Results for 'just war'

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  1. Just War and Robots’ Killings.Thomas W. Simpson & Vincent C. Müller - 2016 - Philosophical Quarterly 66 (263):302-22.
    May lethal autonomous weapons systems—‘killer robots ’—be used in war? The majority of writers argue against their use, and those who have argued in favour have done so on a consequentialist basis. We defend the moral permissibility of killer robots, but on the basis of the non-aggregative structure of right assumed by Just War theory. This is necessary because the most important argument against killer robots, the responsibility trilemma proposed by Rob Sparrow, makes the same assumptions. We show that (...)
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  2. Just War Theory, Legitimate Authority, and Irregular Belligerency.Jonathan Parry - 2015 - Philosophia 43 (1):175-196.
    Since its earliest incarnations, just war theory has included the requirement that war must be initiated and waged by a legitimate authority. However, while recent years have witnessed a remarkable resurgence in interest in just war theory, the authority criterion is largely absent from contemporary discussions. In this paper I aim to show that this is an oversight worth rectifying, by arguing that the authority criterion plays a much more important role within just war theorising than is (...)
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  3. Just Wars: From Cicero to Iraq.Alex J. Bellamy - 2006 - Polity Press.
    In what circumstances is it legitimate to use force? How should force be used? These are two of the most crucial questions confronting world politics today. The Just War tradition provides a set of criteria which political leaders and soldiers use to defend and rationalize war. This book explores the evolution of thinking about just wars and examines its role in shaping contemporary judgements about the use of force, from grand strategic issues of whether states have a right (...)
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  4. Just War Theory: Revisionists Vs Traditionalists.Seth Lazar - 2017 - Annual Review of Political Science 20:37-54.
    Contemporary just war theory is divided into two broad camps: revisionists and traditionalists. Traditionalists seek to provide moral foundations for something close to current international law, and in particular the laws of armed conflict. Although they propose improvements, they do so cautiously. Revisionists argue that international law is at best a pragmatic fiction—it lacks deeper moral foundations. In this article, I present the contemporary history of analytical just war theory, from the origins of contemporary traditionalist just war (...)
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  5.  13
    Is Just War Possible?Christopher Finlay - 2018 - Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.
    The idea that war is sometimes justified is deeply embedded in public consciousness. But it is only credible so long as we believe that the ethical standards of just war are in fact realizable in practice. In this engaging book, Christopher Finlay elucidates the assumptions underlying just war theory and defends them from a range of objections, arguing that it is a regrettable but necessary reflection of the moral realities of international politics. Using a range of historical and (...)
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  6. Just War: Principles and Cases.Richard J. Regan - 2013 - Catholic University of America Press.
  7. Pacifism, Just War, and Self-Defense.Cheyney Ryan - 2013 - Philosophia 41 (4):1-29.
    This essay distinguishes two main forms of pacifism, personal pacifism and political pacifism. It then contrasts the views on self-defense of political pacifism and just war theory, paying special attention to notions of the state and sovereignty.
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  8.  20
    The Just War: Force and Political Responsibility.Paul Ramsey & Stanley Hauerwas - 1991 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    With a new foreword by noted theologian and ethicist Stanley Hauerwas, this classic text on war and the ethics of modern statecraft written at the height of the Vietnam era in 1968 speaks to a new generation of readers. Characterized by a sophisticated yet back-to-basics approach, The Just War begins with the assumption that force is a fact in political life which must either be reckoned with or succumbed to. It then grapples with modern challenges to traditional moral principles (...)
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  9.  83
    The Just War and the Gulf War.Jeff Mcmahan & Robert Mckim - 1993 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 23 (4):501 - 541.
    Discussions of the morality of the Gulf War have tended to embrace the traditional theory of the just war uncritically and to apply its tenets in a mechanical and unimaginative fashion. We believe, by contrast, that careful reflection of the Gulf War reveals that certain principles of the traditional theory are oversimplifications that require considerable refinement. Our aims, therefore, are both practical and theoretical. We hope to contribute to a better understanding of the ethics both of war in general (...)
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  10. Just War Theory and the Privatization of Military Force.James Pattison - 2008 - Ethics and International Affairs 22 (2):143–162.
    Private military companies are taking over a growing number of roles traditionally performed by the regular military. This article uses the framework of just war theory to consider the central normative issues raised by this privatization of military force.
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  11. Just War and Human Rights.David Luban - 1980 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 9 (2):160-181.
  12.  50
    The Just War Theory and the Ethical Governance of Research.Ineke Malsch - 2013 - Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (2):461-486.
