Results for 'implicit definitions'

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  1.  13
    On the Synthetic Content of Implicit Definitions.Demetra Christopoulou - 2013 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 22 (1):75-88.
    This paper addresses the issue of stipulation in three cases of implicit definitions. It argues that the alleged implicit definitions do not have a purely stipulative status. Stipulation of the vehicles of the implicit definitions in question should end up with true postulates. However, those postulates should not be taken to be true only in virtue of stipulation since they have extra commitments. Horwich’s worry emerges in all three kinds of implicit definitions (...)
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  2.  11
    Weyl on Fregean Implicit Definitions: Between Phenomenology and Symbolic Construction.Demetra Christopoulou - 2014 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 45 (1):35-47.
    This paper aims to investigate certain aspects of Weyl’s account of implicit definitions. The paper takes under consideration Weyl’s approach to a certain kind of implicit definitions i.e. abstraction principles introduced by Frege.ion principles are bi-conditionals that transform certain equivalence relations into identity statements, defining thereby mathematical terms in an implicit way. The paper compares the analytic reading of implicit definitions offered by the Neo-Fregean program with Weyl’s account which has phenomenological leanings. The (...)
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  3.  13
    Persuasive Definitions: Values, Meanings and Implicit Disagreements.Fabrizio Macagno & Douglas Walton - 2008 - Informal Logic 28 (3):203-228.
    The purpose of this paper is to inquire into the relationship between persuasive definition and common knowledge (propositions generally accepted and not subject to dispute in a discussion). We interpret the gap between common knowledge and persuasive definition (PD) in terms of potential disagreements: PDs are conceived as implicit arguments to win a potential conflict. Persuasive definitions are analyzed as arguments instantiating two argumentation schemes, argument from classification and argument from values, and presupposing a potential disagreement. The argumentative (...)
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  4. The a Priori: Between Conventions and Implicit Definitions.Stathis Psillos - unknown
    A thumbnail sketch of the philosophical thinking about the a priori would surely include that it has been dominated by two major approaches: the Kantian absolute conception of it and the Millian-Quinean absolute rejection of it (section 2). Yet, one can find in the literature claims about the existence of a ›functional a priori‹, a ›relative a priori‹, a ›relativised a priori‹ and suchlike. They are all meant to carve a space between the two extremes. An important thought behind the (...)
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  5.  11
    Rescuing the Institutional Theory of Art: Implicit Definitions and Folk Aesthetics.Barbara C. Scholz - 1994 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 52 (3):309-325.
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  6. Comments on Paul Horwich's "On the Alleged Normative Import of Implicit Definitions" (Workshop Implicit Definitions and A Priori Knowledge, GAP 6, Berlin, September 2006). [REVIEW]Andreas Kemmerling - unknown
    Let R be an epistemic rule of the simplest type: "Accept sentence s!" Assume that R is a basic rule we actually follow: Our accepting the sentence cannot be explained by our following more fundamental rules of sentence-acceptance. Assume furthermore that we feel rationally obliged to follow R; that is, we all agree on the correctness of the epistemic norm N which says: We ought to accept s.
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  7.  1
    Analytic Truth and «Implicit Definitions».Pap Arthur - 1953 - Proceedings of the XIth International Congress of Philosophy 5:151-155.
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  8.  4
    Review: Arthur Pap, Analytic Truth and "Implicit Definitions.". [REVIEW]Carl G. Hempel - 1955 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 20 (1):55-55.
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  9. Pap Arthur. Analytic Truth and “Implicit Definitions.” Actes du XIème Congrès International de Philosophie, Volume V, Logique, Analyse Philosophique, Philosophie des Mathématiques, North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam 1953, and Éditions E. Nauwelaerts, Louvain 1953, Pp. 151–155. [REVIEW]Carl G. Hempel - 1955 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 20 (1):55.
