Results for 'hypothesis testing'

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  1. Hypothesis Testing in Scientific Practice: An Empirical Study.Moti Mizrahi - 2020 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 33 (1):1-21.
    It is generally accepted among philosophers of science that hypothesis testing is a key methodological feature of science. As far as philosophical theories of confirmation are con...
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  2. Exploratory hypothesis tests can be more compelling than confirmatory hypothesis tests.Mark Rubin & Chris Donkin - 2022 - Philosophical Psychology.
    Preregistration has been proposed as a useful method for making a publicly verifiable distinction between confirmatory hypothesis tests, which involve planned tests of ante hoc hypotheses, and exploratory hypothesis tests, which involve unplanned tests of post hoc hypotheses. This distinction is thought to be important because it has been proposed that confirmatory hypothesis tests provide more compelling results (less uncertain, less tentative, less open to bias) than exploratory hypothesis tests. In this article, we challenge this proposition (...)
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  3. The hypothesis testing brain: Some philosophical applications.Jakob Hohwy - 2010 - Proceedings of the Australian Society for Cognitive Science Conference.
    According to one theory, the brain is a sophisticated hypothesis tester: perception is Bayesian unconscious inference where the brain actively uses predictions to test, and then refine, models about what the causes of its sensory input might be. The brain’s task is simply continually to minimise prediction error. This theory, which is getting increasingly popular, holds great explanatory promise for a number of central areas of research at the intersection of philosophy and cognitive neuroscience. I show how the theory (...)
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  4. Hypothesis Testing, “Dutch Book” Arguments, and Risk.Daniel Malinsky - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (5):917-929.
    “Dutch Book” arguments and references to gambling theorems are typical in the debate between Bayesians and scientists committed to “classical” statistical methods. These arguments have rarely convinced non-Bayesian scientists to abandon certain conventional practices, partially because many scientists feel that gambling theorems have little relevance to their research activities. In other words, scientists “don’t bet.” This article examines one attempt, by Schervish, Seidenfeld, and Kadane, to progress beyond such apparent stalemates by connecting “Dutch Book”–type mathematical results with principles actually endorsed (...)
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  5. Hypothesis testing: The role of confirmation.R. D. Tweney, M. E. Doherty & C. R. Mynatt - 1981 - In Ryan D. Tweney, Michael E. Doherty & Clifford R. Mynatt (eds.), On Scientific Thinking. Columbia University Press. pp. 115--128.
     
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  6.  15
    Hypothesis testing and theory evaluation at the boundaries: Surprising insights from Bayes's theorem.David Trafimow - 2003 - Psychological Review 110 (3):526-535.
  7.  86
    Null-hypothesis tests are not completely stupid, but bayesian statistics are better.David Rindskopf - 1998 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (2):215-216.
    Unfortunately, reading Chow's work is likely to leave the reader more confused than enlightened. My preferred solutions to the “controversy” about null- hypothesis testing are: (1) recognize that we really want to test the hypothesis that an effect is “small,” not null, and (2) use Bayesian methods, which are much more in keeping with the way humans naturally think than are classical statistical methods.
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  8.  38
    Hypothesis Testing as a Moral Choice.David J. Pittenger - 2001 - Ethics and Behavior 11 (2):151-162.
    Although many researchers may perceive empirical hypothesis testing using inferential statistics to be a value free process, I argue that any conclusion based on inferential statistics contains an important and intractable value judgment. Consequently, I conclude that researchers should use the same rationale for examining the ethical ramifications of committing errors in statistical inference that they use to examine the ethical parameters of a proposed research design.
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  9.  17
    Hypothesis testing in Wason's selection task: social exchange cheating detection or task understanding.N. Liberman - 1996 - Cognition 58 (1):127-156.
