Results for 'implicit association test'

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  1.  7
    Implicit Association Test (IAT) Studies Investigating Pitch‐Shape Audiovisual Cross‐modal Associations Across Language Groups.Nan Shang & Suzy J. Styles - 2023 - Cognitive Science 47 (1):e13221.
    Previous studies have shown that Chinese speakers and non-Chinese speakers exhibit different patterns of cross-modal congruence for the lexical tones of Mandarin Chinese, depending on which features of the pitch they attend to. But is this pattern of language-specific listening a conscious cultural strategy or an automatic processing effect? If automatic, does it also apply when the same pitch contours no longer sound like speech? Implicit Association Tests (IATs) provide an indirect measure of cross-modal association. In a (...)
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  2.  35
    The implicit association test's D measure can minimize a cognitive skill confound: Comment on McFarland and Crouch.Anthony Greenwald - manuscript
    McFarland and Crouch reported substantial positive correlations between the Implicit Association Test and response speed and between IATs assessing racism or self-esteem and ostensibly unrelated control IATs. Using an IAT measure in millisecond-difference score format, they concluded that the IAT was confounded with general cognitive ability. A reanalysis of these data using the D measure eliminated the speed of responding confound, although it did not eliminate the correlation between the control and racism IATs. The study was replicated (...)
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  3. Understanding and Using the Implicit Association Test: III. Meta-Analysis of Predictive Validity.Eric Luis Uhlmann - unknown
    This review of 122 research reports (184 independent samples, 14,900 subjects) found average r ϭ .274 for prediction of behavioral, judgment, and physiological measures by Implicit Association Test (IAT) measures. Parallel explicit (i.e., self-report) measures, available in 156 of these samples (13,068 subjects), also predicted effectively (average r ϭ .361), but with much greater variability of effect size. Predictive validity of self-report was impaired for socially sensitive topics, for which impression..
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  4.  38
    Implicit association test: Validity debates.Anthony Greenwald - manuscript
    Note posted 9 Jun 08 : Modifications made today include a new section on predictive validity, and addition of recently published article and in in-press article, both by Nosek & Hansen, under the "CULTURE VS. PERSON" heading, which replaces a previously listed unpublished ms. of theirs. I continue to encourage all interested to send material that they are willing to be included on this page. Please also to let me know about errors, including faulty links.
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  5.  45
    Faking of the Implicit Association Test Is Statistically Detectable and Partly Correctable.Dario Cvencek, Anthony S. Brown, Nicola S. Gray & Robert J. Snowden - unknown
    Male and female participants were instructed to produce an altered response pattern on an Implicit Association Test measure of gender identity by slowing performance in trials requiring the same response to stimuli designating own gender and self. Participants’ faking success was found to be predictable by a measure of slowing relative to unfaked performances. This combined task slowing (CTS) indicator was then applied in reanalyses of three experiments from other laboratories, two involving instructed faking and one involving (...)
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  6. Measuring Individual Differences in Implicit Cognition: The Implicit Association Test.Debbie E. McGhee, Jordan L. K. Schwartz & Anthony G. Greenwald - 1998 - Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 74 (6):1464-1480.
    An implicit association test (IAT) measures differential association of 2 target concepts with an attribute. The 2 concepts appear in a 2-choice task (e.g., flower vs. insect names), and the attribute in a 2nd task (e.g., pleasant vs. unpleasant words for an evaluation attribute). When instructions oblige highly associated categories (e.g., flower + pleasant) to share a response key, performance is faster than when less associated categories (e.g., insect + pleasant) share a key. This performance difference (...)
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  7. Using the implicit association test does not rule out an impact of conscious propositional knowledge on evaluative conditioning.Jan de Houwer - 2006 - Learning and Motivation 37 (2):176-187.
