Results for 'ideal observer'

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  1.  6
    The Ideal Observer Theory and Motivational Internalism.Daniel Rönnedal - 2015 - Kriterion - Journal of Philosophy 29 (1):79-98.
    In this paper I show that one version of motivational internalism follows from the so-called ideal observer theory. Let us call the version of the ideal observer theory used in this essay (IOT). According to (IOT), it is necessarily the case that it ought to be that A if and only if every ideal observer wants it to be the case that A. We shall call the version of motivational internalism that follows from (IOT) (...)
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  2. On the Moral Epistemology of Ideal Observer Theories.Jason Kawall - 2006 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 9 (3):359-374.
    : In this paper I attempt to defuse a set of epistemic worries commonly raised against ideal observer theories. The worries arise because of the omniscience often attributed to ideal observers – how can we, as finite humans, ever have access to the moral judgements or reactions of omniscient beings? I argue that many of the same concerns arise with respect to other moral theories (and that these concerns do not in fact reveal genuine flaws in any (...)
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  3.  29
    The Artificial Moral Advisor. The “Ideal Observer” Meets Artificial Intelligence.Alberto Giubilini & Julian Savulescu - 2018 - Philosophy and Technology 31 (2):169-188.
    We describe a form of moral artificial intelligence that could be used to improve human moral decision-making. We call it the “artificial moral advisor”. The AMA would implement a quasi-relativistic version of the “ideal observer” famously described by Roderick Firth. We describe similarities and differences between the AMA and Firth’s ideal observer. Like Firth’s ideal observer, the AMA is disinterested, dispassionate, and consistent in its judgments. Unlike Firth’s observer, the AMA is non-absolutist, because (...)
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  4.  55
    Relativising the Ideal Observer Theory.Charles Taliaferro - 1988 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 49 (1):123-138.
    THIS PAPER IS A DEFENSE OF AN OBJECTIVIST VERSION OF\nRODERICK FIRTH'S IDEAL OBSERVER THEORY OF ETHICS. IT\nANALYZES AND CRITIQUES A POWERFUL, RELATIVIZED IDEAL\nOBSERVER THEORY ADVANCED BY THOMAS CARSON.
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  5.  84
    Ideal Observer Theories in Aesthetics.Stephanie Ross - 2011 - Philosophy Compass 6 (8):513-522.
    I examine the prospects for an ideal observer theory in aesthetics modelled on Roderick Firth’s 1952 paper ‘Ethical Absolutism and the Ideal Observer’. The first generation of philosophers to consider an Ideal Aesthetic Observer found fault with Firth’s omniscience condition; more recent writers have criticized the affective component of an IAO’s response. In the end, most discussants reject the possibility of an IAO theory. Though the IAO theory gets the model wrong for answering meta‐aesthetic (...)
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  6.  35
    The Environmental Ethics of the Ideal Observer.Charles Taliaferro - 1988 - Environmental Ethics 10 (3):233-250.
    The ideal observer theory provides a fruitful framework for doing environmental ethics. It is not homocentric, it can illuminate the relationship between religious and nonreligious ethics, and it has implications for normative environmental issues. I defend it against eritieism raised by Thomas Carson and Jonathan Harrison.
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  7.  46
    Consensus and the Ideal Observer.Keith Lehrer - 1985 - Synthese 62 (1):109 - 120.
    This is a defense of the theory of rational consensus articulated by k lehrer and c wagner; (1981, "rational consensus in science and society", D reidel, Dordrecht) based on iterated weighted averaging of utilities and probabilities against the criticisms of I levi, F f schmidt, D baird, J l kranuip, B loewer and r laddage. The defense is that the rational consensus in question would be accepted by an ideal observer.
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  8.  34
    From the "Naturalistic Fallacy" to the Ideal Observer Theory.Glen-O. Allen - 1970 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 30:533-549.
