Results for 'laboratory organization'

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  1.  3
    The Social Organisation of a University Laboratory.Gerald M. Swatez - 1970 - Minerva 8 (1-4):36-58.
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  2.  8
    Unlocking the Secrets of Eukaryotic Nuclei. Functional Organization of the Nucleus: A Laboratory Guide . Edited by B. Hamkalo and S. R. Elgin. Academic Press, San Diego, Pp. 670. $95, Hc; $49.95 Pb. ISBN 012-321920. [REVIEW]Dean Jackson - 1992 - Bioessays 14 (8):577-578.
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  3.  3
    The Social Organisation of a University Laboratory.Robert S. Anderson - 1970 - Minerva 8 (1-4):297-299.
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  4.  13
    Prevalence and Type of Pre‐Analytical Problems for Inpatients Samples in Coagulation Laboratory.Gian L. Salvagno, Giuseppe Lippi, Antonella Bassi, Giovanni Poli & Gian C. Guidi - 2008 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 14 (2):351-353.
  5.  44
    Physics of Emergence and Organization.Ignazio Licata & Ammar Sakaji (eds.) - 2008 - World Scientific.
    This book is a state-of-the-art review on the Physics of Emergence. Foreword v Gregory J. Chaitin Preface vii Ignazio Licata Emergence and Computation at the Edge of Classical and Quantum Systems 1 Ignazio Licata Gauge Generalized Principle for Complex Systems 27 Germano Resconi Undoing Quantum Measurement: Novel Twists to the Physical Account of Time 61 Avshalom C. Elitzur and Shahar Dolev Process Physics: Quantum Theories as Models of Complexity 77 Kirsty Kitto A Cross-disciplinary Framework for the Description of Contextually Mediated (...)
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  6.  5
    The Role of the Applicant’s Moral Identity and the Firm’s Performance on the Ethical Signals/Organization Attraction Relationship.Sandra W. DeGrassi - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 158 (4):923-935.
    Both the organization and recruiter provide signals to candidates that ultimately affect organizational attraction. Ethics is an important area that communicates vital information to candidates. Drawing on social identity theory, signaling theory, and person–organization fit, this study finds that ethical signals during the recruitment process do affect applicant attraction. Additionally, two important moderators, self-importance of moral identity and firm performance were examined. Using a robust laboratory study, this research found results generally consistent with the hypothesized relationships.
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  7.  29
    Race and Laboratory Norms: The Critical Insights of Julian Herman Lewis.Christopher Crenner - 2014 - Isis 105 (3):477-507.
    The work of Julian Herman Lewis helps to expose the underlying racial organization of laboratory normality in early twentieth-century medicine. In the 1920s and 1930s, Lewis launched a critique of prevailing racial theory, as he established an academic career in pathology at the University of Chicago. As one of the small number of black research physicians at the time, Lewis met barriers to his work that eventually derailed his career. Although his research fell short of its goals, his (...)
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  8.  13
    The Role of the Applicant’s Moral Identity and the Firm’s Performance on the Ethical Signals/Organization Attraction Relationship.W. DeGrassi Sandra - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 158 (4):923-935.
    Both the organization and recruiter provide signals to candidates that ultimately affect organizational attraction. Ethics is an important area that communicates vital information to candidates. Drawing on social identity theory, signaling theory, and person–organization fit, this study finds that ethical signals during the recruitment process do affect applicant attraction. Additionally, two important moderators, self-importance of moral identity and firm performance were examined. Using a robust laboratory study, this research found results generally consistent with the hypothesized relationships.
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  9.  6
    The Effect of Dynamic Social Material Conditions on Cognition in the Biomedical Research Laboratory.Chris Goldsworthy - 2019 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 18 (1):241-257.
    The modern biomedical research laboratory is increasingly defined by dynamic social material conditions requiring researchers to traverse multiple shifting cognitive ecologies within day-to-day practice. Although the complexity of biomedical research is well known, the mechanisms by which the social and material organisation of this space is negotiated has yet to be fully considered. Integrating insights from Material Engagement Theory and Enactive Cognition with observations undertaken within a biomedical research laboratory, this paper develops an understanding of how actors are (...)
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  10.  10
    The Letter, the Dictionary and the Laboratory: Translating Chemistry and Mineralogy in Eighteenth-Century France.Patrice Bret - 2016 - Annals of Science 73 (2):122-142.
