Results for 'machine learning'

990 found
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  1.  22
    Engaging Tomorrow’s Doctors in Clinical Ethics: Implications for Healthcare Organisations.Laura L. Machin & Robin D. Proctor - 2020 - Health Care Analysis 29 (4):319-342.
    Clinical ethics can be viewed as a practical discipline that provides a structured approach to assist healthcare practitioners in identifying, analysing and resolving ethical issues that arise in practice. Clinical ethics can therefore promote ethically sound clinical and organisational practices and decision-making, thereby contributing to health organisation and system quality improvement. In order to develop students’ decision-making skills, as well as prepare them for practice, we decided to introduce a clinical ethics strand within an undergraduate medical curriculum. We designed a (...)
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  2.  12
    The misleading nature of flow charts and diagrams in organizational communication: The case of performance management of preschools in Sweden.David Machin & Per Ledin - 2020 - Semiotica 2020 (236-237):405-425.
    It has become common to find diagrams and flow-charts used in our organizations to illustrate the nature of processes, what is involved and how it happens, or to show how parts of the organization interrelate to each other and work together. Such diagrams are used as they are thought to help visualization and simplify things in order to represent the essence of a particular situation, the core features. In this paper, using a social semiotic approach, we show that we need (...)
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  3.  21
    Prepared for practice? UK Foundation doctors’ confidence in dealing with ethical issues in the workplace.Lorraine Corfield, Richard Alun Williams, Claire Lavelle, Natalie Latcham, Khojasta Talash & Laura Machin - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (12):e25-e25.
    This paper investigates the medical law and ethics learning needs of Foundation doctors by means of a national survey developed in association with key stakeholders including the General Medical Council and Health Education England. Four hundred sevnty-nine doctors completed the survey. The average self-reported level of preparation in MEL was 63%. When asked to rate how confident they felt in approaching three cases of increasing ethical complexity, more FYs were fully confident in the more complex cases than in the (...)
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  4. Reliability in Machine Learning.Thomas Grote, Konstantin Genin & Emily Sullivan - 2024 - Philosophy Compass 19 (5):e12974.
    Issues of reliability are claiming center-stage in the epistemology of machine learning. This paper unifies different branches in the literature and points to promising research directions, whilst also providing an accessible introduction to key concepts in statistics and machine learning – as far as they are concerned with reliability.
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  5. Machine Learning and Irresponsible Inference: Morally Assessing the Training Data for Image Recognition Systems.Owen C. King - 2019 - In Matteo Vincenzo D'Alfonso & Don Berkich (eds.), On the Cognitive, Ethical, and Scientific Dimensions of Artificial Intelligence. Springer Verlag. pp. 265-282.
    Just as humans can draw conclusions responsibly or irresponsibly, so too can computers. Machine learning systems that have been trained on data sets that include irresponsible judgments are likely to yield irresponsible predictions as outputs. In this paper I focus on a particular kind of inference a computer system might make: identification of the intentions with which a person acted on the basis of photographic evidence. Such inferences are liable to be morally objectionable, because of a way in (...)
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  6. Explainable machine learning practices: opening another black box for reliable medical AI.Emanuele Ratti & Mark Graves - 2022 - AI and Ethics:1-14.
    In the past few years, machine learning (ML) tools have been implemented with success in the medical context. However, several practitioners have raised concerns about the lack of transparency—at the algorithmic level—of many of these tools; and solutions from the field of explainable AI (XAI) have been seen as a way to open the ‘black box’ and make the tools more trustworthy. Recently, Alex London has argued that in the medical context we do not need machine (...) tools to be interpretable at the algorithmic level to make them trustworthy, as long as they meet some strict empirical desiderata. In this paper, we analyse and develop London’s position. In particular, we make two claims. First, we claim that London’s solution to the problem of trust can potentially address another problem, which is how to evaluate the reliability of ML tools in medicine for regulatory purposes. Second, we claim that to deal with this problem, we need to develop London’s views by shifting the focus from the opacity of algorithmic details to the opacity of the way in which ML tools are trained and built. We claim that to regulate AI tools and evaluate their reliability, agencies need an explanation of how ML tools have been built, which requires documenting and justifying the technical choices that practitioners have made in designing such tools. This is because different algorithmic designs may lead to different outcomes, and to the realization of different purposes. However, given that technical choices underlying algorithmic design are shaped by value-laden considerations, opening the black box of the design process means also making transparent and motivating (technical and ethical) values and preferences behind such choices. Using tools from philosophy of technology and philosophy of science, we elaborate a framework showing how an explanation of the training processes of ML tools in medicine should look like. (shrink)
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  7.  62
    Believing in black boxes: machine learning for healthcare does not need explainability to be evidence-based.Liam G. McCoy, Connor T. A. Brenna, Stacy S. Chen, Karina Vold & Sunit Das - 2022 - Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 142:252-257.
