Results for 'landscape'

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  1. Epistemic Landscapes, Optimal Search, and the Division of Cognitive Labor.Jason McKenzie Alexander, Johannes Himmelreich & Christopher Thompson - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (3):424-453,.
    This article examines two questions about scientists’ search for knowledge. First, which search strategies generate discoveries effectively? Second, is it advantageous to diversify search strategies? We argue pace Weisberg and Muldoon, “Epistemic Landscapes and the Division of Cognitive Labor”, that, on the first question, a search strategy that deliberately seeks novel research approaches need not be optimal. On the second question, we argue they have not shown epistemic reasons exist for the division of cognitive labor, identifying the errors that led (...)
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  2. Epistemic Landscapes and the Division of Cognitive Labor.Michael Weisberg & Ryan Muldoon - 2009 - Philosophy of Science 76 (2):225-252.
    Because of its complexity, contemporary scientific research is almost always tackled by groups of scientists, each of which works in a different part of a given research domain. We believe that understanding scientific progress thus requires understanding this division of cognitive labor. To this end, we present a novel agent-based model of scientific research in which scientists divide their labor to explore an unknown epistemic landscape. Scientists aim to climb uphill in this landscape, where elevation represents the significance (...)
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  3.  67
    Shaping the Normative Landscape.David Owens - 2012 - Oxford University Press.
    Shaping the Normative Landscape is an investigation of the value of obligations and of rights, of forgiveness, of consent and refusal, of promise and request. David Owens shows that these are all instruments by which we exercise control over our normative environment.
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  4.  28
    Moral Landscape: How Science Can Determine Human Values.Sam Harris - 2011 - Free Press.
    The moral landscape -- Moral truth -- Good and evil -- Belief -- Religion -- The future of happiness -- Afterword.
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  5.  47
    Landscape and Ideology in American Renaissance Literature: Topographies of Skepticism.Robert E. Abrams - 2004 - Cambridge University Press.
    Robert Abrams argues that new concepts of space and landscape emerged in mid-nineteenth-century American writing, marking a linguistic and interpretative limit to American expansion. Abrams supports the radical elements of antebellum writing, where writers from Hawthorne to Rebecca Harding Davis disputed the naturalizing discourses of mid-nineteenth century society. Whereas previous critics find in antebellum writing a desire to convert chaos into an affirmative, liberal agenda, Abrams contends that authors of the 1840s and 50s deconstructed more than they constructed.
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  6. Epigenetic Landscaping: Waddington's Use of Cell Fate Bifurcation Diagrams. [REVIEW]Scott F. Gilbert - 1991 - Biology and Philosophy 6 (2):135-154.
    From the 1930s through the 1970s, C. H. Waddington attempted to reunite genetics, embryology, and evolution. One of the means to effect this synthesis was his model of the epigenetic landscape. This image originally recast genetic data in terms of embryological diagrams and was used to show the identity of genes and inducers and to suggest the similarities between embryological and genetic approaches to development. Later, the image became more complex and integrated gene activity and mutations. These revised epigenetic (...)
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  7.  6
    Alien Landscapes?: Interpreting Disordered Minds.Jonathan Glover - 2014 - Harvard University Press.
    We have made huge progress in understanding the biology of mental illnesses, but comparatively little in interpreting them at the psychological level. The eminent philosopher Jonathan Glover believes that there is real hope of progress in the human interpretation of disordered minds. -/- The challenge is that the inner worlds of people with psychiatric disorders can seem strange, like alien landscapes, and this strangeness can deter attempts at understanding. Do people with disorders share enough psychology with other people to make (...)
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  8.  23
    Automated Patent Landscaping.Aaron Abood & Dave Feltenberger - 2018 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 26 (2):103-125.
    Patent landscaping is the process of finding patents related to a particular topic. It is important for companies, investors, governments, and academics seeking to gauge innovation and assess risk. However, there is no broadly recognized best approach to landscaping. Frequently, patent landscaping is a bespoke human-driven process that relies heavily on complex queries over bibliographic patent databases. In this paper, we present Automated Patent Landscaping, an approach that jointly leverages human domain expertise, heuristics based on patent metadata, and machine learning (...)