    SUMMARYEighteenth-century scientific translation was not just a linguistic or intellectual affair. It included numerous material aspects requiring a social organization to marshal the indispensable human and non-human actors. Paratexts and actors' correspondences provide a good observatory to get information about aspects such as shipments and routes, processes of translation and language acquisition, texts acquisition and dissemination.The nature of scientific translation changed in France during the second half of the eighteenth century. Beside solitary translators, it also happened to become a (...)
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  11.  17
    The Importance of Defining ‘Data’ in Data Management Policies: Commentary On: “Issues in Data Management”.Julie Richardson & Diane Hoffman-Kim - 2010 - Science and Engineering Ethics 16 (4):749-751.
    What comprises ‘data’ varies from one institution to another based on the information which is deemed important by individual institutions. To effectively and efficiently produce, collect, and retain data, an organization develops specific defining characteristics of data to meet its informational needs. Procedures to maintain and retain knowledge among laboratory members and principal investigators will allow for improved efficiency of data collection. Optimization of communication, maintenance of inventories, record keeping, and updating relevant training programs are all critical to (...)
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  12.  12
    Organisation des laboratoires de chimie à Paris sous le ministère Duruy : Cas des laboratoires de Fremy et de Wurtz1.Danielle Fauque - 2005 - Annals of Science 62 (4):501-531.
    Summary As soon as he was appointed Minister of Public Instruction in 1863, Victor Duruy embarked on a major reform of French education. One of his most important initiatives was the creation of a new secondary curriculum designed to prepare for careers in industry, trade, and agriculture. Edme Fremy, professor at the Muséum d'histoire naturelle, took the opportunity of proposing a course of instruction in practical chemistry that would be offered at the Muséum for young men intending to work in (...)
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  13.  57
    Responding to Allegations of Scientific Misconduct: The Procedure at the French National Medical and Health Research Institute.Jean-Philippe Breittmayer, Martine Bungener, Hugues De The, Evelyne Eschwege, Michel Fougereau, Gilles Guedj, Claude Kordon, Olivier Philippe, Maric-Catherine Postel-Vinay & Laurence Schaffar-Esterle - 2000 - Science and Engineering Ethics 6 (1):41-48.
    Institutions in France are not yet well prepared to respond to allegations of scientific misconduct. Following a serious allegation in late 1997. INSERM,* the primary organization for medical and health-related research in France, began to reflect on this subject, aided by scientists and jurists. The conclusions have resulted in establishing a procedure to be followed in cases of alleged misconduct, and also in reinforcing the application of good laboratory practices within each laboratory. Guidelines for authorship practices and (...)
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  14.  13
    Trajectories and Division of Labor in a Laboratory of Human Genetics.Mariana Toledo Ferreira - 2015 - Scientiae Studia 13 (4):899-927.
    RESUMO Este artigo discute a divisão do trabalho científico entre pesquisadores seniores e juniores em um centro de pesquisa brasileiro de genética humana e médica. Partindo do debate contemporâneo sobre a progressiva imbricação entre ciência e tecnologia - com progressiva fusão entre ambas, que evoca noções como a de tecnociência - é possível verificar, na subárea específica, velocidades crescentes na produção de dados, que pressionam os pesquisadores de maneiras distintas, seja pelo crescente custo das inovações tecnológicas, seja pela necessidade de (...)
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  15.  7
    A Statewide Evaluation of the California Medical Supervision Program Using Cholinesterase Electronic Laboratory Reporting Data.Laribi Ouahiba, Malig Brian, Sutherland-Ashley Katherine, Broadwin Rachel, Wieland Walker & Salocks Charles - 2017 - Inquiry: The Journal of Health Care Organization, Provision, and Financing 54:004695801770968.
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  16.  7
    When Organization Meets Emotions, Does the Socio-Relational Framework Fail?Frédéric Basso & Olivier Oullier - 2009 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (5):391-391.
    We suggest that the framework proposed by Vigil is useful in laboratory contexts but might come up short for in vivo social interactions. Emotions result from cost-benefits trade-offs but are not solely generated at the individual level to establish emotional social spheres. In organizational contexts, emotion expression can be a constitutive part of a professional activity, and observed sex differences might vanish.
