The state of the debate surrounding issues on science and religion in LatinAmerica is mostly unknown, both to regional and extra-regional scholars. This article presents and reviews in some detail the developments since 2000, when the first symposium on science and religion was held in Mexico, up to the present. I briefly introduce some features of Latin American academia and higher education institutions, as well as some trends in the public reception of these debates and atheist (...) engagement with it in Mexico and Argentina. The primary conclusion of this article is that, even though the discussion is new to Latin American academic circles, it is gaining traction and will certainly grow in the coming years. (shrink)
Indigenous and non-indigenous communities in LatinAmerica make land claims and support them with a variety of arguments. Some, such as Zapatistas and the Mapuche, have appealed to the “ancestral” or “historical” connections between specific communities and the land. Other groups, such as MST in Brazil, have appealed to the extremely unequal distribution of the land and the effects of this on the poor; the land in this case is seen mainly as a means for securing a decent (...) standard of living for members of disadvantaged groups. Although there is a large literature on the history as well as the social and political dimensions of land contestations and conflicts in LatinAmerica, the question of whether the land claims put forward by disadvantaged groups can be morally justified has not been adequately examined. In this essay, we investigate the scope and limits of appeals to what we shall call assistance-based, contribution-based, and benefitting-based moral reasons with respect to land claims made by these disadvantaged groups. (shrink)
The cross-cultural literature is reviewed and integrated together with attitude theories, thereby outlining a model through which certain values influence the intervening variables that ultimately lead managers to tolerate employee bribery. The case of LatinAmerica is employed to illustrate how regionally dominant cultural values may shape managers' attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control, which in turn affect tolerance of employee bribery. A series of research propositions and practical recommendations are derived from the model.
The purpose of this investigation is to indicate the current status of Economic and Business Ethics (BE) in LatinAmerica (LA) as part of a broader global study. The investigation done shows that, in general terms, LA is not much developed in the BE field. Analysing the most important findings it is possible to conclude that more topics are being studied and that activities are growing in the field of BE in LA. However, it is also clear that (...) the field of BE remains clearly underdeveloped in the region. BE is addressed by only a few business schools in each country and a small number of NGOs in LA. In addition, until now little rigorous research has been conducted and publications in prestigious academic journals have been scarce. Studies in BE are still relatively rare and very locally focussed. From another perspective, there is a great difference in the level of activity across countries in the LA region. When looking at the future, corruption appears as the major concern, almost certainly due to the political, social, and ethical context that many of the nations in the region are experiencing. There is a strong need for more business schools and NGOs to join the task of researching, teaching and training in the broad spectrum of areas that fall within the scope of the field of business and economic ethics. In this respect, the need is glaring and the opportunities are enormous. (shrink)
The presence of nanotechnologies grew and spread throughout LatinAmerica during the first decade of the 21st century. Science and Technology policies have played an important role in the performance of these new technologies. Various international institutions, such as the World Bank, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, and the Organization of American States promoted similar Science and Technology policies, and included nanotechnology as a priority area. This article shows the role of these Science and Technology policies (...) in the promotion of specific objectives and the gap that was left due to the failure to incorporate an examination of the potential risks to health and environment, not to mention other labor-related effects. The omission of matters relevant to workers and consumers by these institutions led to a distancing from organized civil society. (shrink)
In the following, I endeavor to subvert the classical notion of being found in Western philosophy by following the logic of negation found in the work of Rodolfo Kusch. In order to develop a better understanding of cultural feelings as well as appreciate the natural, the rhythmic and the vital in the Latin American context, I propose that we follow the ontological sentipensar. By using this methodological framework, I seek to reveal a sense of being germane to Latin (...) American intercultural philosophy. (shrink)