  8. Is the Implicit Association Test a Valid and Valuable Measure of Implicit Consumer Social Cognition?Brian C. Tietje - unknown
    This article discusses the need for more satisfactory implicit measures in consumer psychology and assesses the theoretical foundations, validity, and value of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) as a measure of implicit consumer social cognition. Study 1 demonstrates the IAT’s sensitivity to explicit individual differences in brand attitudes, ownership, and usage frequency, and shows their correlations with IAT-based measures of implicit brand attitudes and brand relationship strength. In Study 2, the contrast between explicit and (...)
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  9. What underlies death/suicide implicit association test measures and how it contributes to suicidal action.René Baston - forthcoming - Philosophical Psychology:1-24.
    Recently, psychologists have developed indirect measurement procedures to predict suicidal behavior. A prominent example is the Death/Suicide Implicit Association Test (DS-IAT). In this paper, I argue that there is something special about the DS-IAT which distinguishes it from different IAT measures. I argue that the DS-IAT does not measure weak or strong associations between the implicit self-concept and the abstract concept of death. In contrast, assuming a goal-system approach, I suggest that sorting death-related to self-related words (...)
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  10. Predictive validity of the implicit association test in studies of brands, consumer attitudes, and behavior.D. Maison, Anthony G. Greenwald & R. H. Bruin - 2004 - Journal of Consumer Psychology 14:405-415.
    Three studies investigated implicit brand attitudes and their relation to explicit attitudes, prod- uct usage, and product differentiation. Implicit attitudes were measured using the Implicit As- sociation Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998). Study 1 showed expected differ- ences in implicit attitudes between users of two leading yogurt brands, also revealing significant correlations between IAT-measured implicit attitudes and explicit attitudes. In Study 2, users of two fast food restaurants (McDonald’s and Milk Bar) showed (...)
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  11.  77
    Using the Implicit Association Test to investigate attitude-behaviour consistency for stigmatised behaviour.Jane E. Swanson, E. Swanson & Anthony G. Greenwald - 2001 - Cognition and Emotion 15 (2):207-230.
    To consciously bolster behaviour that is disapproved by others (i.e., stigmatised behaviour) people may hold and report a favourable attitude toward the behaviour. However, achieving such bolstering outside awareness may be more difficult. Explicit attitudes were measured with self-report measures, and the Implicit Association Test was used to assess implicit attitudes toward behaviour held by stigmatised actors (smokers) and nonstigmatised actors (vegetarians and omnivores). Smokers' showed greater attitude-behaviour consistency in their explicit attitudes toward smoking that in (...)
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  12. Using the Implicit Association Test to investigate attitude-behavior consistency for stigmatised behavior.J. E. Svanson, L. A. Rudman & A. G. Greenwald - 2001 - Cognition and Emotion 15:207-230.
     
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  13.  34
    Conceptual clarification and implicit-association tests: psychometric evidence for racist attitudes.Emily Spencer - 2018 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 8 (1):51-70.
    Critics of the Implicit Association Test —a measure of the strength of a person’s automatic, memory-based association between two concepts, such as “black” and “threatening” or “white” and “caring”—have at least three main objections. Their symmetry argument is that the IAT should but does not give equally valid results for black-on-white and white-on-black racism. Their cultural-awareness argument is that the IAT illegitimately presupposes that use of racial stereotypes presupposes no stereotype acceptance, only stereotype awareness. Their completeness (...)
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  14.  18
    Neural Patterns of the Implicit Association Test.Graham F. Healy, Lorraine Boran & Alan F. Smeaton - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
  15. Attributions of Implicit Prejudice, or "Would Jesse Jackson 'Fail' the Implicit Association Test?".Hal R. Arkes & Philip E. Tetlock - 2004 - Psychological Inquiry 15 (4):257-78.
  16.  27
    Assessing acute stress with the Implicit Association Test.Hirotsune Sato & Jun-Ichiro Kawahara - 2012 - Cognition and Emotion 26 (1):129-135.