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  17. Organisation des Laboratoires de Chimie À Paris Sous le Ministère Duruy (1863–1869): Cas des Laboratoires de Fremy Et de Wurtz1. [REVIEW]Danielle Fauque - 2005 - Annals of Science 62 (4):501-531.
    Summary As soon as he was appointed Minister of Public Instruction in 1863, Victor Duruy embarked on a major reform of French education. One of his most important initiatives was the creation of a new secondary curriculum designed to prepare for careers in industry, trade, and agriculture. Edme Fremy, professor at the Muséum d'histoire naturelle, took the opportunity of proposing a course of instruction in practical chemistry that would be offered at the Muséum for young men intending to work in (...)
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  18. What Makes Biological Organisation Teleological?Matteo Mossio & Leonardo Bich - 2017 - Synthese 194 (4):1089-1114.
    This paper argues that biological organisation can be legitimately conceived of as an intrinsically teleological causal regime. The core of the argument consists in establishing a connection between organisation and teleology through the concept of self-determination: biological organisation determines itself in the sense that the effects of its activity contribute to determine its own conditions of existence. We suggest that not any kind of circular regime realises self-determination, which should be specifically understood as self-constraint: in biological systems, in particular, self-constraint (...)
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  19. Consciousness as a Phenomenon in the Operational Architectonics of Brain Organization: Criticality and Self-Organization Considerations.Andrew A. Fingelkurts, Alexander A. Fingelkurts & Carlos F. H. Neves - 2013 - Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 55:13-31.
    In this paper we aim to show that phenomenal consciousness is realized by a particular level of brain operational organization and that understanding human consciousness requires a description of the laws of the immediately underlying neural collective phenomena, the nested hierarchy of electromagnetic fields of brain activity – operational architectonics. We argue that the subjective mental reality and the objective neurobiological reality, although seemingly worlds apart, are intimately connected along a unified metastable continuum and are both guided by the (...)
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  20. Levels of Organization: A Deflationary Account.Markus I. Eronen - 2015 - Biology and Philosophy 30 (1):39-58.
    The idea of levels of organization plays a central role in the philosophy of the life sciences. In this article, I first examine the explanatory goals that have motivated accounts of levels of organization. I then show that the most state-of-the-art and scientifically plausible account of levels of organization, the account of levels of mechanism proposed by Bechtel and Craver, is fundamentally problematic. Finally, I argue that the explanatory goals can be reached by adopting a deflationary approach, (...)
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  21.  85
    Ethical Context, Organizational Commitment, and Person-Organization Fit.Sean Valentine, Lynn Godkin & Margaret Lucero - 2002 - Journal of Business Ethics 41 (4):349 - 360.
    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationships among ethical context, organizational commitment, and person-organization fit using a sample of 304 young working adults. Results indicated that corporate ethical values signifying different cultural aspects of an ethical context were positively related to both organizational commitment and person-organization fit. Organizational commitment was also positively related to person-organization fit. The findings suggest that the development and promotion of an ethical context might enhance employees' workplace experiences, and companies (...)
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  22.  59
    The Positive Ethical Organization: Enacting a Living Code of Ethics and Ethical Organizational Identity.Amy Klemm Verbos, Joseph A. Gerard, Paul R. Forshey, Charles S. Harding & Janice S. Miller - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 76 (1):17-33.
    A vision of a living code of ethics is proposed to counter the emphasis on negative phenomena in the study of organizational ethics. The living code results from the harmonious interaction of authentic leadership, five key organizational processes (attraction–selection–attrition, socialization, reward systems, decision-making and organizational learning), and an ethical organizational culture (characterized by heightened levels of ethical awareness and a positive climate regarding ethics). The living code is the cognitive, affective, and behavioral manifestation of an ethical organizational identity. We draw (...)
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  23. Ethnographic Invention: Probing the Capacity of Laboratory Decisions. [REVIEW]Erik Fisher - 2007 - NanoEthics 1 (2):155-165.
    In an attempt to shape the development of nanotechnologies, ethics policy programs promote engagement in the hope of broadening the scope of considerations that scientists and engineers take into account. While enhancing the reflexivity of scientists theoretically implies changes in technoscientific practice, few empirical studies demonstrate such effects. To investigate the real-time effects on engineering research practices, a laboratory engagement study was undertaken to specify the interplay of technical and social considerations during the normal course of research. The study (...)