For almost 10 years, the Business Ethics Index (BEI) has measured consumers’ perceptions of business ethical behavior in the USA and numerous other countries. This article expands the BEI to five Latin American countries (Brazil, Bolivia, Mexico, Argentina, and Colombia). The BEI of Argentina and Bolivia were similar in magnitude to the USA, whereas those for Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico were distinctly higher. The component sub-indices showed divergent patterns. The major ethical concerns for Brazil and Bolivia concerned service, whereas (...) Mexico and Argentina complained about overpricing. (shrink)
El artículo argumenta la trascendencia de la noción de catarsis de Antonio Gramsci para la lucha política de los subalternos. Se trata de una reflexión sobre las características y condiciones que generan una elevación ético política de la lucha local y económica corporativa de los sectores populares así como de la unión de corrientes políticas de izquierda en torno de un proyecto común construido en la lucha social, proyecto de carácter universal vinculado con la propuesta de alternativa hegemónica, de constitución (...) de una autonomía integral de estos en la perspectiva de una disputa nacional e internacional por la dirección político ideológica y la hegemonía. Esta noción resulta particularmente necesaria en América Latina y en México debido a las condiciones de crisis políticas orgánica y coyuntural y a la necesidad de una unidad popular ante la entronización del neoliberalismo como forma de dominio transnacionalizado que busca mantener la subordinación de los países a las grandes potencias y los grandes capitales, aun a costa de la descomposición del Estado y del recurso a la violencia. (shrink)
El ciclo político regional de los últimos años ha reabierto una serie de discusiones que parecían desterradas del campo político e intelectual. Recientemente, frente a la crisis de varias de las experiencias políticas de la región, distintos autores han intentado hacer un balance de este ciclo a partir de una comparación con los populismos clásicos latinoamericanos. Recurriendo a categorías de origen gramsciano, principalmente el modelo de la llamada revolución pasiva, estos análisis ven en la intervención populista una clausura desde arriba (...) de las dinámicas sociales que habrían animado el inicio de estos procesos. Retomando algunos antecedentes de este debate en las ciencias sociales argentinas, este trabajo intenta problematizar la visión de los populismos latinoamericanos —tanto clásicos como actuales— que subyace en dichas miradas y, en ese sentido, propone una relectura de los orígenes del peronismo en relación a estas categorías. (shrink)
Rural women did not fare very well inthe land reforms carried out during the Latin American“reformist period” of the 1960s and 1970s, with womenbeing under-represented among the beneficiaries. It isargued that women have been excluded from access toand control over water for similar reasons that theywere excluded from access to land during thesereforms. The paper also investigates the extent towhich women have gained or lost access to land duringthe “counter-reforms” of the 1980s and 1990s. Underthe neo-liberal agenda, production cooperatives (...) aswell as communal access to land have largely beenundermined in favor of privatization and theindividual parcelization of collectives. Significantland titling efforts are also being carried outthroughout the region to promote the development of avigorous land market. This latter period has also beencharacterized by the growth of the feminist movementthroughout LatinAmerica and a growing commitment bystates to gender equity. The paper reviews the extentto which rural women‘s access to land and, thus, waterhas potentially been enhanced by recent changes inagrarian and legal codes. (shrink)
In this special issue we explore practices of scientific inquiry into human populations in LatinAmerica in order to generate new insights into the complex historical and sociopolitical dynamics that have made certain human groups integral to the production of scientific knowledge in and about the region. In important contributions, other scholars have shown that the science of human difference is racist and all too often has been a mediator of development ideologies. To further unpack these arguments we (...) focus attention on the complex interaction between scientists and the populations they study. We explore cases from across the fields of evolutionary biology, demography, epidemiology... (shrink)
After presenting the current situation of epistemological research in LatinAmerica and part of its history, this entry will address five topics: skepticism (especially in its Pyrrhonian stripe), core epistemology, formal epistemology, Wittgenstein’s thought in connection with epistemology and skepticism, and epistemology of law. It should be noted from the outset that the entry does not purport to provide a comprehensive account of epistemology in LatinAmerica, but rather to paint a general picture of it by (...) focusing on the main issues that have been discussed within that field. (shrink)