    G. E. MOORE'S PROOF THAT 'GOOD' CANNOT BE DEFINED IS THE\nANALOGUE OF HUME'S PROOF THAT THE IDEA OF CAUSE HAS NO\nEMPIRICAL CORRELATE. AS A PROOF, IT CANNOT SUSTAIN ETHICAL\nINTUITIONISM, EMOTIVISM, OR THE VARIOUS MODIFICATIONS OF\nETHICAL NATURALISM WHICH HAVE BEEN MADE TO REST UPON IT.\nHOWEVER, IT DOES SUSTAIN THE THEORY THAT VALUES ARE CAUSES\nOF HUMAN RESPONSES, AND THAT, UNDER A METHODOLOGICAL\nINTERPRETATION OF OBJECTIVITY, VALUES HAVE OBJECTIVE\nCOGNITIVE STATUS AS CAUSES OF RESPONSES IN THE\nCONSCIOUSNESS OF A HYPOTHETICAL BEING, AN IDEAL OBSERVER.
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  9.  50
    Ethical Relativism and the Ideal Observer.B. C. Postow - 1978 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 39 (1):120-121.
    I show that roderick firth's ideal observer theory contains a loophole which allows conflicting ethical statements to be true. To remedy this, I recommend that we add to the list of defining characteristics of an ideal observer, The requirement that he be unable to have obligation-Determining reactions toward acts which he knows to be incompatible.
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  10.  15
    Some Comments on the 'Ideal Observer'.John-D. Bailiff - 1964 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 24:423-428.
    THE PURPOSE OF THIS ARTICLE IS NOT TO EXAMINE THE CONCEPT\nOF THE IDEAL OBSERVER AS TO ITS QUALIFICATIONS AS AN\nETHICAL THEORY, BUT TO EXPOSE THE IMPLICATIONS IT HAS FOR\nAN UNDERSTANDING OF THE ROLE OF RATIONALITY IN ETHICAL\nDISCOURSE. THE "IDEAL OBSERVER THEORY" IS REALLY NOT\nVALUE-FREE, ACCORDING TO THE AUTHOR. THE MEANING OF SUCH AN\nOBSERVER IS FULLY EXPLORED, IN TERMS OF BEING "IMPARTIAL,"\n"FULLY INFORMED," "IDEALLY RATIONAL," ETC., AND RATIONALITY\nIS FINALLY NOTED TO BE NOT A PERFECT UNIFORMITY OF\nATTITUDES AMONG (...)
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  11.  3
    The Environmental Ethics of the Ideal Observer.Charles Taliaferro - 1988 - Environmental Ethics 10 (3):233-250.
    The ideal observer theory provides a fruitful framework for doing environmental ethics. It is not homocentric, it can illuminate the relationship between religious and nonreligious ethics, and it has implications for normative environmental issues. I defend it against eritieism raised by Thomas Carson and Jonathan Harrison.
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  12.  8
    Within-Session Criterion Changes Compared to an Ideal Observer Criterion in a Visual Monitoring Task.Robert C. Williges - 1969 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 81 (1):61.
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  13.  29
    The Ideal Observer's Philosophy of Religion.Charles Taliaferro - 1999 - The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 1999:51-58.
    Philosophical assessments of different religious traditions face two substantial objections, among others. According to one, the very nature of religious traditions as embedded forms of life prevents this philosophical undertaking. According to the other, a philosophical inventory is possible but under its guise no religious tradition will be left standing. I reply to both and then comment on whether there is (or can be) an ideal observation post from which to philosophically elucidate and compare different religious beliefs and practices.
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  14. Ethical Absolutism and the Ideal Observer.Roderick Firth - 1951 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 12 (3):317-345.
    The moral philosophy of the first half of the twentieth century, at least in the English-speaking part of the world, has been largely devoted to problems of an ontological or epistemological nature. This concentration of effort by many acute analytical minds has not produced any general agreement with respect to the solution of these problems; it seems likely, on the contrary, that the wealth of proposed solutions, each making some claim to plausibility, has resulted in greater disagreement than ever before, (...)