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  24.  32
    Modeling the Social Organization of Science: Chasing Complexity Through Simulations.Carlo Martini & Manuela Fernández Pinto - 2017 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 7 (2):221-238.
    At least since Kuhn’s Structure, philosophers have studied the influence of social factors in science’s pursuit of truth and knowledge. More recently, formal models and computer simulations have allowed philosophers of science and social epistemologists to dig deeper into the detailed dynamics of scientific research and experimentation, and to develop very seemingly realistic models of the social organization of science. These models purport to be predictive of the optimal allocations of factors, such as diversity of methods used in science, (...)
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  25.  39
    Moving and Sensing Without Input and Output: Early Nervous Systems and the Origins of the Animal Sensorimotor Organization.Fred Keijzer - 2015 - Biology and Philosophy 30 (3):311-331.
    It remains a standing problem how and why the first nervous systems evolved. Molecular and genomic information is now rapidly accumulating but the macroscopic organization and functioning of early nervous systems remains unclear. To explore potential evolutionary options, a coordination centered view is discussed that diverges from a standard input–output view on early nervous systems. The scenario involved, the skin brain thesis, stresses the need to coordinate muscle-based motility at a very early stage. This paper addresses how this scenario (...)
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  26. On Emergence, Agency, and Organization.Stuart Kauffman & Philip Clayton - 2006 - Biology and Philosophy 21 (4):501-521.
    Ultimately we will only understand biological agency when we have developed a theory of the organization of biological processes, and science is still a long way from attaining that goal. It may be possible nonetheless to develop a list of necessary conditions for the emergence of minimal biological agency. The authors offer a model of molecular autonomous agents which meets the five minimal physical conditions that are necessary (and, we believe, conjointly sufficient) for applying agential language in biology: autocatalytic (...)
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  27.  28
    Ethical Culture, Ethical Intent, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Moderating and Mediating Role of Person–Organization Fit.Pablo Ruiz-Palomino & Ricardo Martínez-Cañas - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 120 (1):95-108.
    A multidimensional measure of ethical culture was examined for its relationship to person–organization fit, ethical intent and organizational citizenship behavior, using a sample of 525 employees from the financial industry in Spain. As hypothesized, relative to studies using unidimensional assessments, our measure of EC was more strongly related to ethical intent and organizational citizenship. Also, significant differences were found in the degree to which each the EC dimensions related to both ethical intent and OCB. Finally, in a first for (...)
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  28.  59
    Business–Community Partnerships: The Case for Community Organization Capacity Building. [REVIEW]Jehan Loza - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 53 (3):297-311.
    Globalization processes have resulted in greater complexity, interdependence and limited resources. Consequently, no one sector can effectively respond to today's business or wider challenges and opportunities. Non-government organizations and corporations are increasingly engaging each other in recognition that shareholder and societal value are intrinsically linked. For both sectors, these partnerships can create an enabling environment to address social issues and can generate social capital. Located in the Australian context, this paper explores the dimensions of community organization capacity building as (...)
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  29.  83
    Laboratory Models, Causal Explanation and Group Selection.James R. Griesemer & Michael J. Wade - 1988 - Biology and Philosophy 3 (1):67-96.
    We develop an account of laboratory models, which have been central to the group selection controversy. We compare arguments for group selection in nature with Darwin's arguments for natural selection to argue that laboratory models provide important grounds for causal claims about selection. Biologists get information about causes and cause-effect relationships in the laboratory because of the special role their own causal agency plays there. They can also get information about patterns of effects and antecedent conditions in (...)
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  30.  50
    Exploratory Experimentation and Scientific Practice: Metagenomics and the Proteorhodopsin Case.Maureen O'Malley - 2007 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 29 (3):337 - 360.
    Exploratory experimentation and high-throughput molecular biology appear to have considerable affinity for each other. Included in the latter category is metagenomics, which is the DNA-based study of diverse microbial communities from a vast range of non-laboratory environments. Metagenomics has already made numerous discoveries and these have led to reinterpretations of fundamental concepts of microbial organization, evolution, and ecology. The most outstanding success story of metagenomics to date involves the discovery of a rhodopsin gene, named proteorhodopsin, in marine bacteria (...)