Business ethics is a relatively new topic of academic discussion in LatinAmerica. Corruption and impunity came to be serious moral diseases in the region, probably as a result of a long period of dictatorship in most countries. Low ethical standards in the politics have had deep impact on individuals, organizations and economic systems. Excessive consumption, materialism and selfishness, in contrast with real poverty, have been responsible for a sloppiness in attitudes and principles in many Latin American (...) countries. Even though the majority of the population belongs to the Roman Catholic Church, the lack of education has led people to a dichotomy: faith and business practices are often very distant from each other. Several isolated efforts have been done in order to enhance business ethics through education, publications and professional activities. The relationship business-academia has proved to be an excellent initiative for this objective, mainly in Mexico, Brazil and Peru. (shrink)
Fulfilling the "unmet need for contraceptives" in LatinAmerica is still a contested rallying cry for local activists, policymakers, and physicians. It evokes both the consumerist aspiration to choose birth control methods, as well as implies the existence of health and welfare institutions that ought to guarantee a human right. In the 1940s, however, the "unmet need for contraceptives" was a fledgling notion that a group of experts had only begun to popularize through the use of a crucial (...) population-making technology: the fertility survey. This paper analyzes the role fertility surveyors played in the mid-twentieth century, framing Latin American populations as rapidly growing and likely... (shrink)
This paper explores the commitment to corporate citizenship on the part of the largest U.S.-based multinationals in the emerging market region of LatinAmerica. The websites of the largest U.S.-based firms - according to the 2007 Fortune 500 list - are reviewed and their CSR efforts in LatinAmerica are noted. The firms' positions on corporate citizenship in LatinAmerica are mapped onto a three-by-three matrix in which firms' commitment to corporate citizenship ranges from (...) profitmaking motivations to a more holistic approach where support for non-profit causes is embraced by the entire firm and implemented at all levels, 9-26, 2000). The largest U.S.-based multinationals were selected for this study because of their leadership role and the fact that other firms within their respective industries may seek to emulate the firms' level of commitment to corporate citizenship. While the matrix can be used to evaluate corporate citizenship efforts in any market - or globally - the emphasis in this study is on LatinAmerica, a region of interest for two reasons: because of the paucity of research on this particular emerging market region as it relates to CSR, and because there is some evidence to suggest that philanthropic initiatives by the region's wealthy individuals lag behind individual philanthropic efforts in other world regions. If this is the case, this study aims to identify whether companies are picking up the slack. (shrink)
The quest for freedom from hunger and repression has triggered in recent years a dramatic, worldwide reform of political and economic systems. Never have so many people enjoyed, or at least experimented with democratic institutions. However, many strategies for economic development in Eastern Europe and LatinAmerica have failed with the result that entire economic systems on both continents are being transformed. This major book analyzes recent transitions to democracy and market-oriented economic reforms in Eastern Europe and (...) class='Hi'>LatinAmerica. Drawing in a quite distinctive way on models derived from political philosophy, economics, and game theory, Professor Przeworski also considers specific data on individual countries. Among the questions raised by the book are: What should we expect from these experiments in democracy and market economy? What new economic systems will emerge? Will these transitions result in new democracies or old dictatorships? (shrink)
This article analyses recent social, cultural and political developments in LatinAmerica, with special reference to the `modernity/coloniality' project, as well as offering an alternative sociological interpretation of the contemporary subcontinent. It analyses in particular Walter Mignolo's work as the main expression of that `post/decolonial' project, a general interpretive effort that reflects actual social changes but offers misguided theoretical and political perspectives. The article then proposes a discussion of modernity as a global civilization which is now unfolding its (...) third phase, characterized by greater complexity and pluralism. In addition it argues that modernity should be seen as a two-pronged phenomenon, featuring not only domination but also emancipation. Against the reification of modernity, the article suggests that we see it as woven by multiple and contingent modernizing moves. (shrink)