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  9.  27
    Argumentative Landscapes: The Function of Models in Social Epistemology.N. Emrah Aydinonat, Samuli Reijula & Petri Ylikoski - forthcoming - Synthese 199 (1-2):369-395.
    We argue that the appraisal of models in social epistemology requires conceiving of them as argumentative devices, taking into account the argumentative context and adopting a family-of-models perspective. We draw up such an account and show how it makes it easier to see the value and limits of the use of models in social epistemology. To illustrate our points, we document and explicate the argumentative role of epistemic landscape models in social epistemology and highlight their limitations. We also claim (...)
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  10.  1
    Landscapes of Learning.Maxine Greene - 1978 - Teachers College Press.
    Special 2018 Edition From the new Introduction by Janet L. Miller, Teachers College, Columbia University: "Maxine Greene never claimed to be a visionary thinker. But forty years later, her trepidations detailed throughout 1978's Landscapes of Learning now appear unnervingly prescient. Witness and treasure Landscapes as evidence of her matchless abilities to inspire myriad educators and students worldwide." “I would suggest that there must always be a place in teacher education for ‘foundations’ people, whose fundamental concern is with opening new perspectives (...)
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  11.  3
    Landscape as a Text : Ricoeur and the Human Geography.Paolo Furia - 2020 - Discipline filosofiche. 30 (2):239-259.
    This paper aims to foster an interdisciplinary dialogue between Ricoeur’s phenomenological- hermeneutical thought and human geography, in particular with respect to the issue of landscape interpretation. The connection draws on the idea that landscapes and lived spaces can be read as texts, not unfamiliar to human geography and semiotics from 1980s onward. In the first part of the paper I will briefly expound some theories of landscape which make use of the metaphors “landscape as cultural image” and (...)
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  12. Landscapes, Surfaces, and Morphospaces: What Are They Good For?Massimo Pigliucci - 2012 - In E. Svensson & R. Calsbeek (eds.), The Adaptive Landscape in Evolutionary Biology. Oxford University Press. pp. 26.
    Few metaphors in biology are more enduring than the idea of Adaptive Landscapes, originally proposed by Sewall Wright (1932) as a way to visually present to an audience of typically non- mathematically savvy biologists his ideas about the relative role of natural selection and genetic drift in the course of evolution. The metaphor, how- ever, was born troubled, not the least reason for which is the fact that Wright presented different diagrams in his original paper that simply can- not refer (...)
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  13.  31
    Charting the Landscape of Interpretation, Theory Rivalry, and Underdetermination in Quantum Mechanics.Pablo Acuña - 2019 - Synthese 198 (2):1711-1740.
    When we speak about different interpretations of quantum mechanics it is suggested that there is one single quantum theory that can be interpreted in different ways. However, after an explicit characterization of what it is to interpret quantum mechanics, the right diagnosis is that we have a case of predictively equivalent rival theories. I extract some lessons regarding the resulting underdetermination of theory choice. Issues about theoretical identity, theoretical and methodological pluralism, and the prospects for a realist stance towards quantum (...)
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  14. The Landscape and the Multiverse: What’s the Problem?James Read & Baptiste Le Bihan - 2021 - Synthese 199 (3-4):7749-7771.
    As a candidate theory of quantum gravity, the popularity of string theory has waxed and waned over the past four decades. One current source of scepticism is that the theory can be used to derive, depending upon the input geometrical assumptions that one makes, a vast range of different quantum field theories, giving rise to the so-called landscape problem. One apparent way to address the landscape problem is to posit the existence of a multiverse; this, however, has in (...)
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  15.  27
    The Landscape as a Semiotic Interface Between Organisms and Resources.Almo Farina - 2008 - Biosemiotics 1 (1):75-83.
    Despite an impressive number of investigations and indirect evidence, the mechanisms that link patterns and processes across the landscape remain a debated point. A new definition of landscape as a semiotic interface between resources and organisms opens up a new perspective to a better understanding of such mechanisms. If the landscape is considered a source of signals converted by animal cognition into signs, it follows that spatial configurations, extension, shape and contagion are not only landscape patterns (...)
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  16.  16
    Landscape of Machine Implemented Ethics.Vivek Nallur - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (5):2381-2399.