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  31.  73
    The Application of Stakeholder Theory to Relationship Marketing Strategy Development in a Non-Profit Organization.Simon Knox & Colin Gruar - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 75 (2):115-135.
    Non-profit (NP) organizations present complex challenges in managing stakeholder relationships, particularly during times of environmental change. This places a premium on knowing which stakeholders really matter if an effective relationship marketing strategy is to be developed. This article presents the successful application of a model, which combines Mitchell’s theory of stakeholder saliency and Coviello’s framework of contemporary marketing practices in a leading NP organization in the U.K. A cooperative enquiry approach is used to explore stakeholder relationships, dominant marketing practices, (...)
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  32. Effects of Saturation and Contrast Polarity on the Figure-Ground Organization of Color on Gray.Birgitta Dresp-Langley & Adam Reeves - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5:1-9.
    Poorly saturated colors are closer to a pure grey than strongly saturated ones and, therefore, appear less “colorful”. Color saturation is effectively manipulated in the visual arts for balancing conflicting sensations and moods and for inducing the perception of relative distance in the pictorial plane. While perceptual science has proven quite clearly that the luminance contrast of any hue acts as a self-sufficient cue to relative depth in visual images, the role of color saturation in such figure-ground organization has (...)
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  33. Complex Emergence and the Living Organization: An Epistemological Framework for Biology.Leonardo Bich - 2012 - Synthese 185 (2):215-232.
    In this article an epistemological framework is proposed in order to integrate the emergentist thought with systemic studies on biological autonomy, which are focused on the role of organization. Particular attention will be paid to the role of the observer’s activity, especially: (a) the different operations he performs in order to identify the pertinent elements at each descriptive level, and (b) the relationships between the different models he builds from them. According to the approach sustained here, organization will (...)
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  34.  5
    To Help My Supervisor: Identification, Moral Identity, and Unethical Pro-Supervisor Behavior.Elizabeth E. Umphress & Hana Huang Johnson - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 159 (2):519-534.
    Under some circumstances, individuals are willing to engage in unethical behaviors that benefit another entity. In this research we advance the unethical pro-organizational behavior construct by showing that individuals also have the potential to behave unethically to benefit their supervisors. Previous research has not examined if employees engage in unethical acts to benefit an entity that is separate from oneself and if they will conduct these acts to benefit a supervisor. Our research helps to address these gaps. We also demonstrate (...)
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  35. On What Makes Certain Dynamical Systems Cognitive: A Minimally Cognitive Organization Program.Xabier Barandiaran & Alvaro Moreno - 2006 - Adaptive Behavior 14:171-185..
    Dynamicism has provided cognitive science with important tools to understand some aspects of “how cognitive agents work” but the issue of “what makes something cognitive” has not been sufficiently addressed yet, and, we argue, the former will never be complete without the later. Behavioristic characterizations of cognitive properties are criticized in favor of an organizational approach focused on the internal dynamic relationships that constitute cognitive systems. A definition of cognition as adaptive-autonomy in the embodied and situated neurodynamic domain is provided: (...)
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  36.  45
    Understanding Organization as Process: Theory for a Tangled World.Tor Hernes - 2008 - Routledge.
    Organization in a tangled world -- Process views of organization -- Alfred North Whitehead on process -- Bruno Latour on relativizing the social, and the becoming of networks -- Niklas Luhmann on autopoiesis and recursiveness in social systems -- James March on decision processes and organization : a logic of streams -- Karl Weick on organizing and sensemaking -- A scheme for process based organizational analysis -- Some implications for organizational analysis.
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  37.  16
    To Help My Supervisor: Identification, Moral Identity, and Unethical Pro-Supervisor Behavior.Hana Huang Johnson & Elizabeth E. Umphress - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 159 (2):519-534.
    Under some circumstances, individuals are willing to engage in unethical behaviors that benefit another entity. In this research we advance the unethical pro-organizational behavior construct by showing that individuals also have the potential to behave unethically to benefit their supervisors. Previous research has not examined if employees engage in unethical acts to benefit an entity that is separate from oneself and if they will conduct these acts to benefit a supervisor. Our research helps to address these gaps. We also demonstrate (...)
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  38. La montagne de Mann, le desert de Buzzati, le rivage de Gracq phénoménologie de trois espaces-temps littéraires.Hervé Vautrelle - 2008 - Studia Phaenomenologica 8:379-398.