  17.  11
    Exploring the Interaction Between Handedness and Body Parts Ownership by Means of the Implicit Association Test.Damiano Crivelli, Valeria Peviani, Gerardo Salvato & Gabriella Bottini - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
    The experience of owning a body is built upon the integration of exteroceptive, interoceptive, and proprioceptive signals. Recently, it has been suggested that motor signals could be particularly important in producing the feeling of body part ownership. One thus may hypothesize that the strength of this feeling may not be spatially uniform; rather, it could vary as a function of the degree by which different body parts are involved in motor behavior. Given that our dominant hand plays a leading role (...)
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  18.  11
    Word association tests of associative memory and implicit processes: Theoretical and assessment issues.Alan W. Stacy, Susan L. Ames & J. Grenard - 2006 - In Reinout W. Wiers & Alan W. Stacy (eds.), Handbook of Implicit Cognition and Addiction. Sage Publications. pp. 75--90.
  19.  30
    How to Set Focal Categories for Brief Implicit Association Test? “Good” Is Good, “Bad” Is Not So Good.Yuanyuan Shi, Huajian Cai, Yiqin Alicia Shen & Jing Yang - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  20.  4
    The Reliability of Child-Friendly Race-Attitude Implicit Association Tests.Amanda Williams & Jennifer R. Steele - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  21.  9
    DscoreApp: A Shiny Web Application for the Computation of the Implicit Association Test D-Score.Ottavia M. Epifania, Pasquale Anselmi & Egidio Robusto - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  22.  99
    Testing for Implicit Bias: Values, Psychometrics, and Science Communication.Nick Byrd & Morgan Thompson - 2022 - WIREs Cognitive Science.
    Our understanding of implicit bias and how to measure it has yet to be settled. Various debates between cognitive scientists are unresolved. Moreover, the public’s understanding of implicit bias tests continues to lag behind cognitive scientists’. These discrepancies pose potential problems. After all, a great deal of implicit bias research has been publicly funded. Further, implicit bias tests continue to feature in discourse about public- and private-sector policies surrounding discrimination, inequality, and even the purpose of science. (...)
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  23.  10
    Gendered Perceptions of Odd and Even Numbers: An Implicit Association Study From Arabic Culture.Timothy R. Jordan, Hajar Aman Key Yekani & Mercedes Sheen - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Previous studies conducted in the United States indicate that people associate numbers with gender, such that odd numbers are more likely to be considered male and even numbers considered female. It has been argued that this number gendering phenomenon is acquired through social learning and conditioning, and that male-odd/female-even associations reflect a general, cross-cultural human consensus on gender roles relating to agency and communion. However, the incidence and pattern of number gendering in cultures outside the United States remains to be (...)
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  24. ‘I love women’: an explicit explanation of implicit bias test results.Reis-Dennis Samuel & Vida Yao - 2021 - Synthese (5-6):13861-13882.
    Recent years have seen a surge of interest in implicit bias. Driving this concern is the thesis, apparently established by tests such as the IAT, that people who hold egalitarian explicit attitudes and beliefs, are often influenced by implicit mental processes that operate independently from, and are largely insensitive to, their explicit attitudes. We argue that implicit bias testing in social and empirical psychology does not, and without a fundamental shift in focus could not, establish this startling (...)
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  25.  3
    A Positive Versus Negative Interaction Memory Affects Parole Officers’ Implicit Associations Between the Self-Concept and the Group Parolees.Marina K. Saad, Luis M. Rivera & Bonita M. Veysey - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    BackgroundParole officers are one of many actors in the legal system charged with interpreting and enforcing the law. Officers not only assure that parolees under their supervision comply with the terms of their release, but also monitor and control parolees’ criminal behavior. They conduct their jobs through their understanding of their official mandate and make considered and deliberate choices while executing that mandate. However, their experiences as legal actors may impact their implicit cognitions about parolees. This experiment is the (...)
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  26.  14
    The Analogy in Decision-Making and the Implicit Association Bias Effect.Nataliia Reva - 2019 - Studia Humana 8 (2):25-31.
