Results for 'incompleteness'

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  1.  83
    Einstein, Incompleteness, and the Epistemic View of Quantum States.Nicholas Harrigan & Robert W. Spekkens - 2010 - Foundations of Physics 40 (2):125-157.
    Does the quantum state represent reality or our knowledge of reality? In making this distinction precise, we are led to a novel classification of hidden variable models of quantum theory. We show that representatives of each class can be found among existing constructions for two-dimensional Hilbert spaces. Our approach also provides a fruitful new perspective on arguments for the nonlocality and incompleteness of quantum theory. Specifically, we show that for models wherein the quantum state has the status of something (...)
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  2. On the Philosophical Relevance of Gödel's Incompleteness Theorems.Panu Raatikainen - 2005 - Revue Internationale de Philosophie 59 (4):513-534.
    A survey of more philosophical applications of Gödel's incompleteness results.
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  3. On Interpreting Chaitin's Incompleteness Theorem.Panu Raatikainen - 1998 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 27 (6):569-586.
    The aim of this paper is to comprehensively question the validity of the standard way of interpreting Chaitin's famous incompleteness theorem, which says that for every formalized theory of arithmetic there is a finite constant c such that the theory in question cannot prove any particular number to have Kolmogorov complexity larger than c. The received interpretation of theorem claims that the limiting constant is determined by the complexity of the theory itself, which is assumed to be good measure (...)
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  4.  83
    Expressive Power and Incompleteness of Propositional Logics.James W. Garson - 2010 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 39 (2):159-171.
    Natural deduction systems were motivated by the desire to define the meaning of each connective by specifying how it is introduced and eliminated from inference. In one sense, this attempt fails, for it is well known that propositional logic rules underdetermine the classical truth tables. Natural deduction rules are too weak to enforce the intended readings of the connectives; they allow non-standard models. Two reactions to this phenomenon appear in the literature. One is to try to restore the standard readings, (...)
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  5. There's Something About Gdel: The Complete Guide to the Incompleteness Theorem.Francesco Berto - 2009 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    Berto’s highly readable and lucid guide introduces students and the interested reader to Gödel’s celebrated _Incompleteness Theorem_, and discusses some of the most famous - and infamous - claims arising from Gödel's arguments. Offers a clear understanding of this difficult subject by presenting each of the key steps of the _Theorem_ in separate chapters Discusses interpretations of the _Theorem_ made by celebrated contemporary thinkers Sheds light on the wider extra-mathematical and philosophical implications of Gödel’s theories Written in an accessible, non-technical (...)
  6.  88
    Fictionalism and the Incompleteness Problem.Lukas Skiba - 2017 - Synthese 194 (4):1349-1362.
    Modal fictionalists face a problem that arises due to their possible-world story being incomplete in the sense that certain relevant claims are neither true nor false according to it. It has recently been suggested that this incompleteness problem generalises to other brands of fictionalism, such as fictionalism about composite or mathematical objects. In this paper, I argue that these fictionalist positions are particularly threatened by a generalised incompleteness problem since they cannot emulate the modal fictionalists’ most attractive response. (...)
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  7.  48
    On Proofs of the Incompleteness Theorems Based on Berry's Paradox by Vopěnka, Chaitin, and Boolos.Makoto Kikuchi, Taishi Kurahashi & Hiroshi Sakai - 2012 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 58 (4-5):307-316.
    By formalizing Berry's paradox, Vopěnka, Chaitin, Boolos and others proved the incompleteness theorems without using the diagonal argument. In this paper, we shall examine these proofs closely and show their relationships. Firstly, we shall show that we can use the diagonal argument for proofs of the incompleteness theorems based on Berry's paradox. Then, we shall show that an extension of Boolos' proof can be considered as a special case of Chaitin's proof by defining a suitable Kolmogorov complexity. We (...)
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  8. Kurt Gödel, Paper on the Incompleteness Theorems (1931).Richard Zach - 2004 - In Ivor Grattan-Guinness (ed.), Landmark Writings in Mathematics. Amsterdam: North-Holland. pp. 917-925.