    This article analyses current trends in and future expectations of nanotechnology and other key enabling technologies for security as well as dual use nanotechnology from the perspective of the ethical Just War Theory (JWT), interpreted as an instrument to increase the threshold for using armed force for solving conflicts. The aim is to investigate the relevance of the JWT to the ethical governance of research. The analysis gives rise to the following results. From the perspective of the JWT, military (...)
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  13.  77
    Beyond Just War: A Virtue Ethics Approach.David K. Chan - 2012 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
    Are today’s wars different from earlier wars? Or do we need a different ethics for old and new wars alike? Unlike most books on the morality of war, this book rejects the ‘just war’ tradition, proposing a virtue ethics of war to take its place. Like torture, war cannot be justified. This book asks and answers the question: “If war is a very great evil, would a leader with courage, justice, compassion, and all the other moral virtues ever choose (...)
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  14.  32
    Just War Theory.Jean Bethke Elshtain (ed.) - 1992 - New York University Press.
    Available Again! Long before the "shock and awe" campaign against Iraq in March 2003, debates swarmed around the justifications of the U.S.-led war to depose Saddam Hussein. While George W. Bush's administration declared a just war of necessity, opponents charged that it was a war of choice, and even opportunism. Behind the rhetoric lie vital questions: when is war just, and what means are acceptable even in the course of a just war? Originally published in 1991, in (...)
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  15.  12
    Just War and Unjust Soldiers: American Public Opinion on the Moral Equality of Combatants.Scott D. Sagan & Benjamin A. Valentino - 2019 - Ethics and International Affairs 33 (4):411-444.
    Traditional just war doctrine holds that political leaders are morally responsible for the decision to initiate war, while individual soldiers should be judged solely by their conduct in war. According to this view, soldiers fighting in an unjust war of aggression and soldiers on the opposing side seeking to defend their country are morally equal as long as each obeys the rules of combat. Revisionist scholars, however, maintain that soldiers who fight for an unjust cause bear at least some (...)
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  16.  13
    Just War, Cyber War, and the Concept of Violence.Christopher Finlay - 2018 - Philosophy and Technology 31 (3):357-377.
    Recent debate on the relationship between cyber threats, on the one hand, and both strategy and ethics on the other focus on the extent to which ‘cyber war’ is possible, both as a conceptual question and an empirical one. Whether it can is an important question for just war theorists. From this perspective, it is necessary to evaluate cyber measures both as a means of responding to threats and as a possible just cause for using armed kinetic force. (...)
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  17. Just War, Cyber War, and the Concept of Violence.Christopher Finlay - 2018 - Philosophy and Technology 31 (3):357-377.
    Recent debate on the relationship between cyber threats, on the one hand, and both strategy and ethics on the other focus on the extent to which ‘cyber war’ is possible, both as a conceptual question and an empirical one. Whether it can is an important question for just war theorists. From this perspective, it is necessary to evaluate cyber measures both as a means of responding to threats and as a possible just cause for using armed kinetic force. (...)
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  18.  52
    Just War and the Supreme Emergency Exemption.Christopher Toner - 2005 - Philosophical Quarterly 55 (221):545-561.
    Recently a number of liberal political theorists, including Rawls and Walzer, have argued for a 'supreme emergency exemption' from the traditional just war principle of discrimination which absolutely prohibits direct attacks against innocent civilians, claiming that a political community threatened with destruction may deliberately target innocents in order to save itself. I argue that this 'supreme emergency exemption' implies that individuals too may kill innocents in supreme emergencies. This is a significant theoretical cost. While it will not constitute a (...)
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  19.  81
    Just War Theories Reconsidered: Problems with Prima Facie Duties and the Need for a Political Ethic.Helmut David Baer & Joseph E. Capizzi - 2005 - Journal of Religious Ethics 33 (1):119-137.
    This essay challenges a "meta-theory" in just war analysis that purports to bridge the divide between just war and pacifism. According to the meta-theory, just war and pacifism share a common presumption against killing that can be overridden only under conditions stipulated by the just war criteria. Proponents of this meta-theory purport that their interpretation leads to ecumenical consensus between "just warriors" and pacifists, and makes the just war theory more effective in reducing recourse (...)
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  20. Just War and International Order: The Uncivil Condition in World Politics.Nicholas Rengger - 2013 - Cambridge University Press.
    At the opening of the twenty-first century, while obviously the world is still struggling with violence and conflict, many commentators argue that there are many reasons for supposing that restrictions on the use of force are growing. The establishment of the International Criminal Court, the growing sophistication of international humanitarian law and the 'rebirth' of the just war tradition over the last fifty years are all taken as signs of this trend. This book argues that, on the contrary, the (...)