    The author stands that thinking by analogy is a natural instrument human have because of the mirror neurons in our brain. However, is it that infallible to rely on? How can we be sure that our hidden biases will not harm our reflections? Implicit Association Bias (IAB), for instance, is a powerful intruder that affects our understanding, actions, and decisions on the unconscious level by cherishing the stereotypes based on specific characteristics such as ethnicity, sex, race, and so (...)
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  27.  39
    Using behavior-analytic implicit tests to assess sexual interests among normal and sex-offender populations.Bryan Roche, Anthony O'Reilly, Amanda Gavin, Maria R. Ruiz & Gabriela Arancibia - 2012 - Socioaffective Neuroscience and Psychology 2.
    Background: The development of implicit tests for measuring biases and behavioral predispositions is a recent development within psychology. While such tests are usually researched within a social-cognitive paradigm, behavioral researchers have also begun to view these tests as potential tests of conditioning histories, including in the sexual domain. Objective: The objective of this paper is to illustrate the utility of a behavioral approach to implicit testing and means by which implicit tests can be built to the standards (...)
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  28.  8
    Validation of the Apperception Test God Representations: An implicit measure to assess attachment to God representations. Associations with explicit attachment to God measures and with implicit and explicit measures of distress.Henk P. Stulp, Jurrijn Koelen, Gerrit G. Glas & Liesbeth Eurelings-Bontekoe - 2020 - Archive for the Psychology of Religion 42 (2):262-291.
    In the context of theistic religions, God representations are an important factor in explaining associations between religion/spirituality and well-being/mental health. Although the limitations of self-report measures of God representations are widely acknowledged, well-validated implicit measures are still unavailable. Therefore, we developed an implicit Attachment to God measure, the Apperception Test God Representations. In this study, we examined reliability and validity of an experimental scale based on attachment theory. Seventy-one nonclinical and 74 clinical respondents told stories about 15 (...)
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  29.  10
    Implicit and Explicit Measurement of Work-Related Age Attitudes and Age Stereotypes.Verena Kleissner & Georg Jahn - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11:579155.
    Age attitudes and age stereotypes in the workplace can lead to discrimination and impaired productivity. Previous studies have predominantly assessed age stereotypes with explicit measures. However, sole explicit measurement is insufficient because of social desirability and potential inaccessibility of stereotypical age evaluations to introspection. We aimed to advance the implicit and explicit assessment of work-related evaluations of age groups and age stereotypes and report data collected in three samples: students (n = 50), older adults (n = 53), and workers (...)
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  30. Construct validity in psychological tests – the case of implicit social cognition.Uljana Feest - 2020 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 10 (1):1-24.
    This paper looks at the question of what it means for a psychological test to have construct validity. I approach this topic by way of an analysis of recent debates about the measurement of implicit social cognition. After showing that there is little theoretical agreement about implicit social cognition, and that the predictive validity of implicit tests appears to be low, I turn to a debate about their construct validity. I show that there are two questions (...)
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  31.  87
    The Effect of Implicit Moral Attitudes on Managerial Decision-Making: An Implicit Social Cognition Approach.Nicki Marquardt & Rainer Hoeger - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 85 (2):157-171.
    This article concerns itself with the relationship between implicit moral cognitions and decisions in the realm of business ethics. Traditionally, business ethics research emphasized the effects of overt or explicit attitudes on ethical decision-making and neglected intuitive or implicit attitudes. Therefore, based on an implicit social cognition approach it is important to know whether implicit moral attitudes may have a substantial impact on managerial ethical decision-making processes. To test this thesis, a study with 50 participants (...)
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  32.  8
    How implicit image of woman changed in Japanese sixth-grade children after a gender equality education lesson.Shin Akita & Kazuo Mori - 2022 - Journal of Social Studies Research 46 (2):153-159.