  10. Analytic Truth and "Implicit Definitions.".Arthur Pap - 1955 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 20 (1):55-55.
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  11.  43
    Ebert on Boghossian’s Template and Transmission Failure.Alessia Marabini & Luca Moretti - manuscript
    Boghossian (1996) has put forward an interesting explanation of how we can acquire logical knowledge via implicit definitions that makes use of a special template. Ebert (2005) has argued that the template is unserviceable, as it doesn't transmit warrant. In this paper, we defend the template. We first suggest that Jenkins (2008)’s response to Ebert fails because it focuses on doxastic rather than propositional warrant. We then reject Ebert’s objection by showing that it depends on an implausible and (...)
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  12. Transmission of Warrant-Failure and the Notion of Epistemic Analyticity.Philip A. Ebert - 2005 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 83 (4):505 – 521.
    In this paper I will argue that Boghossian's explanation of how we can acquire a priori knowledge of logical principles through implicit definitions commits a transmission of warrant-failure. To this end, I will briefly outline Boghossian's account, followed by an explanation of what a transmission of warrant-failure consists in. I will also show that this charge is independent of the worry of rule-circularity which has been raised concerning the justification of logical principles and of which Boghossian is fully (...)
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  13. Understanding the Logical Constants and Dispositions.Corine Besson - 2009 - The Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication 5 (1):1-24.
    Many philosophers claim that understanding a logical constant (e.g. ‘if, then’) fundamentally consists in having dispositions to infer according to the logical rules (e.g. Modus Ponens) that fix its meaning. This paper argues that such dispositionalist accounts give us the wrong picture of what understanding a logical constant consists in. The objection here is that they give an account of understanding a logical constant which is inconsistent with what seem to be adequate manifestations of such understanding. I then outline an (...)
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  14.  54
    Friedman on Implicit Definition: In Search of the Hilbertian Heritage in Philosophy of Science.Woosuk Park - 2012 - Erkenntnis 76 (3):427-442.
    Michael Friedman’s project both historically and systematically testifies to the importance of the relativized a priori. The importance of implicit definitions clearly emerges from Schlick’s General Theory of Knowledge . The main aim of this paper is to show the relationship between both and the relativized a priori through a detailed discussion of Friedman’s work. Succeeding with this will amount to a contribution to recent scholarship showing the importance of Hilbert for Logical Empiricism.
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  15. The Argumentative Structure of Persuasive Definitions.Fabrizio Macagno & Douglas Walton - 2008 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 11 (5):525-549.
    In this paper we present an analysis of persuasive definition based on argumentation schemes. Using the medieval notion of differentia and the traditional approach to topics, we explain the persuasiveness of emotive terms in persuasive definitions by applying the argumentation schemes for argument from classification and argument from values. Persuasive definitions, we hold, are persuasive because their goal is to modify the emotive meaning denotation of a persuasive term in a way that contains an implicit argument from (...)
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  16. The 'Explicit-Implicit' Distinction.Robert F. Hadley - 1995 - Minds and Machines 5 (2):219-42.
    Much of traditional AI exemplifies the explicit representation paradigm, and during the late 1980''s a heated debate arose between the classical and connectionist camps as to whether beliefs and rules receive an explicit or implicit representation in human cognition. In a recent paper, Kirsh (1990) questions the coherence of the fundamental distinction underlying this debate. He argues that our basic intuitions concerning explicit and implicit representations are not only confused but inconsistent. Ultimately, Kirsh proposes a new formulation of (...)
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  17.  16
    Phylogenetic Definitions and Taxonomic Philosophy.Kevin De Queiroz - 1992 - Biology and Philosophy 7 (3):295-313.
    An examination of the post-Darwinian history of biological taxonomy reveals an implicit assumption that the definitions of taxon names consist of lists of organismal traits. That assumption represents a failure to grant the concept of evolution a central role in taxonomy, and it causes conflicts between traditional methods of defining taxon names and evolutionary concepts of taxa. Phylogenetic definitions of taxon names (de Queiroz and Gauthier 1990) grant the concept of common ancestry a central role in the (...)