    This article aims to establish that literature is an ideal laboratory for undertaking some phenomenological experimentations, even when not explicitly intended by the author. By considering three works that all tell the story of one man gone far away from his country and isolated in a mysterious, fascinating and closed place, we propose to study the complex relations that weave between space and time and between landscape and consciousness, and to deduce from it their phenomenological impact. We attempt to (...)
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  39.  63
    Eutopia: The Promise of Biotechnology and the Realignment of Western Axiality.Manussos Marangudakis - 2012 - Zygon 47 (1):97-117.
    Abstract. This essay discusses the deep perceptual and social changes that the advanced applications of biotechnology could bring in the West. It examines the probable collapse of a fundamental perceptual bipolarity on which the Western mind and social mobilization have been based since its inception in the West: Athens--Jerusalem. This collapse will quite possibly radically reshape Western perceptions of self and nature and will remodel established constellations and modes of social mobilization and social organization. The radical collapse of the (...)
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  40.  89
    Natural Selection and Self-Organization.Bruce H. Weber & David J. Depew - 1996 - Biology and Philosophy 11 (1):33-65.
    The Darwinian concept of natural selection was conceived within a set of Newtonian background assumptions about systems dynamics. Mendelian genetics at first did not sit well with the gradualist assumptions of the Darwinian theory. Eventually, however, Mendelism and Darwinism were fused by reformulating natural selection in statistical terms. This reflected a shift to a more probabilistic set of background assumptions based upon Boltzmannian systems dynamics. Recent developments in molecular genetics and paleontology have put pressure on Darwinism once again. Current work (...)
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  41.  44
    Topological Self‐Organization and Prediction Learning Support Both Action and Lexical Chains in the Brain.Fabian Chersi, Marcello Ferro, Giovanni Pezzulo & Vito Pirrelli - 2014 - Topics in Cognitive Science 6 (3):476-491.
    A growing body of evidence in cognitive psychology and neuroscience suggests a deep interconnection between sensory-motor and language systems in the brain. Based on recent neurophysiological findings on the anatomo-functional organization of the fronto-parietal network, we present a computational model showing that language processing may have reused or co-developed organizing principles, functionality, and learning mechanisms typical of premotor circuit. The proposed model combines principles of Hebbian topological self-organization and prediction learning. Trained on sequences of either motor or linguistic (...)
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  42.  17
    The Sigma Profile: A Formal Tool to Study Organization and its Evolution at Multiple Scales.Carlos Gershenson - 2011 - Complexity 16 (5):37-44.
    The σ profile is presented as a tool to analyze the organization of systems at different scales, and how this organization changes in time. Describing structures at different scales as goal‐oriented agents, one can define σ ∈ [0,1] (satisfaction) as the degree to which the goals of each agent at each scale have been met. σ reflects the organization degree at that scale. The σ profile of a system shows the satisfaction at different scales, with the possibility (...)
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  43. Foucault's Overlooked Organisation - Revisiting His Critical Works.Michela Betta - 2015 - Culture Theory and Critique:1-23.
    In this essay I propose a new reading of Michel Foucault’s main thesis about biopower and biopolitics. I argue that organisation represents the neglected key to Foucault’s new conceptualisation of power as something that is less political and more organisational. This unique contribution was lost even on his closest interlocutors. Foucault’s work on power had a strong influence on organisation and management theory but interestingly not for the reasons I am proposing. In fact, although theorists in management and organisation studies (...)
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  44.  18
    The Laboratory Technology of Discrete Molecular Separation: The Historical Development of Gel Electrophoresis and the Material Epistemology of Biomolecular Science, 1945–1970.Howard Hsueh-Hao Chiang - 2009 - Journal of the History of Biology 42 (3):495-527.