    This chapter describes Kurt Gödel's paper on the incompleteness theorems. Gödel's incompleteness results are two of the most fundamental and important contributions to logic and the foundations of mathematics. It had been assumed that first-order number theory is complete in the sense that any sentence in the language of number theory would be either provable from the axioms or refutable. Gödel's first incompleteness theorem showed that this assumption was false: it states that there are sentences of number (...)
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  9. T-Schema Deflationism Versus Gödel’s First Incompleteness Theorem.Christopher Gauker - 2001 - Analysis 61 (2):129–136.
    I define T-schema deflationism as the thesis that a theory of truth for our language can simply take the form of certain instances of Tarski's schema (T). I show that any effective enumeration of these instances will yield as a dividend an effective enumeration of all truths of our language. But that contradicts Gödel's First Incompleteness Theorem. So the instances of (T) constituting the T-Schema deflationist's theory of truth are not effectively enumerable, which casts doubt on the idea that (...)
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  10.  41
    The Second Incompleteness Theorem and Bounded Interpretations.Albert Visser - 2012 - Studia Logica 100 (1-2):399-418.
    In this paper we formulate a version of Second Incompleteness Theorem. The idea is that a sequential sentence has ‘consistency power’ over a theory if it enables us to construct a bounded interpretation of that theory. An interpretation of V in U is bounded if, for some n , all translations of V -sentences are U -provably equivalent to sentences of complexity less than n . We call a sequential sentence with consistency power over T a pro-consistency statement for (...)
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  11.  33
    The Incompleteness of the Economy and Business: A Forceful Reminder. [REVIEW]Paul H. Dembinski - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 100 (S1):29-40.
    Many different but related arguments developed in the Caritas in Veritate converge on one central, yet not clearly stated, conclusion or thesis: economic and business activities are ‘incomplete’. This article will explore the above-mentioned ‘incompleteness’ thesis or argument from three different perspectives: the role, the practice and the purpose of economic and business activities in contemporary societies. In doing so, the paper will heavily draw on questions and, still not fully learned, lessons derived from the present financial and economic (...)
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  12.  22
    Complete Additivity and Modal Incompleteness.Wesley H. Holliday & Tadeusz Litak - 2019 - Review of Symbolic Logic 12 (3):487-535.
    In this article, we tell a story about incompleteness in modal logic. The story weaves together an article of van Benthem, “Syntactic aspects of modal incompleteness theorems,” and a longstanding open question: whether every normal modal logic can be characterized by a class of completely additive modal algebras, or as we call them, ${\cal V}$-baos. Using a first-order reformulation of the property of complete additivity, we prove that the modal logic that starred in van Benthem’s article resolves the (...)
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  13.  50
    A Note on Boolos' Proof of the Incompleteness Theorem.Makoto Kikuchi - 1994 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 40 (4):528-532.
    We give a proof of Gödel's first incompleteness theorem based on Berry's paradox, and from it we also derive the second incompleteness theorem model-theoretically.
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  14.  27
    Heterologicality and Incompleteness.Cezary Cieśliński - 2002 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 48 (1):105-110.
    We present a semantic proof of Gödel's second incompleteness theorem, employing Grelling's antinomy of heterological expressions. For a theory T containing ZF, we define the sentence HETT which says intuitively that the predicate “heterological” is itself heterological. We show that this sentence doesn't follow from T and is equivalent to the consistency of T. Finally we show how to construct a similar incompleteness proof for Peano Arithmetic.
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  15. Consistency, Turing Computability and Gödel’s First Incompleteness Theorem.Robert F. Hadley - 2008 - Minds and Machines 18 (1):1-15.
    It is well understood and appreciated that Gödel’s Incompleteness Theorems apply to sufficiently strong, formal deductive systems. In particular, the theorems apply to systems which are adequate for conventional number theory. Less well known is that there exist algorithms which can be applied to such a system to generate a gödel-sentence for that system. Although the generation of a sentence is not equivalent to proving its truth, the present paper argues that the existence of these algorithms, when conjoined with (...)