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  15.  36
    Three Ideal Observer Models for Rule Learning in Simple Languages.Michael C. Frank & Joshua B. Tenenbaum - 2011 - Cognition 120 (3):360-371.
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  16.  2
    Sequential Ideal-Observer Analysis of Visual Discriminations.Wilson S. Geisler - 1989 - Psychological Review 96 (2):267-314.
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  17. The Definition of an "Ideal Observer" Theory in Ethics.Richard B. Brandt - 1954 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 15 (3):407-413.
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  18. Mr. Chips: An Ideal-Observer Model of Reading.Gordon E. Legge, Timothy S. Klitz & Bosco S. Tjan - 1997 - Psychological Review 104 (3):524-553.
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  19.  7
    Corrigendum to “Three Ideal Observer Models for Rule Learning in Simple Languages” [Cognition 120 360–371].Michael C. Frank & Joshua B. Tenenbaum - 2014 - Cognition 132 (3):501.
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  20. Aesthetic Objectivity and the Ideal Observer Theory.Roman Bonzon - 1999 - British Journal of Aesthetics 39 (3):230-240.
  21.  8
    An Ideal Observer Analysis of Visual Working Memory.Chris R. Sims, Robert A. Jacobs & David C. Knill - 2012 - Psychological Review 119 (4):807-830.
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  22.  41
    The Divine Command Theory of Ethics and the Ideal Observer.Charles Taliaferro - 1983 - Sophia 22 (2):3-8.
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  23. From the "Naturalistic Fallacy" to the Ideal Observer Theory.Glen O. Allen - 1970 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 30 (4):533-549.
  24.  66
    Some Comments on Professor Firth's Ideal Observer Theory.Jonathan Harrison - 1956 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 17 (2):256-262.
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  25.  58
    Beardsley, Firth and the Ideal Observer Theory.Richard Garner - 1967 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 27 (4):618-623.
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  26. Relativising the Ideal Observer Theory.Thomas Carson - manuscript
    Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available at http://www.jstor.org/about/terms.html. JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unless you have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use.
     
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  27.  18
    Some Comments on the `Ideal Observer'.John D. Bailiff - 1964 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 24 (3):423-428.
  28.  6
    "Walden Two" and Skinner's Ideal Observer.James W. McGray - 1984 - Behaviorism 12 (2):15-24.
  29. "Walden Two" and Skinner's Ideal Observer.James W. Mcgray - 1984 - Behavior and Philosophy 12 (2):15.
     
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  30.  50
    The Ideal Aesthetic Observer Revisited.Charles Taliaferro - 1990 - British Journal of Aesthetics 30 (1):1-13.
  31.  98
    The Ideal Aesthetic Observer.John Hospers - 1962 - British Journal of Aesthetics 2 (2):99-111.
  32.  30
    The Ideal Aesthetic Observer: A Second Look.Elmer H. Duncan - 1970 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 29 (1):47-52.
  33. Virtue Theory, Ideal Observers, and the Supererogatory.Jason Kawall - 2009 - Philosophical Studies 146 (2):179-96.
    I argue that recent virtue theories (including those of Hursthouse, Slote, and Swanton) face important initial difficulties in accommodating the supererogatory. In particular, I consider several potential characterizations of the supererogatory modeled upon these familiar virtue theories (and their accounts of rightness) and argue that they fail to provide an adequate account of supererogation. In the second half of the paper I sketch an alternative virtue-based characterization of supererogation, one that is grounded in the attitudes of virtuous ideal observers, (...)
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  34. Virtue Theory and Ideal Observers.Jason Kawall - 2002 - Philosophical Studies 109 (3):197 - 222.
    Virtue theorists in ethics often embrace the following characterizationof right action: An action is right iff a virtuous agent would performthat action in like circumstances. Zagzebski offers a parallel virtue-basedaccount of epistemically justified belief. Such proposals are severely flawedbecause virtuous agents in adverse circumstances, or through lack ofknowledge can perform poorly. I propose an alternative virtue-based accountaccording to which an action is right (a belief is justified) for an agentin a given situation iff an unimpaired, fully-informed virtuous observerwould deem the (...)