    This paper surveys the state-of-the-art in machine ethics, that is, considerations of how to implement ethical behaviour in robots, unmanned autonomous vehicles, or software systems. The emphasis is on covering the breadth of ethical theories being considered by implementors, as well as the implementation techniques being used. There is no consensus on which ethical theory is best suited for any particular domain, nor is there any agreement on which technique is best placed to implement a particular theory. Another unresolved problem (...)
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  17.  98
    The Landscape of EVEN.Anastasia Giannakidou - manuscript
    This paper explores the role that the scalar properties and presuppositions of even play in creating polarity sensitive even meanings crosslinguistically (henceforth EVEN). I discuss the behavior of three lexically distinct Greek counterparts of even in positive, negative, subjunctive sentences, and polar questions. These items are shown to be polarity sensitive, and a three-way distinction is posited between a positive polarity (akomi ke), a negative polarity (oute), and a ‘flexible scale’even(esto) which does not introduce likelihood, but is associated with scales (...)
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  18.  62
    Food Landscapes: An Object-Centered Model of Food Appreciation.Matteo Ravasio - 2018 - The Monist 101 (3):309-323.
    In this paper I claim that Allen Carlson’s object-centered model for the aesthetic appreciation of nature could be extended to food. The application of an object-centered model to food requires the identification of appropriate foci of appreciative attention. I claim that knowledge about food function and history is relevant to its appreciation, as is the interplay between the resources of a territory and the way in which these are used by its inhabitants. After having offered a brief application of the (...)
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  19. Intensive Landscaping.Yves Abrioux - 2009 - In Bernd Herzogenrath (ed.), Deleuze/Guattari & Ecology. Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 251--65.
  20.  44
    Landscape and the Metaphysical Imagination.Ronald Hepburn - 1996 - Environmental Values 5 (3):191-204.
    Aesthetic appreciation of landscape is by no means limited to the sensuous enjoyment of sights and sounds. It very often has a reflective, cognitive element as well. This sometimes incorporates scientific knowledge, e.g.,geological or ecological; but it can also manifest what this article will call 'metaphysical imagination', which sees or seems to see in a landscape some indication, some disclosure of how the world ultimately is. The article explores and critically appraises this concept of metaphysical imagination, and some (...)
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  21.  25
    Roman Landscape: Culture and Identity.Diana Spencer - 2010 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book tackles how and why 'landscape' (farms, gardens, countryside) set the scene in the first centuries BCE and CE for Romans keen to talk up and about (but also to scrutinize and understand) what it meant to be a citizen. It investigates what 'landscape' means now and reflects upon how contemporary approaches to 'landscape' can enrich our understanding of ancient experience of the interface between natural and artificial space. It encourages examination of 'landscape' from a (...)
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  22. Epistemic Landscapes Reloaded: An Examination of Agent-Based Models in Social Epistemology.Manuela Fernández Pinto & Daniel Fernández Pinto - 2018 - Historical Social Research 43 (1):48-71.
    Weisberg and Muldoon’s epistemic landscape model (ELM) has been one of the most significant contributions to the use of agent-based models in philosophy. The model provides an innovative approach to establishing the optimal distribution of cognitive labor in scientific communities, using an epistemic landscape. In the paper, we provide a critical examination of ELM. First, we show that the computing mechanism for ELM is correct insofar as we are able to replicate the results using another programming language. Second, (...)
     
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  23. Landscapes of Wisdom: In Search of a Spirituality of Knowing.Jonas Vladas Barciauskas - 2000 - Upa.
    Landscapes of Wisdom seeks wisdom in contemporary thought. The author, as scholar, and seeker, examines scientific, religious and literary writings, to synthesize a way of knowing accessible to the modern mind, an intellectual path meeting the challenge of science with an equally universal message that speaks of the world and its workings, but also of transcendence and the deepest core of human experience.
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  24. Landscapes of Human Experience.Martin Seel - 2015 - Contemporary Aesthetics 13.
    This essay begins with some observations concerning the interaction between nature and art. Relying on these reflections, in the second part experience of landscape will be interpreted as a model for the human stance within the natural as well as the historical world. In the third part some consequences for an ethics and politics of saving the conditions for individual as well as social well-being will be drawn.
     
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  25. Religion's Evolutionary Landscape: Counterintuition, Commitment, Compassion, Communion.Scott Atran & Ara Norenzayan - 2004 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (6):713-730.