    Ninety-two Japanese elementary school sixth-graders (46 boys and 46 girls; 11–12 years old) learned the quota system as part of gender equality education. We used a group performance implicit association test (Mori, Uchida, and Imada, 2008) to evaluate the lesson's effect by assessing the children's image of “woman” before and after the class. The results showed that the image of “woman” among boys improved significantly from neutral to positive through the lesson. We also found that girls’ (...) image of “woman” was statistically higher than that of boys before learning, and was raised considerably after the class. (shrink)
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  33.  17
    Exploring the Effect of Cooperation in Reducing Implicit Racial Bias and Its Relationship With Dispositional Empathy and Political Attitudes.Ivan Patané, Anne Lelgouarch, Domna Banakou, Gregoire Verdelet, Clement Desoche, Eric Koun, Romeo Salemme, Mel Slater & Alessandro Farnè - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    Previous research using immersive virtual reality (VR) has shown that after a short period of embodiment of White people in a Black virtual body their implicit racial bias against Black people diminishes. Here we tested the effects of some socio-cognitive variables that could contribute to enhancing or reducing the implicit racial bias. The first aim of the study was to assess the beneficial effects of cooperation within a VR scenario, the second aim was to provide preliminary testing of (...)
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  34.  9
    Electrophysiological Correlates of the Autobiographical Implicit Association Test : Response Conflict and Conflict Resolution.Maddalena Marini, Sara Agosta & Giuseppe Sartori - 2016 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 10.
  35.  14
    Unethical behavior at work: the effects of ethical culture and implicit and explicit moral identity.M. M. Resende, J. B. Porto, F. J. Gracia & I. Tomás - forthcoming - Ethics and Behavior.
    The literature on ethical behavior has called for studies that investigate the interaction between individual and contextual factors. This study examined whether moral identity interacts with ethical culture to predict unethical behavior at work and whether implicit and explicit moral identity affects unethical behavior distinctively. Our sample consisted of 238 participants who took part in an experiment involving an in-basket exercise that measured unethical behavior. Ethical culture was manipulated via a cover letter from a fictitious company’s CEO, and moral (...)
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  36.  34
    Implicit Metaethical Intuitions: Validating and Employing a New IAT Procedure.Johannes M. J. Wagner, Thomas Pölzler & Jennifer C. Wright - 2023 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 14 (1):1-31.
    Philosophical arguments often assume that the folk tends towards moral objectivism. Although recent psychological studies have indicated that lay persons’ attitudes to morality are best characterized in terms of non-objectivism-leaning pluralism, it has been maintained that the folk may be committed to moral objectivism _implicitly_. Since the studies conducted so far almost exclusively assessed subjects’ metaethical attitudes via explicit cognitions, the strength of this rebuttal remains unclear. The current study attempts to test the folk’s implicit metaethical commitments. We (...)
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  37. Conceptual Centrality and Implicit Bias.Del Pinal Guillermo & Spaulding Shannon - 2018 - Mind and Language 33 (1):95-111.
    How are biases encoded in our representations of social categories? Philosophical and empirical discussions of implicit bias overwhelmingly focus on salient or statistical associations between target features and representations of social categories. These are the sorts of associations probed by the Implicit Association Test and various priming tasks. In this paper, we argue that these discussions systematically overlook an alternative way in which biases are encoded, that is, in the dependency networks that are part of our (...)
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  38.  9
    Reducing Implicit Cognitive Biases Through the Performing Arts.Josué García-Arch, Cèlia Ventura-Gabarró, Pedro Lorente Adamuz, Pep Gatell Calvo & Lluís Fuentemilla - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    The aim of the present research was to test whether involvement in a 14-days training program in the performing arts could reduce implicit biases. We asked healthy participants to complete an Implicit Association Test to assess biased attitudes to physical illness in two separate sessions, before and after the training program. Two separate control groups matched by age, gender and educational level completed the two IAT sessions, separated by same number of days, without being involved (...)