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  21. Proportionality, Just War Theory and Weapons Innovation.John Forge - 2009 - Science and Engineering Ethics 15 (1):25-38.
    Just wars are supposed to be proportional responses to aggression: the costs of war must not greatly exceed the benefits. This proportionality principle raises a corresponding ‘interpretation problem’: what are the costs and benefits of war, how are they to be determined, and a ‘measurement problem’: how are costs and benefits to be balanced? And it raises a problem about scope: how far into the future do the states of affairs to be measured stretch? It is argued here that (...)
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  22.  90
    Just War, Jihad, and the Study of Comparative Ethics.John Kelsay - 2010 - Ethics and International Affairs 24 (3):227-238.
    What can the study of the comparative ethics tell us about the similarities and divergences between the just war and jihad traditions? How can the discipline help locate shared concerns, identify persistent differences, and reveal common narratives?
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  23. Just War and the Problem of Evil.Robin May Schott - 2008 - Hypatia 23 (2):pp. 122-140.
    In this essay, Robin May Schott criticizes leading proponents of just war theory and introduces the notion of justifiable but illegitimate violence. Instead of legitimating some wars as just, it is better to acknowledge that both the situation of war and moral judgments about war are ambiguous. Schott raises the questions: What are alternative narratives of war? And what are alternative narratives to war? Such narratives are necessary for addressing the concepts of evil and of witnessing in the (...)
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  24.  18
    Just War and the Problem of Evil.Robin May Schott - 2008 - Hypatia 23 (2):122-140.
    In this essay, Robin May Schott criticizes leading proponents of just war theory and introduces the notion of justifiable but illegitimate violence. Instead of legitimating some wars as just, it is better to acknowledge that both the situation of war and moral judgments about war are ambiguous. Schott raises the questions: What are alternative narratives of war? And what are alternative narratives to war? Such narratives are necessary for addressing the concepts of evil and of witnessing in the (...)
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  25. The Just War Idea: The State of the Question.James Turner Johnson - 2006 - Social Philosophy and Policy 23 (1):167-195.
    This essay explores the idea of just war in two ways. Part I outlines the formation, early development, and substantive content of just war tradition in its classic form, sketches the subsequent development of this idea in the modern period, and examines three benchmarks in the recovery of just war thinking in American thought over the last four decades. Part II identifies and critiques several prominent themes in contemporary just war discourse, testing them against the context, (...)
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  26. The Logical Structure of Just War Theory.Christopher Toner - 2010 - The Journal of Ethics 14 (2):81-102.
    A survey of just war theory literature reveals the existence of quite different lists of principles. This apparent arbitrariness raises a number of questions: What is the relation between ad bellum and in bello principles? Why are there so many of the former and so few of the latter? What order is there among the various principles? To answer these questions, I first draw on some recent work by Jeff McMahan to show that ad bellum and in bello principles (...)
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  27.  2
    Reimagining Just War as Anchored in, Tethered to, and Tempered by Mercy.Tobias Winright - 2020 - Journal of Religious Ethics 48 (3):436-457.
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  28.  4
    The Just War: Force and Political Responsibility.Paul Ramsey - 1983 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    In the wake of Operation Desert Storm, the question of 'just war' has become a hotly contested issue, and this classic text on war and the ethics of modern statecraft written at the height of the Vietnam era in 1968 speaks to a new generation of readers. In defending just war against Christian pacifism, Ramsey joins a line of theological reasoning that traces its antecedents to Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas. Ramsey argues that decisions regarding war must (...)
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  29.  23
    Just War Moralities.Gabriel Palmer-Fernández - 2017 - Journal of Religious Ethics 45 (3):580-605.
    This essay discusses four recent books on the Western, and one book on the classical Chinese, traditions of just war. It concentrates on the jus ad bellum moral criteria, giving attention to the centrality of the state in just war morality, to some challenges in reconceptualizing the jus ad bellum in the context of non-state agents, and to controversies over a “presumption against war.”.
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  30. The Just War Revisited.Oliver O'Donovan - 2003 - Cambridge University Press.
    Leading political theologian Oliver O'Donovan here takes a fresh look at some traditional moral arguments about war. Modern Christians differ widely on this issue. A few hold that absolute pacifism is the only viable Christian position, others subscribe in various ways to concepts of 'just war' developed out of a Western tradition that arose from the legacies of Augustine and Aquinas, while others still adopt more pragmatically realist postures. Professor O'Donovan re-examines questions of contemporary urgency including the use of (...)
     
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  31.  4
    The Just War and The Gulf War.Jeff Mcmahan & Robert Mckim - 1993 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 23 (4):501-541.