    Preparative and analytical methods developed by separation scientists have played an important role in the history of molecular biology. One such early method is gel electrophoresis, a technique that uses various types of gel as its supporting medium to separate charged molecules based on size and other properties. Historians of science, however, have only recently begun to pay closer attention to this material epistemological dimension of biomolecular science. This paper substantiates the historiographical thread that explores the relationship between modern (...) practice and the production of scientific knowledge. It traces the historical development of gel electrophoresis from the mid-1940s to the mid-1960s, with careful attention to the interplay between technical developments and disciplinary shifts, especially the rise of molecular biology in this time-frame. Claiming that the early 1950s marked a decisive shift in the evolution of electrophoretic methods from moving boundary to zone electrophoresis, I reconstruct various trajectories in which scientists such as Oliver Smithies sought out the most desirable solid supporting medium for electrophoretic instrumentation. Biomolecular knowledge, I argue, emerged in part from this process of seeking the most appropriate supporting medium that allowed for discrete molecular separation and visualization. The early 1950s, therefore, marked not only an important turning point in the history of separation science, but also a transformative moment in the history of the life sciences as the growth of molecular biology depended in part on the epistemological access to the molecular realm available through these evolving technologies. (shrink)
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  45.  13
    In Pursuit of Precision: The Calibration of Minds and Machines in Late Nineteenth-Century Psychology.Ruth Benschop & Douwe Draaisma - 2000 - Annals of Science 57 (1):1-25.
    A prominent feature of late nineteenth-century psychology was its intense preoccupation with precision. Precision was at once an ideal and an argument: the quest for precision helped psychology to establish its status as a mature science, sharing a characteristic concern with the natural sciences. We will analyse how psychologists set out to produce precision in 'mental chronometry', the measurement of the duration of psychological processes. In his Leipzig laboratory, Wundt inaugurated an elaborate research programme on mental chronometry. We will (...)
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  46.  34
    Emergence and Quantum Chemistry.Jean-Pierre Llored - 2012 - Foundations of Chemistry 14 (3):245-274.
    This paper first queries what type of concept of emergence, if any, could be connected with the different chemical activities subsumed under the label ‘quantum chemistry’. In line with Roald Hoffmann, we propose a ‘rotation to research laboratory’ in order to point out how practitioners hold a molecular whole, its parts, and the surroundings together within their various methods when exploring chemical transformation. We then identify some requisite contents that a concept of emergence must incorporate in order to be (...)
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  47.  5
    Representing in the Student Laboratory.Brandon Boesch - 2018 - Transversal: International Journal for the Historiography of Science 5:34-48.
    In this essay, I will expand the philosophical discussion about the representational practice in science to examine its role in science education through four case studies. The cases are of what I call ‘educational laboratory experiments’, performative models used representationally by students to come to a better understanding of theoretical knowledge of a scientific discipline. The studies help to demonstrate some idiosyncratic features of representational practices in science education, most importantly a lack of novelty and discovery built into the (...)
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    Conceptual Questions and Challenges Associated with the Traditional Risk Assessment Paradigm for Nanomaterials.Jutta Jahnel - 2015 - NanoEthics 9 (3):261-276.
    Risk assessment is an evidence-based analytical framework used to evaluate research findings related to environmental and public health decision-making. Different routines have been adopted for assessing the potential risks posed by substances and products to human health. In general, the traditional paradigm is a hazard-driven approach, based on a monocausal toxicological perspective. Questions have been raised about the applicability of the general chemical risk assessment approach in the specific case of nanomaterials. Most scientists and stakeholders assume that the current standard (...)
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    Camels, Cormorants, and Kangaroo Rats: Integration and Synthesis in Organismal Biology After World War II.Joel B. Hagen - 2015 - Journal of the History of Biology 48 (2):169-199.
    During the decades following World War II diverse groups of American biologists established a variety of distinctive approaches to organismal biology. Rhetorically, organismal biology could be used defensively to distinguish established research traditions from perceived threats from newly emerging fields such as molecular biology. But, organismal biologists were also interested in integrating biological disciplines and using a focus on organisms to synthesize levels of organization from molecules and cells to populations and communities. Part of this broad movement was the (...)
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  50. REVIEW: James R. Brown, Laboratory of the Mind. [REVIEW]Michael T. Stuart - 2012 - Spontaneous Generations 6 (1):237-241.
    Originally published in 1991, The Laboratory of the Mind: Thought Experiments in the Natural Sciences, is the first monograph to identify and address some of the many interesting questions that pertain to thought experiments. While the putative aim of the book is to explore the nature of thought experimental evidence, it has another important purpose which concerns the crucial role thought experiments play in Brown’s Platonic master argument.In that argument, Brown argues against naturalism and empiricism (Brown 2012), for mathematical (...)
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