  10.  32
    Hypothesis-Testing Demands Trustworthy Data—A Simulation Approach to Inferential Statistics Advocating the Research Program Strategy.Antonia Krefeld-Schwalb, Erich H. Witte & Frank Zenker - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  11.  39
    Hypothesis-testing of the Humanities: The Hard and Soft Humanities As Two Emerging Cultures.Ryan Nichols - 2015 - Southwest Philosophy Review 31 (1):1-19.
    Scholars employing ossified ‘close reading’ methods generate countless articles that drop down into a gravity vortex, circling themselves for a self-referential eternity. After arguing that the study of texts in the humanities, especially literature and philosophy, makes no progress, I set this controversy in the light of a distinction between the Soft and Hard Humanities. This is not an a priori argument from an ivory tower. Rather than tell, I show. I present data from the testing of a (...) drawn from genre theory about science fi ction, then say a few words about the uncertain future of philosophy and literature. (shrink)
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  12.  42
    Hypothesis testing: Strategy selection for generalising versus limiting hypotheses.Barbara A. Spellman - 1999 - Thinking and Reasoning 5 (1):67 – 92.
    Humans appear to follow normative rules of inductive reasoning in "premise diversity tasks" that is, they know that dissimilar rather than similar evidence is better for generalising hypotheses. In three experiments, we use a "hypothesis limitation task" to compare a related inductive reasoning skill knowing how to limit hypotheses by using a negative test strategy. Participants are told that one category member has some property (e.g. Dogs have a merocrine gland) and are asked what evidence they would test to (...)
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  13.  32
    Null hypothesis tests and theory corroboration: Defending NHSTP out of context.Reuven Dar - 1998 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (2):196-197.
    Chow's defense of NHSTP ignores the fact that in psychology it is used to test substantive hypotheses in theory-corroborating research. In this role, NHSTP is not only inadequate, but damaging to the progress of psychology as a science. NHSTP does not fulfill the Popperian requirement that theories be tested severely. It also encourages nonspecific predictions and feeble theoretical formulations.
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  14. Null hypothesis testing, confirmation bias and strong inference.M. E. Doherty, R. D. Tweney & C. R. Mynatt - 1981 - In Ryan D. Tweney, Michael E. Doherty & Clifford R. Mynatt (eds.), On Scientific Thinking. Columbia University Press. pp. 262--267.
     
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  15. Learning as Hypothesis Testing: Learning Conditional and Probabilistic Information.Jonathan Vandenburgh - manuscript
    Complex constraints like conditionals ('If A, then B') and probabilistic constraints ('The probability that A is p') pose problems for Bayesian theories of learning. Since these propositions do not express constraints on outcomes, agents cannot simply conditionalize on the new information. Furthermore, a natural extension of conditionalization, relative information minimization, leads to many counterintuitive predictions, evidenced by the sundowners problem and the Judy Benjamin problem. Building on the notion of a `paradigm shift' and empirical research in psychology and economics, I (...)
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  16. Logically-consistent hypothesis testing and the hexagon of oppositions.Julio Michael Stern, Rafael Izbicki, Luis Gustavo Esteves & Rafael Bassi Stern - 2017 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 25 (5):741-757.
    Although logical consistency is desirable in scientific research, standard statistical hypothesis tests are typically logically inconsistent. To address this issue, previous work introduced agnostic hypothesis tests and proved that they can be logically consistent while retaining statistical optimality properties. This article characterizes the credal modalities in agnostic hypothesis tests and uses the hexagon of oppositions to explain the logical relations between these modalities. Geometric solids that are composed of hexagons of oppositions illustrate the conditions for these modalities (...)
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  17.  22
    Hypothesis testing and social engineering.Lee Cronk - 1991 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (2):305-306.
  18. Hypothesis tests and confidence intervals in the single case.D. J. Johnstone - 1988 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 39 (3):353-360.
  19. Hypothesis testing in rule discovery: Strategy, structure, and content.Klayman Joshua & Ha Young-Won - 1989 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 15.
     
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  20. Hypothesis testing in statistics.G. Casella & R. Berger - 2001 - In International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences. pp. 7118--7121.
