health research and its contribution to advancing global justice. (shrink)
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  32.  34
    Community engagement in global health research that advances health equity.Bridget Pratt & Jantina de Vries - 2018 - Bioethics 32 (7):454-463.
    Community engagement is gaining prominence in global health research. So far, a philosophical rationale for why researchers should perform community engagement during such research has not been provided by ethics scholars. Its absence means that conducting community engagement is still often viewed as no more than a ‘good idea’ or ‘good practice’ rather than ethically required. In this article, we argue that shared health governance can establish grounds for requiring the engagement of low‐ and middle‐income country (LMIC) community (...)
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  33.  62
    Answering the Empirical Challenge to Arguments for Universal Health Coverage Based in Health Equity.Lynette Reid - 2016 - Public Health Ethics 9 (3):231-243.
    Temkin asks how we should distribute resources between the social determinants of health and health care; Sreenivasan argues that if our goal is fair opportunity, funding universal health coverage is the wrong policy. He argues that social equality in health has not improved under UHC and concludes that fair opportunity would be better served by using the resources to address the SDOH instead. His criticism applies more broadly than he claims: it applies to any argument for (...)
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  34.  10
    Intersectional Structural Stigma, Community Priorities, and Opportunities for Transgender Health Equity: Findings from TRANSforming the Carolinas.Tonia Poteat & Ames Simmons - 2022 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 50 (3):443-455.
    In this manuscript, “Intersectional Structural Stigma, Community Priorities, and Opportunities for Transgender Health Equity,” Poteat and Simmons outline the legal and policy barriers that impede efforts to end the HIV epidemic among transgender people in the South. They present qualitative and quantitative data from a community engaged research study conducted with transgender adults and other key stakeholders as well as finding from an analysis of policies impacting transgender people in both states. Violence prevention and decriminalization are highlighted as (...)
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  35.  4
    Cooperative Ownership as a Health Justice Intervention: A Promising Strategy to Advance Health Equity Through the U.S. Childcare System.Kimberly Libman, Sabrina Adler & Pratima Musburger - 2022 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 50 (4):738-744.
    In their article “The Civil Rights of Health,” Harris and Pamukcu offer a framework connecting civil rights law to unjust health disparities with the aims of creating broader awareness of subordination as a root cause of health inequities and inviting policymakers to create new legal tools for dismantling it. They close with a call to action. Here, we take up their call and propose cooperative enterprises as a health justice intervention. To illustrate this conceptualization, we focus (...)
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  36.  31
    Grounding Medical Education in Health Equity: The Time is Now.Folasade C. Lapite, Stephanie R. Morain & Faith E. Fletcher - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics 21 (9):23-25.
    Berger and Miller raise important considerations regarding the ongoing relevance and use of cultural competency in medical education. In particular, the authors critique the United States’ L...
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  37.  34
    Governance of Transnational Global Health Research Consortia and Health Equity.Bridget Pratt & Adnan A. Hyder - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics 16 (10):29-45.
    Global health research partnerships are increasingly taking the form of consortia of institutions from high-income countries and low- and middle-income countries that undertake programs of research. These partnerships differ from collaborations that carry out single projects in the multiplicity of their goals, scope of their activities, and nature of their management. Although such consortia typically aim to reduce health disparities between and within countries, what is required for them to do so has not been clearly defined. This article (...)
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  38.  30
    Health Systems Research Consortia and the Promotion of Health Equity in Low and Middle‐Income Countries.Bridget Pratt, Katharine A. Allen & Adnan A. Hyder - 2016 - Developing World Bioethics 16 (3):148-157.
    Health systems research is widely identified as an indispensable means to achieve the goal of health equity between and within countries. Numerous health systems research consortia comprised of institutions from high-income countries and low and middle-income countries are currently undertaking programs of research in LMICs. These partnerships differ from collaborations that carry out single projects in the multiplicity of their goals, scope of their activities, and nature of their management. Recent conceptual work has explored what features (...)
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  39. A virtuous reading of health equity under thre Affordable Care Act.Peter Tan - 2014 - In Wanda Teays, John-Stewart Gordon & Alison Dundes Renteln (eds.), Global Bioethics and Human Rights: Contemporary Issues. Rowman & Littlefield.
     
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  40.  8
    Challenges of Racism and Health Equity in Medicine.Elena Rios - 2021 - Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics 11 (3):271-274.
  41.  30
    Towards theoretically robust evidence on health equity: a systematic approach to contextualising equity-relevant randomised controlled trials.Gry Wester, Kristine Bærøe & Ole Frithjof Norheim - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (1):54-59.