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  16. Application of Quantum Darwinism to Cosmic Inflation: An Example of the Limits Imposed in Aristotelian Logic by Information-Based Approach to Gödel’s Incompleteness[REVIEW]Nicolás F. Lori & Alex H. Blin - 2010 - Foundations of Science 15 (2):199-211.
    Gödel’s incompleteness applies to any system with recursively enumerable axioms and rules of inference. Chaitin’s approach to Gödel’s incompleteness relates the incompleteness to the amount of information contained in the axioms. Zurek’s quantum Darwinism attempts the physical description of the universe using information as one of its major components. The capacity of quantum Darwinism to describe quantum measurement in great detail without requiring ad-hoc non-unitary evolution makes it a good candidate for describing the transition from quantum to (...)
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  17.  64
    The Scope of Gödel’s First Incompleteness Theorem.Bernd Buldt - 2014 - Logica Universalis 8 (3-4):499-552.
    Guided by questions of scope, this paper provides an overview of what is known about both the scope and, consequently, the limits of Gödel’s famous first incompleteness theorem.
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  18. Incompleteness, Complexity, Randomness and Beyond.Cristian S. Calude - 2002 - Minds and Machines 12 (4):503-517.
    Gödel's Incompleteness Theorems have the same scientific status as Einstein's principle of relativity, Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and Watson and Crick's double helix model of DNA. Our aim is to discuss some new faces of the incompleteness phenomenon unveiled by an information-theoretic approach to randomness and recent developments in quantum computing.
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  19.  68
    Gödel’s Incompleteness Theorems and Physics.Newton C. A. Da Costa - 2011 - Principia: An International Journal of Epistemology 15 (3):453-459.
    This paper is a summary of a lecture in which I presented some remarks on Gödel’s incompleteness theorems and their meaning for the foundations of physics. The entire lecture will appear elsewhere. doi: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.5007 / 1808-1711.2011v15n3p453.
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  20.  35
    Liar-Type Paradoxes and the Incompleteness Phenomena.Makoto Kikuchi & Taishi Kurahashi - 2016 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 45 (4):381-398.
    We define a liar-type paradox as a consistent proposition in propositional modal logic which is obtained by attaching boxes to several subformulas of an inconsistent proposition in classical propositional logic, and show several famous paradoxes are liar-type. Then we show that we can generate a liar-type paradox from any inconsistent proposition in classical propositional logic and that undecidable sentences in arithmetic can be obtained from the existence of a liar-type paradox. We extend these results to predicate logic and discuss Yablo’s (...)
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  21.  76
    The Incompleteness of Theories of Games.Marcelo Tsuji, Newton C. A. Costa & Francisco A. Doria - 1998 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 27 (6):553-568.
    We first state a few previously obtained results that lead to general undecidability and incompleteness theorems in axiomatized theories that range from the theory of finite sets to classical elementary analysis. Out of those results we prove several incompleteness theorems for axiomatic versions of the theory of noncooperative games with Nash equilibria; in particular, we show the existence of finite games whose equilibria cannot be proven to be computable.
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  22.  71
    Gödel's Incompleteness Theorems and Computer Science.Roman Murawski - 1997 - Foundations of Science 2 (1):123-135.
    In the paper some applications of Gödel's incompleteness theorems to discussions of problems of computer science are presented. In particular the problem of relations between the mind and machine (arguments by J.J.C. Smart and J.R. Lucas) is discussed. Next Gödel's opinion on this issue is studied. Finally some interpretations of Gödel's incompleteness theorems from the point of view of the information theory are presented.
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  23.  37
    The Incompleteness of Theories of Games.Marcelo Tsuji, Newton C. A. Da Costa & Francisco A. Doria - 1998 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 27 (6):553 - 568.
    We first state a few previously obtained results that lead to general undecidability and incompleteness theorems in axiomatized theories that range from the theory of finite sets to classical elementary analysis. Out of those results we prove several incompleteness theorems for axiomatic versions of the theory of noncooperative games with Nash equilibria; in particular, we show the existence of finite games whose equilibria cannot be proven to be computable.
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  24.  34
    Multimodal Incompleteness Under Weak Negations.Juliana Bueno-Soler - 2013 - Logica Universalis 7 (1):21-31.