    Discussions of the morality of the Gulf War have tended to embrace the traditional theory of the just war uncritically and to apply its tenets in a mechanical and unimaginative fashion. We believe, by contrast, that careful reflection of the Gulf War reveals that certain principles of the traditional theory are oversimplifications that require considerable refinement. Our aims, therefore, are both practical and theoretical. We hope to contribute to a better understanding of the ethics both of war in general (...)
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  32.  40
    Just War, Regular War, and Perpetual Peace.Arthur Ripstein - 2016 - Kant-Studien 107 (1):179-195.
    Name der Zeitschrift: Kant-Studien Jahrgang: 107 Heft: 1 Seiten: 179-195.
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  33.  46
    Just War Theory in Comparative Perspective: A Review Essay. [REVIEW]Simeon O. Ilesanmi - 2000 - Journal of Religious Ethics 28 (1):137 - 155.
    The late twentieth century has provided both reasons and occasions for reassessing just war theory as an organizing framework for the moral analysis of war. Books by G. Scott Davis, James T. Johnson, and John Kelsay, together with essays by Jeffrey Stout, Charles Butterworth, David Little, Bruce Lawrence, Courtney Campbell, and Tamara Sonn, signal a remarkable shift in war studies as they enlarge the cultural lens through which the interests and forces at play in political violence are identified and (...)
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  34.  8
    Contingent Pacifism: Revisiting Just War Theory.Larry May - 2015 - Cambridge University Press.
    In this, the first major philosophical study of contingent pacifism, Larry May offers a new account of pacifism from within the Just War tradition. Written in a non-technical style, the book features real-life examples from contemporary wars and applies a variety of approaches ranging from traditional pacifism and human rights to international law and conscientious objection. May considers a variety of thinkers and theories, including Hugo Grotius, Kant, Socrates, Seneca on restraint, Tertullian on moral purity, Erasmus's arguments against (...) war, and Hobbes's conception of public conscience. The guiding idea is that the possibility of a just war is conceded, but not at the current time or in the foreseeable future due to the nature of contemporary armed conflict and geopolitics - wars in the past are also unlikely to have been just wars. This volume will interest scholars and upper-level students of political philosophy, philosophy of law, and war studies. (shrink)
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  35.  19
    Just War Theory.Thom Brooks (ed.) - 2012 - Brill.
    Just War Theory raises some of the most pressing and important philosophical issues of our day. This book brings together some of the most important essays in this area written by leading scholars and offering significant contributions to how we understand just war theory.
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  36.  17
    Deliberating Just War.Kristopher Norris - 2015 - Journal of Religious Ethics 43 (1):178-184.
    This essay responds to James Turner Johnson's critiques of my argument in “‘Never Again War’: Recent Shifts in the Roman Catholic Just War Tradition and the Question of ‘Functional Pacifism.’” . It attends specifically to three of Johnson's objections and offers accounts of the meaning and use of the term “functional pacifism,” an understanding of classic just war thought as a tradition, and the concepts of peace and authority within just war and pacifist thought. It argues that (...)
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  37.  62
    Just War Theory: What Is It Good For?Shawn Kaplan - 2012 - Philosophy in the Contemporary World 19 (2):4-14.
    The usefulness of Just War Theory (JWT) has been called into question in recent years for two key reasons. First, military conflicts today less frequently fit the model traditionally assumed by JWT of interstate wars between regular armies. Second, there is a perception that JWT has lost its critical edge after its categories and principles have been co-opted by bellicose political leaders. This paper critically examines two responses to these concerns which shift the locus of responsibility for wars towards (...)
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  38. Just War and Regular War: Competing Paradigms.Gregory Reichberg - 2008 - In David Rodin & Henry Shue (eds.), Just and Unjust Warriors: The Moral and Legal Status of Soldiers. Oxford University Press. pp. 193--213.
     
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  39. Just War and Non-Combatants in the Private Military Industry.Paul Richard Daniels - 2015 - Journal of Military Ethics 14 (2):146-161.
    I argue that, according to Just War Theory, those who work as administrative personnel in the private military industry can be permissibly harmed while at work by enemy combatants. That is, for better or worse, a Just War theorist should consider all those who work as administrative personnel in the private military industry either: (i) individuals who may be permissibly restrained with lethal force while at work, or (ii) individuals who may be harmed by permissible attacks against their (...)
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  40.  53
    War Crimes and Just War.Larry May - 2007 - Cambridge University Press.