    Reducing inequalities in health and the determinants of health is a widely acknowledged health policy goal, and methods for measuring inequalities and inequities in health are well developed. Yet, the evidence base is weak for how to achieve these goals. There is a lack of high-quality randomised controlled trials reporting impact on the distribution of health and non-health benefits and lack of methodological rigour in how to design, power, measure, analyse and interpret distributional impact (...)
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  42.  25
    When Black Health, Intersectionality, and Health Equity Meet a Pandemic.Keisha Ray - 2023 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 20 (4):585-590.
    Using the example of Black people’s inequitable COVID-19 outcomes and their health outcomes prior to the pandemic, I argue that the pandemic has forever changed how we should think about the conceptual and practical nature of health equity. From here on, we can no longer think of health equity without the concept of intersectionality. In particular, we must acknowledge that discrimination (e.g. sexism, ableism, racism, classism, etc.) within our social institutions intersect to withhold resources needed (...)
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  43.  13
    Continuing nursing education policy in China and its impact on health equity.Lily Dongxia Xiao - 2010 - Nursing Inquiry 17 (3):208-220.
    XIAO LD. Nursing Inquiry 2010; 17: 208–220Continuing nursing education policy in China and its impact on health equityThe aim of this study was to evaluate the mandatory continuing nursing education (MCNE) policy in China and to examine whether or not the policy addresses health equity. MCNE was instituted in 1996 in China to support healthcare reform was to include producing greater equity in health-care. However, the literature increasingly reports inequity in participation in MCNE, which is (...)
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  44.  18
    Anti‐Black Racism and Power: Centering Black Scholars to Achieve Health Equity.Alicia L. Best - 2022 - Hastings Center Report 52 (S1):39-41.
    Hastings Center Report, Volume 52, Issue S1, Page S39-S41, March‐April 2022.
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  45. An ethical analysis of vaccinating children against COVID-19: benefits, risks, and issues of global health equity [version 2; peer review: 1 approved, 1 approved with reservations].Rachel Gur-Arie, Steven R. Kraaijeveld & Euzebiusz Jamrozik - forthcoming - Wellcome Open Research.
    COVID-19 vaccination of children has begun in various high-income countries with regulatory approval and general public support, but largely without careful ethical consideration. This trend is expected to extend to other COVID-19 vaccines and lower ages as clinical trials progress. This paper provides an ethical analysis of COVID-19 vaccination of healthy children. Specifically, we argue that it is currently unclear whether routine COVID-19 vaccination of healthy children is ethically justified in most contexts, given the minimal direct benefit that COVID-19 vaccination (...)
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  46.  8
    Overcoming Barriers to Health Equity in Precision Medicine Research.Benjamin Xavier Collins & Consuelo H. Wilkins - 2024 - American Journal of Bioethics 24 (3):86-88.
    Galasso (2024) provides a strong critique of precision medicine research initiatives regarding their potential for the exclusion of populations based on upstream and downstream factors with “Genomi...
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  47.  16
    Sharing online clinical notes with patients: implications for nocebo effects and health equity.Charlotte Blease - 2023 - Journal of Medical Ethics 49 (1):14-21.
    Patients in around 20 countries worldwide are now offered online access to at least some of their medical records. Access includes test results, medication lists, referral information, and/or the very words written by clinicians (so-called ‘open notes’). In this paper, I discuss the possibility of one unintended negative consequence of patient access to their clinical notes—the potential to increase ‘nocebo effects’. A growing body of research shows that nocebo effects arise by engaging perceptual and cognitive processes that influence negative expectancies, (...)
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  48.  17
    Engaging Social Justice Methods to Create Palliative Care Programs That Reflect the Cultural Values of African American Patients with Serious Illness and Their Families: A Path Towards Health Equity.Ronit Elk & Shena Gazaway - 2021 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 49 (2):222-230.
    Cultural values influence how people understand illness and dying, and impact their responses to diagnosis and treatment, yet end-of-life care is rooted in white, middle class values. Faith, hope, and belief in God’s healing power are central to most African Americans, yet life-preserving care is considered “aggressive” by the healthcare system, and families are pressured to cease it.
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  49. Public Health, Ethics, and Equity.Sudhir Anand (ed.) - 2004 - Oxford University Press UK.
    In the last fifty years, average overall health status has increased more or less in parallel with a much celebrated decline in mortality, attributed mostly to poverty reduction, sanitation, nutrition, housing, immunization, and improved medical care. It is becoming increasingly clear, however, that these achievements were not equally distributed. In most countries, while some social groups have benefited significantly, the situation of others has stagnated or may even have worsened.If health is a prerequisite to a person functioning as (...)
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  50.  8
    How to support equal standing in local health equity?Beatrijs Haverkamp - 2021 - Bioethics 36 (5):597-604.
    Bioethics, Volume 36, Issue 5, Page 597-604, June 2022.
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