    This paper shows that some classes of multimodal paraconsistent logics endowed with weak forms of negation are incompletable with respect to Kripke semantics. The reach of such incompleteness is discussed, and we argue that this shortcoming, more than just a logical predicament, may be relevant for attempts to characterize quantum logics and to handle quantum information and quantum computation.
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  25.  48
    Arithmetic and Logic Incompleteness: The Link.Laureano Luna & Alex Blum - 2008 - The Reasoner 2 (3):6.
    We show how second order logic incompleteness follows from incompleteness of arithmetic, as proved by Gödel.
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  26.  15
    Incompleteness and Fixed Points.Lorenzo Sacchetti - 2002 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 48 (1):15-28.
    Our purpose is to present some connections between modal incompleteness andmodal logics related to the Gödel-Löb logic GL. One of our goals is to prove that for all m, n, k, l ∈ ℕ the logic K + equation image□i □jp ↔ p) → equation image□ip is incomplete and does not have the fixed point property. As a consequence we shall obtain that the Boolos logic KH does not have the fixed point property.
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  27. Proof of the Incompleteness of Deductive Logic.John-Michael Kuczynski - 2016 - Amazon Digital Services LLC.
    This short work proves the incompleteness of deductive logic. In other words, it proves that there is no recursive definition of K, where K is the class of all systems of logic.
     
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  28. Incompleteness and Computability. An Open Introduction to Gödel's Theorems.Richard Zach - 2019
    Textbook on Gödel’s incompleteness theorems and computability theory, based on the Open Logic Project. Covers recursive function theory, arithmetization of syntax, the first and second incompleteness theorem, models of arithmetic, second-order logic, and the lambda calculus.
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  29. Interactivity, Fictionality, and Incompleteness.Nathan Wildman & Richard Woodward - forthcoming - In Grant Tavinor & Jon Robson (eds.), The Aesthetics of Videogames. Routledge.
  30. Can Gödel's Incompleteness Theorem Be a Ground for Dialetheism?Seungrak Choi - 2017 - Korean Journal of Logic 20 (2):241-271.
    Dialetheism is the view that there exists a true contradiction. This paper ventures to suggest that Priest’s argument for Dialetheism from Gödel’s theorem is unconvincing as the lesson of Gödel’s proof (or Rosser’s proof) is that any sufficiently strong theories of arithmetic cannot be both complete and consistent. In addition, a contradiction is derivable in Priest’s inconsistent and complete arithmetic. An alternative argument for Dialetheism is given by applying Gödel sentence to the inconsistent and complete theory of arithmetic. We argue, (...)
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  31. On an Alleged Refutation of Hilbert's Program Using Gödel's First Incompleteness Theorem.Michael Detlefsen - 1990 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 19 (4):343 - 377.
    It is argued that an instrumentalist notion of proof such as that represented in Hilbert's viewpoint is not obligated to satisfy the conservation condition that is generally regarded as a constraint on Hilbert's Program. A more reasonable soundness condition is then considered and shown not to be counter-exemplified by Godel's First Theorem. Finally, attention is given to the question of what a theory is; whether it should be seen as a "list" or corpus of beliefs, or as a method for (...)
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  32.  52
    Wittgenstein on Gödelian 'Incompleteness', Proofs and Mathematical Practice: Reading Remarks on the Foundations of Mathematics, Part I, Appendix III, Carefully.Wolfgang Kienzler & Sebastian Sunday Grève - 2016 - In Sebastian Sunday Grève & Jakub Mácha (eds.), Wittgenstein and the Creativity of Language. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 76-116.
    We argue that Wittgenstein’s philosophical perspective on Gödel’s most famous theorem is even more radical than has commonly been assumed. Wittgenstein shows in detail that there is no way that the Gödelian construct of a string of signs could be assigned a useful function within (ordinary) mathematics. — The focus is on Appendix III to Part I of Remarks on the Foundations of Mathematics. The present reading highlights the exceptional importance of this particular set of remarks and, more specifically, emphasises (...)