The Catholic Church, with deep roots in the history of LatinAmerica, exercises considerable influence on all levels of society. Especially after the Second Vatican Council and the bishops' conference at Medelliacuten the Church took up the banner of human rights and the cause of the poor. During the dictatorships and in the midst of the different guerrilla movements the Church became the principle voice of opposition and mediator between the parties in conflict. At the same time, the (...) Church helped organise the poor in their own defence. The Base Ecclesial Communities, which spread from Brazil to the rest of LatinAmerica, combined biblical awareness with social consciousness. Paulo Freire's concept of 'conscientisation' complemented the liberation theology movement, which inspired Christians to mobilise against dictatorships and death squads from Central America to Chile. On a formal educational level, the Church runs private schools for the wealthy, the middle class and the poor. In some schools for the wealthy, such as those run by Opus Dei, a pre-Vatican II mindset prevails and emphasis is placed on individual advancement. But in others, especially those run by the Jesuits, solidarity with the poor is emphasised. On the popular level, the Fe y Alegriacutea schools for the poor stress civic participation and commitment to building the local community. The same divisions may be found in Catholic universities: some incorporate the ideals of social responsibility in their programs, but others simply foster an individualism that is more in tune with neo-liberalism. (shrink)
This paper analyzes the likelihood that recent conventions against corruption signed by the OECD and the OAS will be effective in LatinAmerica. It begins by looking at the cultural context of corruption in LatinAmerica and examines efforts by Latin American signatories to implement both agreements. It then evaluates the extent to which these efforts will prove successful. It concludes with suggestions for the development of culturally sensitive policies that will be effective in the (...) fight against corruption in LatinAmerica. (shrink)
The European project European and Latin American Systems of Ethics Regulation of Biomedical Research Project (EULABOR) has carried out the first comparative analysis of ethics regulation systems for biomedical research in seven countries in Europe and LatinAmerica, evaluating their roles in the protection of human subjects. We developed a conceptual and methodological framework defining ‘ethics regulation system for biomedical research’ as a set of actors, institutions, codes and laws involved in overseeing the ethics of biomedical research (...) on humans. This framework allowed us to develop comprehensive national reports by conducting semi-structured interviews to key informants. These reports were summarised and analysed in a comparative analysis. The study showed that the regulatory framework for clinical research in these countries differ in scope. It showed that despite the different political contexts, actors involved and motivations for creating the regulation, in most of the studied countries it was the government who took the lead in setting up the system. The study also showed that Europe and LatinAmerica are similar regarding national bodies and research ethics committees, but the Brazilian system has strong and noteworthy specificities. (shrink)
Fertility levels have dropped substantially in LatinAmerica in recent decades, fuelled by increased contraceptive use and notably a method mix skewed towards female sterilization. This study examined choice of female sterilization in four Latin American countries: Brazil, Colombia, the Dominican Republic and Peru. Data were drawn from national Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 1995s reproductive histories to consider the effects of a number of sociodemographic and contextual determinants as they pertained to status at the moment (...) of the event. The results revealed that the likelihood of a womans propensity to choose sterilization. (shrink)
This book demonstrates the vast range of philosophical approaches, regional issues and problems, perspectives, and historical and theoretical frameworks that together constitute feminist philosophy in LatinAmerica and Spain. It makes available to English-Speaking readers recent feminist thought in LatinAmerica and Spain to facilitate dialogue among Latin American, North American, and European thinkers.
What is the distinctive trait of the Latin American pattern of modernization? In contrast to western societies, where the debate on modernization has been dominated by the Weberian thematic of bureaucratiz-ation, the most salient feature of the Latin American developmental path is the chronic frailty of legal-constitutional arrangements. In LatinAmerica, the process of modernization and social differentiation has not been followed by the legal stabilization of social complexity but is characterized by a low degree of (...) juridification and institutional precariousness. Drawing on insights from both Luhmann's and Habermas' theories, the article provides a critical theoretical framework for the study of the peculiarities of the Latin American modernizing path. (shrink)
In recent years, animal welfare has become an important element of sustainable production that has evolved along with the transformation of animal production systems. Consumer attitudes towards farm animal welfare are changing around the world, especially at emerging markets of Asia, Africa and LatinAmerica. Survey-based research on consumer attitudes towards farm animal welfare has increased. However, the geographical coverage of studies on consumer attitudes and perceptions about farm animal welfare has mostly been limited to Europe, and North (...)America. Until now, Latin American consumers’ attitudes towards animal welfare have not been well studied. Despite the fact that Mexico, Chile and Brazil belong to the same region, there are marked differences between these countries in terms of their economical and geographical characteristics among other factors. Those differences potentially have an impact on consumer attitudes towards animal welfare and livestock production systems in general. Given the evidence from the literature review, it seems advisable that Latin American producers and food industry who engage in animal welfare-enhancing practices should clearly label their products with information on the type of husbandry system to reach those consumers who want to make an informed choice. Therefore, there are some aspects that need to be studied and cannot be worked separately in order to promote and understand consumer attitudes towards dairy and beef systems, such as geography, economic development, and politics. (shrink)