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  39.  12
    Predicting Behavior With Implicit Measures: Disillusioning Findings, Reasonable Explanations, and Sophisticated Solutions.Franziska Meissner, Laura Anne Grigutsch, Nicolas Koranyi, Florian Müller & Klaus Rothermund - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
    Two decades ago, the introduction of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) sparked enthusiastic reactions. With implicit measures like the IAT, researchers hoped to finally be able to bridge the gap between self-reported attitudes on one hand and behavior on the other. Twenty years of research and several meta-analyses later, however, we have to conclude that neither the IAT nor its derivatives have fulfilled these expectations. Their predictive value for behavioral criteria is weak and their incremental validity (...)
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  40. Interventions designed to reduce implicit prejudices and implicit stereotypes in real world contexts: a systematic review.Chloë Fitzgerald, Samia A. Hurst, Delphine Berner & Angela K. Martin - 2019 - BMC Psychology 7.
    Background Implicit biases are present in the general population and among professionals in various domains, where they can lead to discrimination. Many interventions are used to reduce implicit bias. However, uncertainties remain as to their effectiveness. -/- Methods We conducted a systematic review by searching ERIC, PUBMED and PSYCHINFO for peer-reviewed studies conducted on adults between May 2005 and April 2015, testing interventions designed to reduce implicit bias, with results measured using the Implicit Association (...) (IAT) or sufficiently similar methods. -/- Results 30 articles were identified as eligible. Some techniques, such as engaging with others’ perspective, appear unfruitful, at least in short term implicit bias reduction, while other techniques, such as exposure to counterstereotypical exemplars, are more promising. Robust data is lacking for many of these interventions. -/- Conclusions Caution is thus advised when it comes to programs aiming at reducing biases. This does not weaken the case for implementing widespread structural and institutional changes that are multiply justified. (shrink)
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  41.  12
    Implicit Attitudes About Agricultural and Aquatic Products From Fukushima Depend on Where Consumers Reside.Otgonchimeg Tsegmed, Daiki Taoka, Jiang Qi & Atsunori Ariga - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
    Japanese consumers are still hesitant to purchase products from Fukushima, although 7 years have passed since the Fukushima nuclear disaster and these products are officially considered safe. In this study, we examined whether Japanese consumers have negative implicit attitudes towards agricultural and aquatic products from the Fukushima region and whether these attitudes are independent of their explicit attitudes. Japanese students completed an implicit association test and a questionnaire to assess their implicit and explicit attitudes towards (...)
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  42. A unified theory of implicit attitudes, stereotypes, self-esteem, and self-concept.Anthony Greenwald - manuscript
    This theoretical integration of social psychology’s main cognitive and affective constructs was shaped by 3 influences: (a) recent widespread interest in automatic and implicit cognition, (b) development of the Implicit Association Test (IAT; A. G. Greenwald, D. E. McGhee, & J. L. K. Schwartz, 1998), and (c) social psychology’s consistency theories of the 1950s, especially F. Heider’s (1958) balance theory. The balanced identity design is introduced as a method to test correlational predictions of the theory. (...)
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  43. Implicit attitudes and implicit prejudices.René Baston & Gottfried Vosgerau - 2016 - Philosophical Psychology 29 (6):889-903.
    In social psychology, the concept of implicit attitudes has given rise to ongoing discussions that are rather philosophical. The aim of this paper is to discuss the status of implicit prejudices from a philosophical point of view. Since implicit prejudices are a special case of implicit attitudes, the discussion will be framed by a short discussion of the most central aspects concerning implicit attitudes and indirect measures. In particular, the ontological conclusions that are implied by (...)
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  44.  94
    Implicit bias in healthcare professionals: a systematic review.Chloë FitzGerald & Samia Hurst - 2017 - BMC Medical Ethics 18 (1):19.