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  33.  92
    On Alleged Refutations of Mechanism Using Godel's Incompleteness Results.Charles S. Chihara - 1972 - Journal of Philosophy 69 (September):507-26.
  34. Computational Complexity and Godel's Incompleteness Theorem.Gregory J. Chaitin - 1970 - [Rio De Janeiro, Centro Técnico Científico, Pontifícia Universidade Católica Do Rio De Janeiro.
  35.  11
    On the Incompleteness of a Descending Chain of Extensions of Implicational S5.Dolph Ulrich - 1992 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 38 (1):321-323.
    C5.ω is obtained by adding, schematically, to the strict-implicational fragment C5 of S5 the axiom → ) → . This paper presents a fully general proof that neither C5.ω nor any of a descending chain of its extensions is complete with respect to any class of frames, correcting the garbled details of a version skeched in an earlier paper , 201-208).
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  36. The Incompleteness Theorems.H. P. Barendregt - 1976 - Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht, Mathematisch Instituut.
     
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  37.  14
    A Note on the First Incompleteness Theorem.Katsumasa Ishii - 2003 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 49 (2):214-216.
    Let T be an extension of Robinson's arithmetic Q. Then T is incomplete even if the set of the Gödel numbers of all axioms of T is ∑2.
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  38.  12
    Consistency, Mechanicalness and Incompleteness.Qiuen Yu - unknown
    Submitted to the Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts, Department of Philosophy.
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  39.  18
    Gödel’s Second Incompleteness Theorem: How It is Derived and What It Delivers.Saeed Salehi - forthcoming - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic:1-15.
    The proofs of G¨odel (1931), Rosser (1936), Kleene (first 1936 and second 1950), Chaitin (1970), and Boolos (1989) for the first incompleteness theorem are compared with each other, especially from the viewpoint of the second incompleteness theorem. It is shown that G¨odel’s (first incompleteness theorem) and Kleene’s first theorems are equivalent with the second incompleteness theorem, Rosser’s and Kleene’s second theorems do deliver the second incompleteness theorem, and Boolos’ theorem is derived from the second (...) theorem in the standard way. It is also shown that none of Rosser’s, Kleene’s second or Boolos’ theorems is equivalent with the second incompleteness theorem, and Chaitin’s incompleteness theorem neither delivers nor is derived from the second incompleteness theorem. We compare (the strength of) these six proofs with one another. (shrink)
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  40. What Godel's Incompleteness Result Does and Does Not Show.Haim Gaifman - 2000 - Journal of Philosophy 97 (8):462.
    In a recent paper S. McCall adds another link to a chain of attempts to enlist Gödel’s incompleteness result as an argument for the thesis that human reasoning cannot be construed as being carried out by a computer.1 McCall’s paper is undermined by a technical oversight. My concern however is not with the technical point. The argument from Gödel’s result to the no-computer thesis can be made without following McCall’s route; it is then straighter and more forceful. Yet the (...)
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  41. Incompleteness and Inconsistency.Stewart Shapiro - 2002 - Mind 111 (444):817-832.
    Graham Priest's In Contradiction (Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1987, chapter 3) contains an argument concerning the intuitive, or ‘naïve’ notion of (arithmetic) proof, or provability. He argues that the intuitively provable arithmetic sentences constitute a recursively enumerable set, which has a Gödel sentence which is itself intuitively provable. The incompleteness theorem does not apply, since the set of provable arithmetic sentences is not consistent. The purpose of this article is to sharpen Priest's argument, avoiding reference to informal notions, consensus, (...)
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  42. Has the Problem of Incompleteness Rested on a Mistake?Ray Buchanan & Gary Ostertag - 2005 - Mind 114 (456):889-913.
    A common objection to Russell's theory of descriptions concerns incomplete definite descriptions: uses of (for example) ‘the book is overdue’ in contexts where there is clearly more than one book. Many contemporary Russellians hold that such utterances will invariably convey a contextually determined complete proposition, for example, that the book in your briefcase is overdue. But according to the objection this gets things wrong: typically, when a speaker utters such a sentence, no facts about the context or the speaker's communicative (...)
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  43. Fictionalism and Incompleteness.Richard Woodward - 2012 - Noûs 46 (4):781-790.