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  18.  11
    A General Formulation of Simultaneous Inductive-Recursive Definitions in Type Theory.Peter Dybjer - 2000 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 65 (2):525-549.
    The first example of a simultaneous inductive-recursive definition in intuitionistic type theory is Martin-Löf's universe á la Tarski. A set U 0 of codes for small sets is generated inductively at the same time as a function T 0 , which maps a code to the corresponding small set, is defined by recursion on the way the elements of U 0 are generated. In this paper we argue that there is an underlying general notion of simultaneous inductive-recursive definition which is (...)
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  19.  75
    Socrates' Pursuit of Definitions.D. Wolfsdorf - 2003 - Phronesis 48 (4):271 - 312.
    "Socrates' Pursuit of Definitions" examines the manner in which Socrates pursues definitions in Plato's early definitional dialogues and advances the following claims. Socrates evaluates definitions (proposed by his interlocutors or himself) by considering their consistency with conditions of the identity of F (F-conditions) to which he is committed. In evaluating proposed definitions, Socrates seeks to determine their truth-value. Socrates evaluates the truth-value of a proposed definition by considering the consistency of the proposed definition with F-conditions that (...)
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  20.  4
    A Silly Expression: Consultants' Implicit and Explicit Understanding of Medical Humanities. A Qualitative Analysis.L. V. Knight - 2006 - Medical Humanities 32 (2):119-124.
    The term Medical Humanities has still not been established in the wider medical, educational and academic communities. This qualitative study, conducted across three acute care trusts, is an exploration of whether clinicians were familiar with the term Medical Humanities, and if so, what the term meant to them and whether they considered the associated concepts relevant to medical practice and education. Reactions to the term Medical Humanities were varied: many clinicians had not heard of the term before, some were unsure (...)
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  21.  8
    Thomas Aquinas in Reference to Beauty. The Two Definitions.Andrey Ivanov - 2016 - Quaestio 15:581-595.
    In this article we examine the main fragments of Thomas Aquinas regarding beauty. Our approach allows us to acquire the repertoire of definitions of beauty that are found in his commentaries and thought. Thus our scope is reconstruct at the theory of beauty that is implicit in Thomas Aquinas.
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  22.  28
    Le véritable retour des définitions.Pierre Poirier & Guillaume Beaulac - 2011 - Dialogue 50 (1):153-164.
    In our critical review of Doing without Concepts, we argue that although the heterogeneity hypothesis (according to which exemplars, prototypes and theories are natural kinds that should replace ‘concept’) may end fruitless debates in the psychology of concepts, Edouard Machery did not anticipate one consequence of his suggestion: Definitions now acquire a new status as another one of the bodies of information replacing ‘concept’. In order to support our hypothesis, we invoke dual-process models to suggest that prototypes, exemplars and (...)
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  23.  18
    Phylogenetic Definitions and Taxonomic Philosophy.Kevin Queiroz - 1992 - Biology and Philosophy 7 (3):295-313.
    An examination of the post-Darwinian history of biological taxonomy reveals an implicit assumption that the definitions of taxon names consist of lists of organismal traits. That assumption represents a failure to grant the concept of evolution a central role in taxonomy, and it causes conflicts between traditional methods of defining taxon names and evolutionary concepts of taxa. Phylogenetic definitions of taxon names (de Queiroz and Gauthier 1990) grant the concept of common ancestry a central role in the (...)
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  24.  19
    Scepticism, Context and Modal Reasoning.Andrej Ule - 2004 - Acta Analytica 19 (33):9-30.