    Religion is not an evolutionary adaptation per se, but a recurring by-product of the complex evolutionary landscape that sets cognitive, emotional and material conditions for ordinary human interactions. Religion involves extraordinary use of ordinary cognitive processes to passionately display costly devotion to counterintuitive worlds governed by supernatural agents. The conceptual foundations of religion are intuitively given by task-specific panhuman cognitive domains, including folkmechanics, folkbiology, folkpsychology. Core religious beliefs minimally violate ordinary notions about how the world is, with all of (...)
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  26.  56
    A Perspective on the Landscape Problem.Lee Smolin - 2013 - Foundations of Physics 43 (1):21-45.
    I discuss the historical roots of the landscape problem and propose criteria for its successful resolution. This provides a perspective to evaluate the possibility to solve it in several of the speculative cosmological scenarios under study including eternal inflation, cosmological natural selection and cyclic cosmologies.Invited contribution for a special issue of Foundations of Physics titled Forty Years Of String Theory: Reflecting On the Foundations.
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  27.  6
    The Moral Landscape: How Science Can Determine Human Values.Sam Harris - 2010 - Free Press.
    Bestselling author Sam Harris dismantles the most common justification for religious faith-that a moral system cannot be based on science.
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  28.  7
    Chinese Landscape Painting and the Study of Being: An Imagined Encounter Between Martin Heidegger and Xia Gui.Tyson E. Lewis & Li Xu - 2020 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 39 (3):309-320.
    In this paper, we pose a speculative encounter between Heidegger and the Chinese Song Dynasty landscape painter Xia Gui. Our intention is to reassess Heidegger’s theory of the fourfold. By placing the concept in a cross-cultural context, we argue that Heidegger was essentially correct in that the world is structured as a fold between interrelated elements. At the same time, we challenge the quantity and quality of the folded elements. If one turns to the work of Xia Gui in (...)
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  29.  38
    Landscape and Health: Connecting Psychology, Aesthetics, and Philosophy Through the Concept of Affordance.Laura Menatti & Antonio Casado da Rocha - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
  30.  26
    Landscape Aesthetics and Environmentalism: Some Observations on the Representation of Nature in Buddhist and Western Art1.Ian Harris - 2007 - Contemporary Buddhism 8 (2):149-168.
    (2007). Landscape Aesthetics and Environmentalism: Some Observations on the Representation of Nature in Buddhist and Western Art1. Contemporary Buddhism: Vol. 8, Buddhism and the environment, pp. 149-168. doi: 10.1080/14639940701636125.
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  31.  2
    Sketching Landscapes in Discourse Analysis (1978–2018): A Bibliometric Study.Xinchao Guan & Changpeng Huan - 2020 - Discourse Studies 22 (6):697-719.
    John Swales’ 1986 article ‘Citation analysis and discourse analysis’ was the first to apply citation analysis to describe in-text citations in the field of discourse analysis. Howard White’s 2004 article ‘Citation analysis and discourse analysis revisited’ was written by an information scientist and primarily focused on citation analysis and discourse analysis. Here, we cast a wider net by conducting a bibliometric analysis of discourse analysis to sketch its scientific landscape between 1978 and 2018. Our findings show that discourse analysis (...)
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  32. Tensional Landscapes: The Dynamics of Boundaries and Placements.Sven Arntzen, Ethel Hazard, Wolfgang Luutz, Michael J. Monahan, Shannon M. Mussett, Herbert G. Reid, John M. Rose, John Ryks, John A. Scott & Dennis E. Skocz (eds.) - 2003 - Lexington Books.
    The contributors to this volume address global, regional, and local landscapes, cosmopolitan and indigenous cultures, and human and more-than-human ecology as they work to reveal place-specific tensional dynamics. This unusual book, which covers a wide-ranging array of topics, coheres into a work that will be a valuable reference for scholars of geography and the philosophy of place.
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  33.  2
    Industrial Landscapes.Bernd Becher & Hilla Becher - 2002 - MIT Press.
    The great photographers of industrial landscapes offer a stunning retrospective of their most compelling work, featuring coal mines, iron ore mines, steel mills, power stations with cooling towers, lime kilns, and grain elevators, among other subjects.