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  35. Moral Response-Dependence, Ideal Observers, and the Motive of Duty: Responding to Zangwill.Jason Kawall - 2004 - Erkenntnis 60 (3):357-369.
    Moral response-dependent metaethical theories characterize moral properties in terms of the reactions of certain classes of individuals. Nick Zangwill has argued that such theories are flawed: they are unable to accommodate the motive of duty. That is, they are unable to provide a suitable reason for anyone to perform morally right actions simply because they are morally right. I argue that Zangwill ignores significant differences between various approvals, and various individuals, and that moral response-dependent theories can accommodate the motive of (...)
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  36.  95
    On Three Defenses of Sentimentalism.Noriaki Iwasa - 2013 - Prolegomena 12 (1):61-82.
    This essay shows that a moral sense or moral sentiments alone cannot identify appropriate morals. To this end, the essay analyzes three defenses of Francis Hutcheson's, David Hume's, and Adam Smith's moral sense theories against the relativism charge that a moral sense or moral sentiments vary across people, societies, cultures, or times. The first defense is the claim that there is a universal moral sense or universal moral sentiments. However, even if they exist, a moral sense or moral sentiments alone (...)
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  37.  40
    Hume's Definitions of 'Cause': Without Idealizations, Within the Bounds of Science.Miren Boehm - 2014 - Synthese 191 (16):3803-3819.
    Interpreters have found it exceedingly difficult to understand how Hume could be right in claiming that his two definitions of ‘cause’ are essentially the same. As J. A. Robinson points out, the definitions do not even seem to be extensionally equivalent. Don Garrett offers an influential solution to this interpretative problem, one that attributes to Hume the reliance on an ideal observer. I argue that the theoretical need for an ideal observer stems from an idealized concept (...)
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  38.  17
    Classification Objects, Ideal Observers & Generative Models.Cheryl Olman & Daniel Kersten - 2004 - Cognitive Science 28 (2):227-239.
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  39. The Epistemic Demands of Environmental Virtue.Jason Kawall - 2010 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 23 (1-2):109-28.
    To lead an environmentally virtuous life requires information—about morality, environmental issues, the impacts of our actions and commitments, our options for alternatives, and so on. On the other hand, we are finite beings with limited time and resources. We cannot feasibly investigate all of our options, and all environmental issues (let alone moral issues, more broadly). In this paper I attempt to provide initial steps towards addressing the epistemic demands of environmental virtue. In the first half of the paper I (...)
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  40. Low Attention Impairs Optimal Incorporation of Prior Knowledge in Perceptual Decisions.Jorge Morales, Guillermo Solovey, Brian Maniscalco, Dobromir Rahnev, Floris P. de Lange & Hakwan Lau - 2015 - Attention, Perception, and Psychophysics 77 (6):2021-2036.
    When visual attention is directed away from a stimulus, neural processing is weak and strength and precision of sensory data decreases. From a computational perspective, in such situations observers should give more weight to prior expectations in order to behave optimally during a discrimination task. Here we test a signal detection theoretic model that counter-intuitively predicts subjects will do just the opposite in a discrimination task with two stimuli, one attended and one unattended: when subjects are probed to discriminate the (...)
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  41. Feminist Challenges to Conceptions of God: Exploring Divine Ideals.Pamela Sue Anderson - 2007 - Philosophia 35 (3-4):361-370.
    This paper presents a feminist intervention into debates concerning the relation between human subjects and a divine ideal. I turn to what Irigarayan feminists challenge as a masculine conception of ‘the God’s eye view’ of reality. This ideal functions not only in philosophy of religion, but in ethics, politics, epistemology and philosophy of science: it is given various names from ‘the competent judge’ to the ‘the ideal observer’ (IO) whose view is either from nowhere or everywhere. The (...)
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  42. On Why Hume's “General Point of View” Isn't Ideal–and Shouldn't Be.Geoffrey Sayre-McCord - 1994 - Social Philosophy and Policy 11 (1):202-228.