    I analyze some classical solutions of the skeptical argument and some of their week points (especially the contextualist solution). First I have proposed some possible improvement of the contextualist solution (the introduction of the explicit-implicit belief and knowledge distinction beside the differences in the relevance of some counter-factual alternatives). However, this solution does not block too fast jumps of the everyday context (where empirical knowledge is possible) into skeptical context (where empirical knowledge is impossible). Then I analyze some formal (...)
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  25. Is Hume's Principle Analytic?Crispin Wright - 2001 - In Bob Hale & Crispin Wright (eds.), Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic. Oxford University Press. pp. 307-333.
    This paper is a reply to George Boolos's three papers (Boolos (1987a, 1987b, 1990a)) concerned with the status of Hume's Principle. Five independent worries of Boolos concerning the status of Hume's Principle as an analytic truth are identified and discussed. Firstly, the ontogical concern about the commitments of Hume's Principle. Secondly, whether Hume's Principle is in fact consistent and whether the commitment to the universal number by adopting Hume's Principle might be problematic. Also the so-called `surplus content' worry is discussed, (...)
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  26. Natural Numbers and Natural Cardinals as Abstract Objects: A Partial Reconstruction of Frege's Grundgesetze in Object Theory.Edward N. Zalta - 1999 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 28 (6):619-660.
    In this paper, the author derives the Dedekind-Peano axioms for number theory from a consistent and general metaphysical theory of abstract objects. The derivation makes no appeal to primitive mathematical notions, implicit definitions, or a principle of infinity. The theorems proved constitute an important subset of the numbered propositions found in Frege's Grundgesetze. The proofs of the theorems reconstruct Frege's derivations, with the exception of the claim that every number has a successor, which is derived from a modal (...)
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  27. Boghossian and Epistemic Analyticity.C. S. Jenkins - 2008 - Croatian Journal of Philosophy 22 (1):113-127.
    Boghossian claims that we can acquire a priori knowledge by means of a certain form of argument, our grasp of whose premises relies on the existence of implicit definitions. I discuss an objection to his ‘analytic theory of the a priori’. The worry is that in order to employ this kind of argument we must already know its conclusion. Boghossian has responded to this type of objection in recent work, but I argue that his responses are unconvincing. Along (...)
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  28. Euclides Ab Omni Naevo Vindicatus.J. R. Lucas - 1969 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 20 (1):1-11.
    The issue is obscured by the fact that the word `space' can be used in four different ways. It can be used, first, as a term of pure mathematics, as when mathematicians talk of an `n-dimensional phase-space', an `n-dimensional vector-space', a `three-dimensional projective space' or a `twodimensional Riemannian space'. In this sense the word `space' means the totality of the abstract entities-the `points'-implicitly defined by the axioms. There is no doubt that there exist, iii this sense, non-Euclidean spaces, because all (...)
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  29.  60
    Motivating Wittgenstein's Perspective on Mathematical Sentences as Norms.S. Friederich - 2011 - Philosophia Mathematica 19 (1):1-19.
    The later Wittgenstein’s perspective on mathematical sentences as norms is motivated for sentences belonging to Hilbertian axiomatic systems where the axioms are treated as implicit definitions. It is shown that in this approach the axioms are employed as norms in that they function as standards of what counts as using the concepts involved. This normative dimension of their mode of use, it is argued, is inherited by the theorems derived from them. Having been motivated along these lines, Wittgenstein’s (...)
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  30.  66
    Information, Ethics, and Computers: The Problem of Autonomous Moral Agents. [REVIEW]Carsten Stahl Bernd - 2004 - Minds and Machines 14 (1):67-83.
    In modern technical societies computers interact with human beings in ways that can affect moral rights and obligations. This has given rise to the question whether computers can act as autonomous moral agents. The answer to this question depends on many explicit and implicit definitions that touch on different philosophical areas such as anthropology and metaphysics. The approach chosen in this paper centres on the concept of information. Information is a multi-facetted notion which is hard to define comprehensively. (...)