     
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  21.  16
    Hypothesis testing in stimulus integration tasks of varying difficulty.Kent L. Norman - 1977 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 9 (2):106-108.
  22. Hypothesis-testing goals and strategies-2 rules are better than one.Cm Wharton, Td Wickens & Pw Cheng - 1991 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 29 (6):479-479.
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  23.  20
    Hypothesis testing in experimental and naturalistic memory research.Daniel B. Wright - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):210-211.
    Koriat & Goldsmith's distinction between the correspondence and storehouse metaphors is valuable for both memory theory and methodology. It is questionable, however, whether this distinction underlies the heated debate about so called “everyday memory” research. The distinction between experimental and naturalistic methodologies better characterizes this debate. I compare these distinctions and discuss how the methodological distinction, between experimental and naturalistic designs, could give rise to different theoretical approaches.
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  24.  32
    Evolutionary hypothesis testing: Consistency is not enough.Kim Wallen - 1992 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15 (1):118-119.
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  25.  16
    Asking questions in biology: a guide to hypothesis testing, experimental design and presentation in practical work and research projects.C. J. Barnard - 2011 - New York: Pearson. Edited by Francis S. Gilbert & Peter K. McGregor.
    Asking and answering questions is the cornerstone of science yet formal training in understanding this key process is often overlooked. "Asking Questions in Biology" unpacks this crucial process of enquiry, from a biological perspective, at its various stages. It begins with an overview of scientific question-asking in general, before moving on to demonstrate how to derive hypotheses from unstructured observations. It then explains in the main sections of the book, how to use statistical tests as tools to analyse data and (...)
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  26. The Pragmatic Hypothesis Testing Theory of Self-Deception and the Belief/Acceptance Distinction.Kevin Lynch - 2023 - Philosophy 98 (1):29-53.
    According to the pragmatic hypothesis testing theory, how much evidence we require before we believe something varies depending on the expected costs of falsely believing and disbelieving it. This theory has been used in the self-deception debate to explain our tendencies towards self-deceptive belief formation. This article argues that the application of this theory in the self-deception debate has overlooked the distinction between belief and acceptance, and that the theory in all likelihood models acceptance rather than belief, in (...)
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  27.  10
    Neyman-Pearson Hypothesis Testing, Epistemic Reliability and Pragmatic Value-Laden Asymmetric Error Risks.Adam P. Kubiak, Paweł Kawalec & Adam Kiersztyn - 2022 - Axiomathes 32 (4):585-604.
    We show that if among the tested hypotheses the number of true hypotheses is not equal to the number of false hypotheses, then Neyman-Pearson theory of testing hypotheses does not warrant minimal epistemic reliability. We also argue that N-P does not protect from the possible negative effects of the pragmatic value-laden unequal setting of error probabilities on N-P’s epistemic reliability. Most importantly, we argue that in the case of a negative impact no methodological adjustment is available to neutralize it, (...)
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  28.  22
    The unbearable lightness of “Thinking”: Moving beyond simple concepts of thinking, rationality, and hypothesis testing.Gary L. Brase & James Shanteau - 2011 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (5):250-251.
    Three correctives can get researchers out of the trap of constructing unitary theories of “thinking”: (1) Strong inference methods largely avoid problems associated with universal prescriptive normativism; (2) theories must recognize that significant modularity of cognitive processes is antithetical to general accounts of thinking; and (3) consideration of the domain-specificity of rationality render many of the present article's issues moot.
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  29. A new paradigm for hypothesis testing in medicine, with examination of the Neyman Pearson condition.G. William Moore, Grover M. Hutchins & Robert E. Miller - 1986 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 7 (3).