    Larry May argues that the best way to understand war crimes is as crimes against humanness rather than as violations of justice. He shows that in a deeply pluralistic world, we need to understand the rules of war as the collective responsibility of states that send their citizens into harm's way, as the embodiment of humanity, and as the chief way for soldiers to retain a sense of honour on the battlefield. Throughout, May demonstrates that the principle of humanness is (...)
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  41. Just War and the Question of Authority.Christian Nikolaus Braun - 2018 - Zeitschrift Für Ethik Und Moralphilosophie 1 (2):221-236.
    This article assesses the recently renewed interest in the just war criterion of sovereign authority from a Thomistic perspective. It contrasts the classical conceptualisation of authority as found in the work of St Thomas Aquinas with the argument made by today’s revisionist just war thinkers. The article points out that the two approaches start from fundamentally different units of moral analysis. While the Thomistic just war emphasises the common good of the political community revisionists advocate the perspective (...)
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  42. Just War Thinking: Morality and Pragmatism in the Struggle Against Contemporary Threats.Eric Patterson - 2007 - Lexington Books.
    Just War Thinking reconsiders the intersection between morality and pragmatics in foreign policy and modern warfare. The book argues that a political ethic of responsibility should motivate the contemporary application of military force by states in order to protect international security and human life, considering the challenges posed by today's new wars: targeted killing, humanitarian intervention, terrorism, jus post bellum, and the influences of public opinion and supranational institutions.
     
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  43.  35
    Just War Theory and the Last of Last Resort.Eamon Aloyo - 2015 - Ethics and International Affairs 29 (2):187-201.
  44. The Just War and Integrational Pacifism.Philip Smith - 2006 - In Barbara Bleisch & Jean-Daniel Strub (eds.), Pazifismus: Ideengeschichte, Theorie Und Praxis. Haupt. pp. 163.
    This article suggests that just war theory can benefit from ideas found in "integrational pacifism," a position that rejects war while endorsing the "violence of the magistrate." This position is often held by Quakers.
     
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  45. Preventive Wars, Just War Principles, and the United Nations.John W. Lango - 2005 - The Journal of Ethics 9 (1-2):247-268.
    This paper explores the question of whether the United Nations should engage in preventive military actions. Correlatively, it asks whether UN preventive military actions could satisfy just war principles. Rather than from the standpoint of the individual nation state, the ethics of preventive war is discussed from the standpoint of the UN. For the sake of brevity, only the legitimate authority, just cause, last resort, and proportionality principles are considered. Since there has been disagreement about the specific content (...)
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  46.  19
    Not Just War: Eisikovits on A Theory of Truces.Thom Brooks - 2017 - Journal of Global Ethics 13 (1):4-5.
    More work has gone into thinking about the philosophical justifications for starting a just war than bringing political violence to an end. The papers in this special section explore themes in Nir Eisikovits’s groundbreaking book A Theory of Truces and why truces deserve greater philosophical attention. This introduction briefly raises these issues and provides an overview of the papers.
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  47. Just War Theory.Alexander Moseley - 2004 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  48.  86
    Thomas Aquinas Between Just War and Pacifism.Gregory M. Reichberg - 2010 - Journal of Religious Ethics 38 (2):219-241.
    Some recent authors have argued that Aquinas deliberately integrated a pacifist outlook into his just war theory. Others, by contrast, have maintained that his rejection of pacifism was unequivocal. The present article attempts to set the historical record straight by an examination of Aquinas's writings on this topic. In addition to Q. 40, A. 1 of Summa theologiae II–II, the text usually cited in this connection, this article considers the biblical commentaries where Aquinas explains how the Gospel “precepts of (...)
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  49. Michael Walzer's Just War Theory: Some Issues of Responsibility. [REVIEW]Igor Primoratz - 2002 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 5 (2):221-243.
    In his widely influential statement of just war theory, Michael Walzer exempts conscripted soldiers from all responsibility for taking part in war, whether just or unjust (the thesis of the moral equality of soldiers). He endows the overwhelming majority of civilians with almost absolute immunity from military attack on the ground that they aren't responsible for the war their country is waging, whether just or unjust. I argue that Walzer is much too lenient on both soldiers and (...)
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  50.  72
    The Just War Tradition and its Modern Legacy: Jus Ad Bellum and Jus in Bello.David Boucher - 2012 - European Journal of Political Theory 11 (2):92-111.
    The relationship between jus ad bellum and jus in bello has been characterized differently throughout European history. There have been three main positions exemplified by Hugo Grotius, Samuel von Pufendorf and Emer de Vattel. They are, first, both the cause and the conduct of warfare must be just; second, the cause must be just, but the conduct of the war is unconstrained in order to achieve the goal of peace; and, third, we must assume justice on both sides, (...)
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