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  31.  30
    Absolute Selbstähnlichkeit in der euklidischen Geometrie. Zu Kants Erklärung der Möglichkeit der reinen Geometrie als einer synthetischen Erkenntnis a priori.Michael Wolff - 2009 - Kant-Studien 100 (3):285-308.
    Kant's theory of space includes the idea that straight lines and planes can be defined in Euclidean geometry by a concept which nowadays has been revived in the field of fractal geometry: the concept of self-similarity. Absolute self-similarity of straight lines and planes distinguishes Euclidean space from any other geometrical space. Einstein missed this fact in his attempt to refute Kant's theory of space in his article ‘Geometrie und Erfahrung’. Following Hilbert and Schlick he took it for granted, mistakenly, that (...)
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  32.  8
    Categories for the Neologicist.Shay Allen Logan - 2017 - Philosophia Mathematica 25 (1):26-44.
    Abstraction principles provide implicit definitions of mathematical objects. In this paper, an abstraction principle defining categories is proposed. It is unsatisfiable and inconsistent in the expected ways. Two restricted versions of the principle which are consistent are presented.
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  33.  4
    How to Define a Linear Order on Finite Models.Lauri Hella, Phokion G. Kolaitis & Kerkko Luosto - 1997 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 87 (3):241-267.
    We carry out a systematic investigation of the definability of linear order on classes of finite rigid structures. We obtain upper and lower bounds for the expressibility of linear order in various logics that have been studied extensively in finite model theory, such as least fixpoint logic LFP, partial fixpoint logic PFP, infinitary logic Lω∞ω with a finite number of variables, as well as the closures of these logics under implicit definitions. Moreover, we show that the upper and (...)
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  34.  35
    Realist Foundations of Measurement.Henry C. Byerly & Vincent A. Lazara - 1973 - Philosophy of Science 40 (1):10-28.
    This paper defends a realist interpretation of theories and a modest realism concerning the existence of quantities as providing the best account both of the logic of quantity concepts and of scientific measurement practices. Various operationist analyses of measurement are shown to be inadequate accounts of measurement practices used by scientists. We argue, furthermore, that appeals to implicit definitions to provide meaning for theoretical terms over and above operational definitions fail because implicit definitions cannot generate (...)
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  35. Natural Numbers and Natural Cardinals as Abstract Objects: A Partial Reconstruction of Frege's Grundgesetze in Object Theory.Edward N. Zalta - 1999 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 28 (6):619-660.
    In this paper, the author derives the Dedekind-Peano axioms for number theory from a consistent and general metaphysical theory of abstract objects. The derivation makes no appeal to primitive mathematical notions, implicit definitions, or a principle of infinity. The theorems proved constitute an important subset of the numbered propositions found in Frege's *Grundgesetze*. The proofs of the theorems reconstruct Frege's derivations, with the exception of the claim that every number has a successor, which is derived from a modal (...)
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  36.  1
    Arity Hierarchies.Martin Grohe - 1996 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 82 (2):103-163.
    Many logics considered in finite model theory have a natural notion of an arity. The purpose of this article is to study the hierarchies which are formed by the fragments of such logics whose formulae are of bounded arity.Based on a construction of finite graphs with a certain property of homogeneity, we develop a method that allows us to prove that the arity hierarchies are strict for several logics, including fixed-point logics, transitive closure logic and its deterministic version, variants of (...)
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  37.  34
    Philosophy of Science.Stathos Psillos - unknown
    Philosophy of science emerged as a distinctive part of philosophy in the twentieth century. It set its own agenda, the systematic study of the metaphysical and epistemological foundations of science, and acquired its own professional structure, departments and journals. Its defining moment was the meeting (and the clash) of two courses of events: the breakdown of the Kantian philosophical tradition and the crisis in the sciences and mathematics in the beginning of the century. The emergence of the new Frege-Russell logic, (...)
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  38.  27
    The Linguistic View of a Priori Knowledge.M. Giaquinto - 2008 - Philosophy 83 (1):89-111.