The project of indigenous agricultural development is now widely perceived as valid, given the technological limitations of and the social problems exacerbated by the Green Revolution. Different authors have presented critiques of the Green Revolution based upon their studies of indigenous agricultural practices and their attendant knowledge systems. Such analyses provide important foundations for the promotion of indigenous agricultural development, but do not adequately address the socio-historical dimension. In LatinAmerica, promoting such development must rely upon the reassessment (...) of indigenous culture and ethnic survival by the scientific community. (shrink)
This review essay looks at Christopher Boyer’s Political landscapes: forests, conservation and community in Mexico,, Thomas Miller Klubock’s La Frontera: forests and ecological conflict in Chile’s Frontier Territory, Pablo Lapegna’s Soybeans and power: genetically modified crops, environmental politics and social movements in Argentina and Elspeth Probyn’s Eating the ocean as each provide a holistic study of how political ecology and marginalized peoples engage the issue of natural resources in LatinAmerica. Through they deal with different regions and a (...) wide range of approaches to management, collectively they shine light on the social interactions that accompany changes in the land and how local communities engage issues surrounding nature’s use. On a larger level, they offer readers more insight into the field of the environmental humanities and what it means to live with the land. (shrink)
The populism that is sweeping LatinAmerica seeks, like democracy, to enact the sovereign rule of the people. Nevertheless, democrats and populists diverge over how to establish a just and enduring political order.
Christianisme et politique en Amerique Latine: ou en est la Theologie de la Liberation? (Christianity and Politics in LatinAmerica: where is the Theology of Liberation?) - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2009v7n15p7.
The task of mapping the reception of mimetic theory in LatinAmerica presents two challenges. On the one hand, rather than looking at just one country, this study has to take into account a mosaic of nations making up a continent, each with their own local diversities and particular complexities. Such circumstances impose specific rhythms onto the assimilation of Girardian thought, and being aware of these rhythms is vital to understanding the precise impact of mimetic theory. On the (...) other hand, such a study also has to cover two languages, Spanish and Portuguese, which means identifying the translations of his work and the impact of Girard’s ideas in both of the languages.And that is not all: such a mapping .. (shrink)
In the epistemological context of theory transferand scientific exchanges, the aim of this paper is to indicate the presence of Weberian categories and ideas on dependency theory formulated by Fernando Cardosoand Enzo Faletto. Here we see how the construction of this paradigm was based on some issues, concepts, approaches and orientations of the Weberian research program formulated by José Medina Echavarría to explain Latin American development. We will also consider the contexts of enunciation and reception theories, allowing us to (...) talk about the "sociological school" that was formed in the Social Planning Division of ILPES in mid-sixties, crucial for understanding the history of sociology in LatinAmerica. En el contexto de la discusión epistemológica sobre el examen de las transferencias y los intercambios científicos de las teorías, el objetivo de este artículo es señalar la presencia de categorías e ideas weberianas en lateoría de la dependencia formulada por Fernando Cardoso y Enzo Faletto. Aquí veremos cómo la construcción de este paradigma se sustentó en algunos temas, conceptos, enfoques y orientaciones del programa de investigación weberiano formulado por José Medina Echavarría para explicar el desarrollo latinoamericano. También tendremos en cuenta los contextos de enunciación y de recepción de las teorías, lo que nos permitirá hablar de la "escuela sociológica" que se formó en la División de Planificación Social del ILPES a mitad de los años 60, decisiva para comprender la historia de la sociología en América Latina. (shrink)
This book demonstrates the vast range of philosophical approaches, regional issues and problems, perspectives, and historical and theoretical frameworks that together constitute feminist philosophy in LatinAmerica and Spain. It makes available to English-Speaking readers recent feminist thought in LatinAmerica and Spain to facilitate dialogue among Latin American, North American, and European thinkers.