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  34.  2
    Landscapes of Time: Building Long‐Term Perspectives in Animal Behavior.Erika Lorraine Milam - 2022 - Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte 45 (1-2):164-188.
    Berichte zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte, Volume 45, Issue 1-2, Page 164-188, June 2022.
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  35.  11
    Sketching Landscapes in Translation Studies: A Bibliographic Study.Federico Zanettin, Gabriela Saldanha & Sue-Ann Harding - 2015 - Perspectives 23 (2):161-182.
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  36.  9
    A Landscape of Logics Beyond the Deduction Theorem.Bas C. van Fraassen - 2022 - Principia: An International Journal of Epistemology 26 (1):25-38.
    Philosophical issues often turn into logic. That is certainly true of Moore’s Paradox, which tends to appear and reappear in many philosophical contexts. There is no doubt that its study belongs to pragmatics rather than semantics or syntax. But it is also true that issues in pragmatics can often be studied fruitfully by attending to their projection, so to speak, onto the levels of semantics or syntax — just in the way that problems in spherical geometry are often illuminated by (...)
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  37. Diary/Landscape.James Welling & Matthew S. Witkovsky - 2014 - University of Chicago Press.
    For more than 35 years, James Welling has explored the material and conceptual possibilities of photography. Diary/Landscape - the first mature body of work by this important contemporary artist - set the framework for his subsequent investigations of abstraction and his fascination with nineteenth- and twentieth-century New England. In July 1977, Welling began photographing a two-volume travel diary kept by his great-grandmother Elizabeth C. Dixon, as well as landscapes in southern Connecticut. A beautiful and moving meditation on family, history, (...)
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  38.  6
    From Landscape to Mindscape, From Mindscape to Walkscape and From Milieu to Infosphere.Silvano Tagliagambe & Luca Taddio - 2021 - Studi di Estetica 21.
    This essay aims to show that the concept of landscape does not indicate something static or well-defined in the physical world but is rather the result of a process deriving from our being embodied in the world. Landscape is embodied cognition produced by our subjectivity, which, in turn, constantly hybridises the relationship between inside and outside. The key point, therefore, is to grasp and problematise the interaction between landscape and mindscape. However, this relationship would not be complete (...)
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  39. Aesthetic Appreciation of Landscapes.Jiri Benovsky - 2016 - Journal of Value Inquiry 50 (2):325-340.
    In this article, I want to understand the nature of aesthetic experiences of landscapes. I offer an understanding of aesthetic appreciation of landscapes based on a notion of a landscape where landscapes are perspectival observer-dependent entities, where the 'creator' of the landscape necessarily happens to be the same person as the spectator, and where her scientific (and other) knowledge and beliefs matter for the appreciation to be complete. I explore the idea that appreciating a landscape in this (...)
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  40. The Epigenetic Landscape in the Course of Time: Conrad Hal Waddington’s Methodological Impact on the Life Sciences.Jan Baedke - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (4):756-773.
    It seems that the reception of Conrad Hal Waddington’s work never really gathered speed in mainstream biology. This paper, offering a transdisciplinary survey of approaches using his epigenetic landscape images, argues that (i) Waddington’s legacy is much broader than is usually recognized—it is widespread across the life sciences (e.g. stem cell biology, developmental psychology and cultural anthropology). In addition, I will show that (ii) there exist as yet unrecognized heuristic roles, especially in model building and theory formation, which Waddington’s (...)
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  41.  15
    Landscapes of Technological Thoughts.Pieter Lemmens & Yuk Hui - 2021 - Philosophy Today 65 (2):375-389.
    In this dialogue with Yuk Hui, Pieter Lemmens explains the discipline called philosophy of technology and gives a concise overview of the most important contemporary approaches within this field. He also offers a critical evaluation of what are probably the two most salient characteristics of contemporary philosophy of technology, the so-called “empirical turn” and the “ethical turn,” which are deeply related and partly reflect the discipline’s on-going alignment with the global neoliberal agenda of exclusively profit-driven technological innovation. He also critically (...)
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  42.  30
    Model Landscapes in the Higgs Sector.Arianna Borrelli & Michael Stöltzner - 2013 - In Vassilios Karakostas & Dennis Dieks (eds.), Epsa11 Perspectives and Foundational Problems in Philosophy of Science. Springer. pp. 241--252.