    This paper presents considerations against the linguistic view of a priori knowledge. The paper has two parts. In the first part I argue that problems about the individuation of lexical meanings provide evidence for a moderate indeterminacy, as distinct from the radical indeterminacy of meaning claimed by Quine, and that this undermines the idea of a priori knowledge based on knowledge of synonymies. In the second part of the paper I argue against the idea that a priori knowledge not based (...)
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  39.  4
    Book Review: Barkan, P. (Ed.): "Chemical Research - 2000 and Beyond: Challenges and Visions" (New York-Oxford 1998). [REVIEW]Joachim Schummer - 1999 - Hyle 5 (2):168 - 170.
    In 2002 the American Chemical Society (ACS) asked its members to submit proposals for the "ten most beautiful experiments in chemistry" (C&EN, Nov. 18, 2002, p. 5) and then proudly published the result of the vote in its Chemical and Engineering News magazine (C&EN, Aug. 25, 2003, pp. 27-30). Democratic as the procedure is, it avoids asking critical questions: What is an experiment? What is beauty? What is chemistry? In fact, you need not be able to give an answer to (...)
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  40.  1
    Definiciones implícitas y unicidad en el programa neologicista.Lucas Rosenblatt - 2014 - Dianoia 59 (72):03-24.
    En este trabajo presento un problema que afecta al programa neologicista que han defendido en varias ocasiones Crispin Wright y Bob Hale. En particular, argumento que Wright y Hale no han dado suficientes condiciones para separar las definiciones implícitas apropiadas como el principio de Hume de otras definiciones implícitas rivales como la aritmética de Peano de segundo orden. Sugiero, además, que esa tarea sólo puede realizarse adecuadamente si una de las condiciones propuestas es la condición de que toda definición implícita (...)
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  41. Motivating Wittgenstein’s Perspective on Mathematical Sentences as Norms†.Simon Friederich - 2010 - Philosophia Mathematica 18 (3):1-19.
    The later Wittgenstein’s perspective on mathematical sentences as norms is motivated for sentences belonging to Hilbertian axiomatic systems where the axioms are treated as implicit definitions. It is shown that in this approach the axioms are employed as norms in that they function as standards of what counts as using the concepts involved. This normative dimension of their mode of use, it is argued, is inherited by the theorems derived from them. Having been motivated along these lines, Wittgenstein’s (...)
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  42. The Heterogeneity of Implicit Bias.Jules Holroyd & Joseph Sweetman - forthcoming - In Michael Brownstein & Jennifer Saul (eds.), Implicit Bias and Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
    The term 'implicit bias' has very swiftly been incorporated into philosophical discourse. Our aim in this paper is to scrutinise the phenomena that fall under the rubric of implicit bias. The term is often used in a rather broad sense, to capture a range of implicit social cognitions, and this is useful for some purposes. However, we here articulate some of the important differences between phenomena identified as instances of implicit bias. We caution against ignoring these (...)
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  43.  46
    Attributability, Accountability, and Implicit Bias.Zheng Robin - 2016 - In Jennifer Saul & Michael Brownstein (eds.), Implicit Bias and Philosophy, Volume 2: Moral Responsibility, Structural Injustice, and Ethics. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 62-89.
    This chapter distinguishes between two concepts of moral responsibility. We are responsible for our actions in the first sense only when those actions reflect our identities as moral agents, i.e. when they are attributable to us. We are responsible in the second sense when it is appropriate for others to enforce certain expectations and demands on those actions, i.e. to hold us accountable for them. This distinction allows for an account of moral responsibility for implicit bias, defended here, on (...)
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  44. Attitude, Inference, Association: On the Propositional Structure of Implicit Bias.Eric Mandelbaum - 2016 - Noûs 50 (3):629-658.