    In the past, hypothesis testing in medicine has employed the paradigm of the repeatable experiment. In statistical hypothesis testing, an unbiased sample is drawn from a larger source population, and a calculated statistic is compared to a preassigned critical region, on the assumption that the comparison could be repeated an indefinite number of times. However, repeated experiments often cannot be performed on human beings, due to ethical or economic constraints. We describe a new paradigm for (...) testing which uses only rearrangements of data present within the observed data set. The token swap test, based on this new paradigm, is applied to three data sets from cardiovascular pathology, and computational experiments suggest that the token swap test satisfies the Neyman Pearson condition. (shrink)
     
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  30. The Logical Consistency of Simultaneous Agnostic Hypothesis Tests.Julio Michael Stern - 2016 - Entropy 8 (256):1-22.
    Simultaneous hypothesis tests can fail to provide results that meet logical requirements. For example, if A and B are two statements such that A implies B, there exist tests that, based on the same data, reject B but not A. Such outcomes are generally inconvenient to statisticians (who want to communicate the results to practitioners in a simple fashion) and non-statisticians (confused by conflicting pieces of information). Based on this inconvenience, one might want to use tests that satisfy logical (...)
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  31.  7
    The role of hypothesis testing in the molding of econometric models.Kevin D. Hoover - 2013 - Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics 6 (2):43.
    This paper addresses the role of specification tests in the selection of a statistically admissible model used to evaluate economic hypotheses. The issue is formulated in the context of recent philosophical accounts on the nature of models and related to some results in the literature on specification search. In contrast to enumerative induction and a priori theory, powerful search methodologies are often adequate substitutes for experimental methods. They underwrite and support, rather than distort, statistical hypothesis tests. Their success is (...)
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  32.  55
    Heterogeneity and hypothesis testing in neuropsychiatric illness.Curtis K. Deutsch, Wesley W. Ludwig & William J. McIlvane - 2008 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (3):266-267.
    The confounding effects of heterogeneity in biological psychiatry and psychiatric genetics have been widely discussed in the literature. We suggest an approach in which heterogeneity may be put to use in hypothesis testing, and may find application in evaluation of the Crespi & Badcock (C&B) imprinting hypothesis. Here we consider three potential sources of etiologic subtypes for analysis.
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  33. Action Prediction Allows Hypothesis Testing via Internal Forward Models at 6 Months of Age.Gustaf Gredebäck, Marcus Lindskog, Joshua C. Juvrud, Dorota Green & Carin Marciszko - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  34.  16
    Awareness and hypothesis testing in concept and operant learning.Dianne S. Silver, Eli Saltz & Vito Modigliani - 1970 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 84 (2):198.
  35.  25
    Sex differences: Empiricism, hypothesis testing, and other virtues.David P. Barash - 2005 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (2):276-277.
    “Sociosexuality from Argentina to Zimbabwe: A 48-nation study of sex, culture, and strategies of human mating” delivers on its title. By combining empiricism and careful hypothesis testing, it not only contributes to our current knowledge but also points the way to further advances.
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  36. Modality, expected utility, and hypothesis testing.WooJin Chung & Salvador Mascarenhas - 2023 - Synthese 202 (1):1-40.
    We introduce an expected-value theory of linguistic modality that makes reference to expected utility and a likelihood-based confirmation measure for deontics and epistemics, respectively. The account is a probabilistic semantics for deontics and epistemics, yet it proposes that deontics and epistemics share a common core modal semantics, as in traditional possible-worlds analysis of modality. We argue that this account is not only theoretically advantageous, but also has far-reaching empirical consequences. In particular, we predict modal versions of reasoning fallacies from the (...)
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  37.  59
    The logic of Null hypothesis testing.Edward Erwin - 1998 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (2):197-198.
    In this commentary, I agree with Chow's treatment of null hypothesis significance testing as a noninferential procedure. However, I dispute his reconstruction of the logic of theory corroboration. I also challenge recent criticisms of NHSTP based on power analysis and meta-analysis.
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  38.  10
    Parameter estimation or hypothesis testing in the statistical analysis of biological rhythms?Ernst PÖppel - 1975 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 6 (5):511-512.