    The modal fictionalist faces a problem due to the fact that her chosen story seems to be incomplete—certain things are neither fictionally true nor fictionally false. The significance of this problem is not localized to modal fictionalism, however, since many fictionalists will face it too. By examining how the fictionalist should analyze the notion of truth according to her story, and, in particular, the role that conditionals play for the fictionalist, I develop a novel and elegant solution to the (...) problem. (shrink)
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  44.  87
    Gödel's Incompleteness Theorems.Panu Raatikainen - 2013 - The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2013 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (Ed.).
    Gödel's two incompleteness theorems are among the most important results in modern logic, and have deep implications for various issues. They concern the limits of provability in formal axiomatic theories. The first incompleteness theorem states that in any consistent formal system F within which a certain amount of arithmetic can be carried out, there are statements of the language of F which can neither be proved nor disproved in F. According to the second incompleteness theorem, such a (...)
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  45.  77
    Facing the Incompleteness of Epistemic Trust: Managing Dependence in Scientific Practice.Susann Wagenknecht - 2015 - Social Epistemology 29 (2):160-184.
    Based on an empirical study of a research team in natural science, the author argues that collaborating scientists do not trust each other completely. Due to the inherent incompleteness of trust, epistemic trust among scientists is not sufficient to manage epistemic dependency in research teams. To mitigate the limitations of epistemic trust, scientists resort to specific strategies of indirect assessment such as dialoguing practices and the probing of explanatory responsiveness. Furthermore, they rely upon impersonal trust and deploy practices of (...)
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  46. A Universal Approach to Self-Referential Paradoxes, Incompleteness and Fixed Points.Noson S. Yanofsky - 2003 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 9 (3):362-386.
    Following F. William Lawvere, we show that many self-referential paradoxes, incompleteness theorems and fixed point theorems fall out of the same simple scheme. We demonstrate these similarities by showing how this simple scheme encompasses the semantic paradoxes, and how they arise as diagonal arguments and fixed point theorems in logic, computability theory, complexity theory and formal language theory.
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  47. Gödel's Incompleteness Theorems.Raymond M. Smullyan - 1992 - Oxford University Press.
    Kurt Godel, the greatest logician of our time, startled the world of mathematics in 1931 with his Theorem of Undecidability, which showed that some statements in mathematics are inherently "undecidable." His work on the completeness of logic, the incompleteness of number theory, and the consistency of the axiom of choice and the continuum theory brought him further worldwide fame. In this introductory volume, Raymond Smullyan, himself a well-known logician, guides the reader through the fascinating world of Godel's incompleteness (...)
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  48. Screening-Off and Causal Incompleteness: A No-Go Theorem.E. Sober & M. Steel - 2013 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 64 (3):513-550.
    We begin by considering two principles, each having the form causal completeness ergo screening-off. The first concerns a common cause of two or more effects; the second describes an intermediate link in a causal chain. They are logically independent of each other, each is independent of Reichenbach's principle of the common cause, and each is a consequence of the causal Markov condition. Simple examples show that causal incompleteness means that screening-off may fail to obtain. We derive a stronger result: (...)
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  49.  68
    Between Vienna and Berlin: The Immediate Reception of Godel's Incompleteness Theorems.Paolo Mancosu - 1999 - History and Philosophy of Logic 20 (1):33-45.
    What were the earliest reactions to Gödel's incompleteness theorems? After a brief summary of previous work in this area I analyse, by means of unpublished archival material, the first reactions in Vienna and Berlin to Gödel's groundbreaking results. In particular, I look at how Carnap, Hempel, von Neumann, Kaufmann, and Chwistek, among others, dealt with the new results.
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  50. Existentially Closed Structures and Gödel's Second Incompleteness Theorem.Zofia Adamowicz & Teresa Bigorajska - 2001 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 66 (1):349-356.
    We prove that any 1-closed (see def 1.1) model of the Π 2 consequences of PA satisfies ¬Cons PA which gives a proof of the second Godel incompleteness theorem without the use of the Godel diagonal lemma. We prove a few other theorems by the same method.
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