    The overwhelming majority of those who theorize about implicit biases posit that these biases are caused by some sort of association. However, what exactly this claim amounts to is rarely specified. In this paper, I distinguish between different understandings of association, and I argue that the crucial senses of association for elucidating implicit bias are the cognitive structure and mental process senses. A hypothesis is subsequently derived: if associations really underpin implicit biases, then implicit biases should (...)
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  45.  82
    Virtue, Social Knowledge, and Implicit Bias.Alex Madva - 2016 - In Jennifer Saul & Michael Brownstein (eds.), Implicit Bias and Philosophy, Volume 1: Metaphysics and Epistemology. pp. 191-215.
    This chapter is centered around an apparent tension that research on implicit bias raises between virtue and social knowledge. Research suggests that simply knowing what the prevalent stereotypes are leads individuals to act in prejudiced ways—biasing decisions about whom to trust and whom to ignore, whom to promote and whom to imprison—even if they reflectively reject those stereotypes. Because efforts to combat discrimination obviously depend on knowledge of stereotypes, a question arises about what to do next. This chapter argues (...)
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  46.  53
    A Virtue Ethics Response to Implicit Bias.Clea F. Rees - 2016 - In Michael Brownstein & Jennifer Saul (eds.), Implicit Bias and Philosophy, Volume 2: Moral Responsibility, Structural Injustice, and Ethics. Oxford University Press. pp. 191-214.
    Virtue ethics faces two challenges based in ‘dual-process’ models of cognition. The classic situationist worry is that we just do not have reliable motivations at all. One promising response invokes an alternative model of cognition which can accommodate evidence cited in support of dual-process models without positing distinct systems for automatic and deliberative processing. The approach appeals to the potential of automatization to habituate virtuous motivations. This response is threatened by implicit bias which raises the worry that we cannot (...)
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  47. A Theory of Implicit and Explicit Knowledge.Zoltán Dienes & Josef Perner - 1999 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):735-808.
    The implicit-explicit distinction is applied to knowledge representations. Knowledge is taken to be an attitude towards a proposition which is true. The proposition itself predicates a property to some entity. A number of ways in which knowledge can be implicit or explicit emerge. If a higher aspect is known explicitly then each lower one must also be known explicitly. This partial hierarchy reduces the number of ways in which knowledge can be explicit. In the most important type of (...)
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  48. Implicit Learning and Tacit Knowledge: An Essay on the Cognitive Unconscious.Arthur S. Reber - 1993 - Oxford University Press.
    In this new volume in the Oxford Psychology Series, the author presents a highly readable account of the cognitive unconscious, focusing in particular on the problem of implicit learning. Implicit learning is defined as the acquisition of knowledge that takes place independently of the conscious attempts to learn and largely in the absence of explicit knowledge about what was acquired. One of the core assumptions of this argument is that implicit learning is a fundamental, "root" process, one (...)
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  49.  48
    Conceptual Centrality and Implicit Bias.Del Pinal Guillermo & Spaulding Shannon - forthcoming - Mind and Language.
    How are biases encoded in our representations of social categories? Philo- sophical and empirical discussions of implicit bias overwhelmingly focus on salient or statistical associations between target features and representations of social categories. These are the sorts of associations probed by the Implicit Association Test and various priming tasks. In this paper, we argue that these discussions systematically overlook an alternative way in which biases are encoded, i.e., in the dependency networks that are part of our representations of (...)
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  50.  40
    Conceptual Centrality and Implicit Bias.Guillermo del Pinal & Shannon Spaulding - forthcoming - Mind & Language.
    How are biases encoded in our representations of social categories? Philosophical and empirical discussions of implicit bias overwhelmingly focus on salient or statistical associations between target features and representations of social categories. These are the sorts of associations probed by the Implicit Association Test and various priming tasks. In this paper, we argue that these discussions systematically overlook an alternative way in which biases are encoded, i.e., in the dependency networks that are part of our representations of social (...)
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