La pregunta por la sujeto de enunciación emerge de una experiencia académica y nutre la visibilización de las diferencias que nos atraviesan como mujeres. Revisar las heridas abiertas que la invasión-conquista-colonización-evangelización europea provocó con la implantación de la matriz moderna, colonial, capitalista, patriarcal, occidental permite localizar la doble subalternidad de las mujeres latinoamericanas. Un desencuentro con el humanismo académico permite traducir las raíces que nos atraviesan a nosotras, las mujeres de América Latina. El constructo delimita en la designación un espacio (...) común, surgido ahora, de una experiencia común que disloca los discursos hegemónicos y gesta un "entre" el feminismo occidental y el feminismo poscolonial, que habilita particulares puntos de vistas en los devenires de mujeres como potencia epistemológica-política. The question of the subject of enunciation emerges from an academic experience and nourishes the visibility of the differences that cross us as women. Revising the open wounds that European invasion-conquest-colonization-evangelization is urgent for us. The occidental, modern, colonial, capitalist, patriarchal, implanted matrix permits to locate the double subordination of Latin American women. A disencounter with the academic humanism allows to translate the roots that cross us, the women of LatinAmerica. In its designation the construct delimits a common space. Now this common space emerges from a common experience which dislocates hegemonic discourses and makes an "in between" among occidental and postcolonial feminisms, which enables individual views on women´s processes as epistemological and political power. (shrink)
This article discusses the recent adoption of the concept of civil society by Latin American social movements and political theorists. Our argument is that civil society has been employed in two contexts in LatinAmerica: 1) in the re‐interpretation of the ambiguous reception of liberalism in the region; 2) in the analysis of the constitution of a realm of societal autonomy throughout the struggle against authoritarianism. It is our contention in this article that social movements and civil (...) associations are playing a central role in both processes. (shrink)
Florencia Luna begins her essay, “Challenges for Assisted Reproduction and Secondary Infertility in LatinAmerica,” by saying: “I want to explore a new way to think about Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs) in the Latin American context.” I think she clearly achieves that objective. I want to suggest that she does more than this, however. In addition to revealing how traditional depictions of infertility in the United States and Europe are anachronistic for LatinAmerica, her analysis (...) offers feminist bioethicists in the United States the opportunity to revisit our own assumptions about infertility and improve our work as a result.Luna states early in her essay that her analysis will center on secondary .. (shrink)
Spanish influence in the New World was particularly acute in the areas of medicine and medical education. From the time of Columbus forward prominent medical experts journeyed to LatinAmerica establishing medical schools and research centers. This essay chronicles the history of LatinAmerica with a strong focus on the physicians and scientists who brought modern scientific medicine, as it wag then known in Western Europe, to the Americas.
This paper aims at surveying the current philosophical issues concerning the climate change crisis in LatinAmerica. The work attempts to analyze some central policies, particularly those that fostered economic progress in the region at the expense of human and environmental depletion. Historically, LatinAmerica remained at the periphery of philosophical inquiry following the long standing multiple manifestations of colonialism. As a result, the systematic philosophical reflections about climate change in the region have been scarce at (...) best. Here, I have addressed three main topics: political ecology, economic development, and indigenous issues. Latin American political ecology generally seeks to identify the ontological schemes necessary to mitigate, cope, and adapt to the climatic crisis. In addition, developmentalism played a significant role in exacerbating the state of Latin American political, economic, and ecological systems. Environmentalists all throughout the region strive to find alternatives to replace the failures of developmentalist policies. Consequently, indigenous concepts such as Sumak Kawsay or ?good living? offer alternate philosophical modes for Latin Americans, with their complex ethnic diversity, to derive their ontological and epistemological foundations on the problems posed by climate change. My work represents a sketch reporting the various inception points of different eco-philosophical views portraying legitimate instances of Latin Americans thinking critically about their own reality and surroundings. These may serve as alternate methods to forge models that could potentially contribute to universal philosophical concepts endowing humanity with broader epistemic tools to tackle the crisis at hand. (shrink)
In order to develop sustainable relationships with the natural environment it is necessary to focus on approaches that may yield workable models of sustainability. Here I sample a few approaches from LatinAmerica that point toward a promising model of sustainability. I argue that these approaches share the idea that the natural environment is in very close interdependence with human beings and their communities. I also outline the beliefs and practices of certain Latin American populations which exemplify (...) this idea, and conclude that the crucial feature for achieving sustainability is a particular type of cultural matrix. (shrink)