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  43.  4
    Landscape as a Twist of Thought: A Line of Enquiry.Susan Trangmar - 2019 - Philosophy of Photography 10 (2):207-224.
    How can an art practice based upon lens imaging help us to question landscape as a pictorial category fixed in space and time? This article proposes that we practise landscape as an ongoing process that always surpasses human spatial and temporal framing while enfolding the activity of the human within it. Starting with reference to a specific geographic, geological and environmental site, the article tracks a process of situated making using the smartphone camera as the fulcrum of a (...)
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  44.  65
    Landscape, Natural Beauty and the Arts.Salim Kemal & Ivan Gaskell (eds.) - 1993 - Cambridge University Press.
    In Landscape, Natural Beauty, and the Arts, a distinguished group of scholars probes the complex structure of aesthetic responses to nature. Each of the chapters refines and expands the terms of discussion, and together they enrich the debate with insights from art history, literary criticism, geography and philosophy. To explore the interrelation between our conceptions of nature, beauty and art, the contributors consider the social construction of nature, the determination of our appreciation by artistic media, and the duality of (...)
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  45. Scientific Networks on Data Landscapes: Question Difficulty, Epistemic Success, and Convergence.Patrick Grim, Daniel J. Singer, Steven Fisher, Aaron Bramson, William J. Berger, Christopher Reade, Carissa Flocken & Adam Sales - 2013 - Episteme 10 (4):441-464.
    A scientific community can be modeled as a collection of epistemic agents attempting to answer questions, in part by communicating about their hypotheses and results. We can treat the pathways of scientific communication as a network. When we do, it becomes clear that the interaction between the structure of the network and the nature of the question under investigation affects epistemic desiderata, including accuracy and speed to community consensus. Here we build on previous work, both our own and others’, in (...)
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  46.  19
    The Field and Landscape of Affordances: Koffka’s Two Environments Revisited.Julian Kiverstein, Ludger van Dijk & Erik Rietveld - 2019 - Synthese 198 (Suppl 9):2279-2296.
    The smooth integration of the natural sciences with everyday lived experience is an important ambition of radical embodied cognitive science. In this paper we start from Koffka’s recommendation in his Principles of Gestalt Psychology that to realize this ambition psychology should be a “science of molar behaviour”. Molar behavior refers to the purposeful behaviour of the whole organism directed at an environment that is meaningfully structured for the animal. Koffka made a sharp distinction between the “behavioural environment” and the “geographical (...)
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  47. Nature and Landscape: An Introduction to Environmental Aesthetics.Allen Carlson - 2009 - Columbia University Press.
    The development and nature of environmental aesthetics -- Aesthetic appreciation and the natural environment -- The requirements for an adequate aesthetics of nature -- Aesthetic appreciation and the human environment -- Appreciation of the human environment under different conceptions -- Aesthetic appreciation and the agricultural landscape -- What is the correct way to aesthetically appreciate landscapes?
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  48. Adaptive Landscapes, Phenotypic Space, and the Power of Metaphors. [REVIEW]Massimo Pigliucci - 2008 - Quarterly Review of Biology 83 (3):283-287.
    Metaphors play a crucial role in both science in particular and human discourse in gen- eral. Plato’s story of the cave—about people shackled to a wall and incapable of perceiv- ing the world as it really is—has stimulated thinking about epistemology and the nature of reality for more than two millennia. But metaphors can also be misleading: being too taken with Plato’s story has cost philosophers endless discussions about how to access the world “as it is,” until Kant showed us (...)
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  49.  19
    The Landscape of Contemporary Phenomenology.Marzena Adamiak & Marek Pokropski - 2018 - Avant: Trends in Interdisciplinary Studies 9 (2):9-15.
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  50.  25
    On Landscapes.Susan Herrington (ed.) - 2008 - Routledge.
    There is no escaping landscape: it's everywhere and part of everyone's life. Landscapes have received much less attention in aesthetics than those arts we can choose to ignore, such as painting or music – but they can tell us a lot about the ethical and aesthetic values of the societies that produce them. Drawing on examples from a wide range of landscapes from around the world and throughout history, Susan Herrington considers the ways landscapes can affect our emotions, our (...)
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