    It is tempting and not at all uncommon to find the striking—even noble—visage of an Ideal Observer staring out from the center of Hume's moral theory. When Hume claims, for instance, that virtue is “ whatever mental action or quality gives to a spectator the pleasing sentiment of approbation ,” it is only natural to think that he must have in mind not just any spectator but a spectator who is fully informed and unsullied by prejudice. And when (...)
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  43.  13
    A Bayesian Approach to the Evolution of Perceptual and Cognitive Systems.Wilson S. Geisler & Randy L. Diehl - 2003 - Cognitive Science 27 (3):379-402.
  44.  55
    The Entanglement Problem and Idealization in Moral Philosophy.Olle Risberg - 2018 - Philosophical Quarterly 68 (272):542-559.
    According to many popular views in normative ethics, meta-ethics and axiology, facts about what we ought to do or what is good for us depend on facts about the attitudes that some agent would have in some relevant idealized circumstances. This paper presents an unrecognized structural problem for such views which threatens to be devastating.
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  45.  20
    Ethical Issues in Designing Interventions for Behavioural Change.Gyunchan Thomas Jun, Neil Sinclair & Fernando Carvalho - 2018 - Proceedings of Design Research Society 2018, Volume 1.
  46.  16
    Characterizing Perceptual Learning with External Noise.Jason M. Gold, Allison B. Sekuler & Partrick J. Bennett - 2004 - Cognitive Science 28 (2):167-207.
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  47. What Should Theists Say About Constructivist Positions in Metaethics?Christian Miller - 2018 - In Kevin Jung (ed.), Religious Ethics and Constructivism: A Metaethical Inquiry. New York: Routledge. pp. 82-103.
    Constructivist positions in meta-ethics are on the rise in recent years. Similarly, there has been a flurry of activity amongst theistic philosophers examining the relationship between God and normative facts. But so far as I am aware, these two literatures have almost never intersected with each other. Constructivists have said very little about God, and theists working on religious ethics have said very little about constructivist views in meta-ethics. In this paper, I draw some connections between the two literatures, and (...)
     
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  48.  25
    Ideal Observers, Real Observers, and the Return of Elvis.Ronald A. Rensink - unknown
    Knill, Kersten, & Mamassian (Chapter 6) provide an interesting discussion of how the Bayesian formulation can be used to help investigate human vision. In their view, computational theories can be based on an ideal observer that uses Bayesian inference to make optimal use of available information. Four factors are important here: the image information used, the output structures estimated, the priors assumed (i.e., knowledge about the structure of the world), and the likelihood function used (i.e., knowledge about the (...)
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  49.  8
    Critique of Intuitive Reason.Aleksandar Dobrijevic - 2005 - Filozofija I Društvo 2005 (26):179-226.
    The author displays and reexamines Hare’s "two-level theory" of normative moral thinking , including goals that are intended by its establishing. Given Hare’s holism, the met ethical level, considered as fundamental or the "third" level, has notable effect on process of normative reasoning, especially if it is taken as one of the determinant of the critical moral thin king. Central part of the analysis is examination of utilitarian character of the theory.
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  50.  48
    The Oxford Handbook of Adam Smith.Christopher J. Berry, Maria Pia Paganelli & Craig Smith (eds.) - 2013 - Oxford University Press.
    Preface Introduction Christopher J. Berry: Adam Smith: Outline of Life, Times, and Legacy Part One: Adam Smith: Heritage and Contemporaries 1: Nicholas Phillipson: Adam Smith: A Biographer's Reflections 2: Leonidas Montes: Newtonianism and Adam Smith 3: Dennis C. Rasmussen: Adam Smith and Rousseau: Enlightenment and counter-Enlightenment 4: Christopher J. Berry: Adam Smith and Early Modern Thought Part Two: Adam Smith on Language, Art and Culture 5: Catherine Labio: Adam Smith's Aesthetics 6: James Chandler: Adam Smith as Critic 7: Michael C. (...)
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