The paper discusses the place occupied by LatinAmerica and Eastern Europe in the contemporary world-system in the era of increasing globalization. It discusses the dominant types of consciousness in both parts of the world, where a tendency to overcome dependence and peripheral position are noticeable as is a desire for democracy and foreign relations based on partnership. What is long raised and very characteristic for thinkers coming from those very different regions of the globe are attempts to (...) create a new universalistic philosophy, more or less utopian, for the whole of mankind. (shrink)
El presente trabajo aborda los procesos de construcción social histórica de los “intelectuales indígenas”, en una de las etapas más relevantes y complejas para los movimientos étnicos en América Latina: redemocratización, apertura de los mercados y alta participación de las bases en procesos de movilización. De este modo, la presente proposición desarrolla dos grandes puntos de análisis: por un lado, la definición y autodefinición que hace de sí un “intelectual indígena”; y por otro lado, las problemáticas que enfrenta este etnointelectual (...) en un entramado semántico cientificista y occidental. This paper studies the processes of historical social construction of “indigenous intellectuals”, one of the most important and complex stages for ethnic movements in LatinAmerica: redemocratization, the opening of markets and high participation of the grassroots mobilization processes. Thus, this proposition develops a two-point analysis: firstly, the definition and selfdefinition which is made by an indigenous intellectual and, on the other hand, the problems facing this etnointellectual in a scientific and Western semantic framework. (shrink)
Al cumplirse doscientos años de la muerte de Immanuel Kant 2004), considerar la vigencia de su pensamiento filosófico, se constituyó en un imperativo categórico, para quienes nos inscribimos en la tradición de la filosofía occidental. En cumplimiento del mismo, el texto que se presenta se ocupa de la vigencia de la filosofía del filósofo de Königsberg a través de la consideración de dos expresiones de la inteligencia filosófica en América Latina: Arturo Andrés Roig y Franz J. Hinkelammert . Los programas (...) de investigación en curso de los dos autores elegidos, en el abordaje y desarrollo de distintos tópicos, proceden argumentativamente desde, contra y más allá de Kant, exhibiendo una singular vigencia de su filosofía al interior de los mismos. En el pensamiento de Arturo Andrés Roig, los tópicos de referencia que se consideran son: la normatividad del pensamiento filosófico, la filosofía de la historia, la fundamentación de una moral emergente y la fundamentación de una estética motivacional. De la producción teórica de Franz J. Hinkelammert, se presentan: la crítica a la razón utópica y el realismo político, la crítica trascendental de los marcos categoriales de los pensamientos sociales, la trascendentalidad del sujeto y el problema del universalismo ético en la tensión entre la ética de la responsabilidad y la ética de principios. Surge de la consideración de los asuntos enumerados, que en relación al universalismo abstracto de Kant, estos dos exponentes de la inteligencia filosófica en América Latina, convergen en la fundamentación de un universalismo concreto.Currency of Kant's philosophy in two recent expressions of the philosophical intelligence in LatinAmerica: Arturo Andrés Roig and Franz J. Hinkelammert. When it is twohundred years of Immanuel Kant´s death , to consider the currency of his philosophical thought means a categorial must, for those who are involved in the tradition of occidental philosophy. Taking this into account, the next introduced is based on the currency of the philosopher of Königsberg from the consideration of two expressions of the philosophical intelligence in LatinAmerica: Arturo Andrés Roig y Franz J.Hinkelammert . The curriculums of investigation of the chosen authors in the search and developement of different topics, come, from the point of view of arguments, from, against and beyond Kant, showing a particular currency of his philosophy within them. In Arturo Andrés Roig´s thought, the topics of reference considered are: normativity of philosophical thought, philosophy of history, the explanation of an emergent morality and of a motivational aesthetics. From the theoretical production of Franz J. Hinkkelammert, we introduce: the criticism to utopical reason and the political realism, the outstanding criticism of the categorical frames of social thoughts, the trascendentality of the subject and the question of ethical universalism in the tension between ethics of responsability and the ethics of principles. It comes out from the previous topics that, in relation to Kant´s abstrac universalism, these two samples of philosophical intelligence in LatinAmerica, are gathered in the foundation of a concrete universalism. (shrink)
The mechanisms of imperial control - violence and economic warfare, hardly a distant memory in LatinAmerica - are losing their effectiveness, a sign of the shift toward independence. Washington is now compelled to tolerate governments that in the past would have drawn intervention or reprisal.