    Implicit biases involve associations outside conscious awareness that lead to a negative evaluation of a person on the basis of irrelevant characteristics such as race or gender. This review examines the evidence that healthcare professionals display implicit biases towards patients. PubMed, PsychINFO, PsychARTICLE and CINAHL were searched for peer-reviewed articles published between 1st March 2003 and 31st March 2013. Two reviewers assessed the eligibility of the identified papers based on precise content and quality criteria. The references of eligible (...)
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  45. Implicit memory: History and current status.Daniel L. Schacter - 1987 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 13 (3):501-18.
    Je lui ai associÉ un court extrait d'une revue de questions portant sur le même thème. Implicit memory is revealed when previous experiences facilitate perf on a task that does not require conscious or intentional recollection of those expces. Explicit memory is revealed when perf on a task requires conscious recolelction of previous expces. Il s'agit de defs descriptives qui n'impliquent pas l'existence de deux systs de mÉmo sÉparÉs. Historiquement Descartes est le premier ˆ faire mention de phÉnomènes de (...)
     
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  46.  17
    The relational responding task: toward a new implicit measure of beliefs.Jan De Houwer, Niclas Heider, Adriaan Spruyt, Arne Roets & Sean Hughes - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6:132367.
    We introduce the Relational Responding Task (RRT) as a tool for capturing beliefs at the implicit level. Flemish participants were asked to respond as if they believed that Flemish people are more intelligent than immigrants (e.g., respond “true” to the statement “Flemish people are wiser than immigrants”) or to respond as if they believed that immigrants are more intelligent than Flemish people (e.g., respond “true” to the statement “Flemish people are dumber than immigrants”). The difference in performance between these (...)
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  47.  9
    Implicit and explicit attitudes toward gay men and lesbian women among heterosexual undergraduate and graduate psychology and nursing students.Oz Hamtzani, Yaniv Mama, Ayala Blau & Talma Kushnir - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    ObjectivesTo examine implicit and explicit attitudes toward gay men and lesbian women among heterosexual undergraduate and graduate psychology and nursing students.MethodsImplicit attitudes were measured via the Implicit Association Test and explicit attitudes via the Attitudes Toward Lesbian Women and Gay questionnaire.Main resultsAll groups held negative implicit attitudes toward gay men and lesbian women. Among undergraduates, nursing students reported holding more negative explicit attitudes toward gay men and lesbian women than psychology students.ConclusionThe curricula in both nursing (...)
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  48. What we can (and can’t) infer about implicit bias from debiasing experiments.Nick Byrd - 2019 - Synthese (2):1-29.
    The received view of implicit bias holds that it is associative and unreflective. Recently, the received view has been challenged. Some argue that implicit bias is not predicated on “any” associative process, but it is unreflective. These arguments rely, in part, on debiasing experiments. They proceed as follows. If implicit bias is associative and unreflective, then certain experimental manipulations cannot change implicitly biased behavior. However, these manipulations can change such behavior. So, implicit bias is not associative (...)
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  49.  16
    Exploring the Implicit Link Between Red and Aggressiveness as Well as Blue and Agreeableness.Lu Geng, Xiaobin Hong & Yulan Zhou - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    Previous studies have found a link between red and aggressive behavior. For example, athletes who wear red uniforms in sports are considered to have a competitive advantage. So far, most previous studies have adopted self-report methods, which have low face validity and were easily influenced by the social expectations. Therefore, the study used two implicit methods to further explore the association between red and aggressiveness. A modified Stroop task was used in Experiment 1 to probe college students’ differences (...)
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  50. What do implicit measures measure?Michael Brownstein, Alex Madva & Bertram Gawronski - 2019 - WIREs Cognitive Science:1-13.
    We identify several ongoing debates related to implicit measures, surveying prominent views and considerations in each debate. First, we summarize the debate regarding whether performance on implicit measures is explained by conscious or unconscious representations. Second, we discuss the cognitive structure of the operative constructs: are they associatively or propositionally structured? Third, we review debates whether performance on implicit measures reflects traits or states. Fourth, we discuss the question of whether a person’s performance on an implicit (...)
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