  39.  29
    Parameter estimation vs. hypothesis testing.M. I. Charles E. Woodson - 1969 - Philosophy of Science 36 (2):203-204.
    Professor Meehl [2] has pointed out a very significant problem in the methodology of psychological research, indicating that statistical tests of psychological hypotheses against a null hypothesis are loaded in favor of eventual success at rejecting the null hypothesis. In my opinion this is not, however, a contrast between physics and psychology, but rather between the method of parameter estimation and that of the null hypothesis in the tradition of Fisher. A physicist could use the null (...) method as well as the psychologist. The fact that he doesn't is probably related to the more advanced state of his measurement techniques and theoretical constructs. (shrink)
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  40.  10
    Self-Deception and Hypothesis Testing.Alfred Mele - 2007 - In M. Marraffa, M. De Caro & F. Ferreti (eds.), Cartographies of the Mind. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
    The present book is a collection of essays exploring some classical dimensions of mind both from the perspective of an empirically-informed philosophy and from the point of view of a philosophically-informed psychology. -/- In the last three decades, the level of interaction between philosophy and psychology has increased dramatically. As a contribution to this trend, this book explores some areas in which this interaction has been very productive – or, at least, highly provocative. -/- The interaction between philosophy and psychology (...)
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  41.  19
    Sequential concept formation, hypothesis testing, and the PRE effect.R. A. Yaroush - 1975 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 6 (1):83-86.
  42.  20
    Social Science and (Null) Hypothesis Testing.Steven Miller & Marcel Fredericks - 2002 - ProtoSociology 17:188-201.
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  43.  10
    The failure of drug repurposing for COVID-19 as an effect of excessive hypothesis testing and weak mechanistic evidence.Mariusz Maziarz & Adrian Stencel - 2022 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 44 (4):1-26.
    The current strategy of searching for an effective treatment for COVID-19 relies mainly on repurposing existing therapies developed to target other diseases. Conflicting results have emerged in regard to the efficacy of several tested compounds but later results were negative. The number of conducted and ongoing trials and the urgent need for a treatment pose the risk that false-positive results will be incorrectly interpreted as evidence for treatments’ efficacy and a ground for drug approval. Our purpose is twofold. First, we (...)
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  44.  23
    Thinking Hypothetically about Hypothesis-Testing in the Humanities.E. M. Dadlez - 2015 - Southwest Philosophy Review 31 (1):21-28.
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  45.  23
    A few tips on hypothesis testing.Jennifer Nerissa Davis - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (4):600-601.
    Gangestad & Simpson's account of the role of good-gene sexual selection in conditional human mating strategies is reasonably convincing, but could be more so with a little more attention to (1), dropping unnecessary sub hypotheses and especially (2) the inclusion of alternative evolutionary explanations.
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  46.  11
    Perception as hypothesis testing.Timothy A. Salthouse & Warren L. Danziger - 1978 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 11 (3):197-199.
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  47.  19
    Moving Beyond Traditional Null Hypothesis Testing: Evaluating Expectations Directly.Rens Van de Schoot, Herbert Hoijtink & Romeijn Jan-Willem - 2011 - Frontiers in Psychology 2.
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  48.  5
    Age differences in hypothesis testing and frequency processing in concept learning.Ronald T. Kellogg - 1983 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 21 (2):101-104.
  49.  80
    Why do funding agencies favor hypothesis testing?Chris Haufe - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (3):363-374.
    Exploratory inquiry has difficulty attracting research funding because funding agencies have little sense of how to detect good science in exploratory contexts. After documenting and explaining the focus on hypothesis testing among a variety of institutions responsible for distinguishing between good and bad science, I analyze the NIH grant review process. I argue that a good explanation for the focus on hypothesis testing—at least at the level of science funding agencies—is the fact that hypothesis-driven research (...)
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  50. Fenna H. Poletiek, Hypothesis-testing Behaviour.L. M. Osbeck - 2002 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 16 (2):187-190.
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