Se trata de mostrar y analizar algunas de las lecturas que se han hecho de la obra de Mohandas Gandhi en América Latina en las últimas décadas, a través de un escrito que se balancea entre una investigación empírica y el estudio de un caso que permite presentar dos problemas teóricos. Para esto se abordan autores y autoras de diversos países de la región, que permiten aludir a dos problemas teóricos que se formulan en este trabajo: la circulación de las (...) ideas entre regiones Sur-Sur, la reelaboración de las ideas en la región receptora. Estos problemas son claves en el desarrollo de los estudios eidéticos como disciplina. Se realiza una introducción respecto a la recepción de las ideas de Gandhi en la región hacia 1930, estudiando las articulaciones del pensamiento de éste con otros autores y tendencias de pensamiento y señalando algunas recepciones y cruzamientos posteriores. Luego el trabajo se focaliza en estudiosos de Argentina, Brasil, Chile, México, Nicaragua, Puerto Rico y Venezuela, tratando de presentar varios casos diferentes y que cubran numerosos países de la región, apuntando a un muestreo válido, aunque sin suficiente afirmación metodológica. The intention of this work is to show and analyze some of the readings that have been done about Mohandas Gandhi’s work in LatinAmerica in the last decades, by means of a writing that swings between an empirical research and the study of a case that allows to present two theoretical problems. For this there are approached authors and authoresses of diverse countries of the region, who allow to allude to two theoretical problems that are formulated in this work: the flow of the ideas between South-South regions, the reformulation of the ideas in the receiving region. These issues are key to the development of the eidéticos studies as a discipline. An introduction is made regarding the reception of the ideas of Gandhi in the region by 1930, studying the joints of his thought and of those of other authors and trends of thought, pointing out some receptions and later crosses. Then the work focuses in experts of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Nicaragua, Puerto Rico and Venezuela, trying to present several different cases covering numerous countries of the region, pointing at a valid sampling, though without sufficient methodological affirmation. (shrink)
This article analyses the development and achievements of the area of History in the Tuning-LatinAmerica Project from its launch in 2004 to its completion in 2013. Through two phases and nine general meetings, academics from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Guatemala, Mexico and Peru, along with academics from Spain, Portugal and Italy, discussed the professional formation of future generations of historians. The debate centred on the concept of “competences” as the axis of training, a concept (...) which generated innovative thinking and understanding but also friction due to specific historiographic traditions and regions. The Tuning-LatinAmerica Project generated a significant body of documentation on the new challenges implicit in training historians in a globalized world. However, it has not received sufficient analysis from the Latin-American perspective. This article contributes to this by providing insight on the Tuning Project’s successes and limitations in LatinAmerica, as well... (shrink)
This essay briefly explores the phenomenon of nepantla in three representative cross-cultural encounters, in both initial and later phases: Spain-LatinAmerica, England-India, and the West-Japan. Nepantla is a mode of in-betweenness rooted in the historical encounter between cultures and leading to mediation of various kinds. For LatinAmerica, the essay focuses on Columbus, the Cortés-Moctezuma encounter, the Aztec-Franciscan dialogues of 1524, Gabriel García Márquez, and Mario Vargas Llosa. For India, the essay comments on the East India (...) Company, English education in India, Lord Macaulay, Dean Mahomet, Rabindranath Tagore, Salman Rushdie, V.S. Naipaul, and a number of other writers from the early, mid and late twentieth century. For Japan, the essay considers, first, Japanese reactions to missionary activities in the sixteenth century, then the opening up of Japan in the nineteenth century, the Meiji Restoration and its literature, and in particular authors like Fukuzawa, Sōseki, Endō, Kawabata, and Ōe.... (shrink)
This chapter presents the text of a lecture on the legacies of surrealism in LatinAmerica given at the 2009 British Academy Lecture Series. This text discusses the tensions between surrealist internationalism and local cultural nationalisms, the contested relationship between surrealism and Magic Realism, and the enduring surrealist fascination with Pre-Columbian art and architecture. It analyzes the works of Mexican artists Frida Kahlo and Gunther Gerzso and works of contemporary Brazilian artist Cildo Meireles. It contents that art from (...)LatinAmerica has flourished in recent years without claiming surrealism as an exclusive source. (shrink)