    Objective: To examine the role of explainability in machine learning for healthcare (MLHC), and its necessity and significance with respect to effective and ethical MLHC application. Study Design and Setting: This commentary engages with the growing and dynamic corpus of literature on the use of MLHC and artificial intelligence (AI) in medicine, which provide the context for a focused narrative review of arguments presented in favour of and opposition to explainability in MLHC. Results: We find that concerns regarding (...)
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  8.  2
    Towards Transnational Fairness in Machine Learning: A Case Study in Disaster Response Systems.Cem Kozcuer, Anne Mollen & Felix Bießmann - 2024 - Minds and Machines 34 (2):1-26.
    Research on fairness in machine learning (ML) has been largely focusing on individual and group fairness. With the adoption of ML-based technologies as assistive technology in complex societal transformations or crisis situations on a global scale these existing definitions fail to account for algorithmic fairness transnationally. We propose to complement existing perspectives on algorithmic fairness with a notion of transnational algorithmic fairness and take first steps towards an analytical framework. We exemplify the relevance of a transnational fairness assessment (...)
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  9. Egalitarian Machine Learning.Clinton Castro, David O’Brien & Ben Schwan - 2023 - Res Publica 29 (2):237–264.
    Prediction-based decisions, which are often made by utilizing the tools of machine learning, influence nearly all facets of modern life. Ethical concerns about this widespread practice have given rise to the field of fair machine learning and a number of fairness measures, mathematically precise definitions of fairness that purport to determine whether a given prediction-based decision system is fair. Following Reuben Binns (2017), we take ‘fairness’ in this context to be a placeholder for a variety of (...)
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  10.  44
    On Machine Learning and the Replacement of Human Labour: Anti-Cartesianism versus Babbage’s path.Felipe Tobar & Rodrigo González - 2022 - AI and Society 37 (4):1459-1471.
    This paper addresses two methodological paths in Artificial Intelligence: the paths of Babbage and anti-Cartesianism. While those researchers who have followed the latter have attempted to reverse the Cartesian dictum according to which machines cannot think in principle, Babbage’s path, which has been partially neglected, implies that the replacement of humans—and not the creation of minds—should provide the foundation of AI. In view of the examined paths, the claim that we support here is this: in line with Babbage, AI researchers (...)
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  11. Machines learning values.Steve Petersen - 2020 - In S. Matthew Liao (ed.), Ethics of Artificial Intelligence. New York, USA: Oxford University Press.
    Whether it would take one decade or several centuries, many agree that it is possible to create a *superintelligence*---an artificial intelligence with a godlike ability to achieve its goals. And many who have reflected carefully on this fact agree that our best hope for a "friendly" superintelligence is to design it to *learn* values like ours, since our values are too complex to program or hardwire explicitly. But the value learning approach to AI safety faces three particularly philosophical puzzles: (...)
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  12.  58
    Machine Learning, Functions and Goals.Patrick Butlin - 2022 - Croatian Journal of Philosophy 22 (66):351-370.
    Machine learning researchers distinguish between reinforcement learning and supervised learning and refer to reinforcement learning systems as “agents”. This paper vindicates the claim that systems trained by reinforcement learning are agents while those trained by supervised learning are not. Systems of both kinds satisfy Dretske’s criteria for agency, because they both learn to produce outputs selectively in response to inputs. However, reinforcement learning is sensitive to the instrumental value of outputs, giving rise (...)
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  13.  17
    Machine Learning in Psychometrics and Psychological Research.Graziella Orrù, Merylin Monaro, Ciro Conversano, Angelo Gemignani & Giuseppe Sartori - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 10:492685.
    Recent controversies about the level of replicability of behavioral research analyzed using statistical inference have cast interest in developing more efficient techniques for analyzing the results of psychological experiments. Here we claim that complementing the analytical workflow of psychological experiments with Machine Learning-based analysis will both maximize accuracy and minimize replicability issues. As compared to statistical inference, ML analysis of experimental data is model agnostic and primarily focused on prediction rather than inference. We also highlight some potential pitfalls (...)
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  14. Machine learning, justification, and computational reliabilism.Juan Manuel Duran - 2023
    This article asks the question, ``what is reliable machine learning?'' As I intend to answer it, this is a question about epistemic justification. Reliable machine learning gives justification for believing its output. Current approaches to reliability (e.g., transparency) involve showing the inner workings of an algorithm (functions, variables, etc.) and how they render outputs. We then have justification for believing the output because we know how it was computed. Thus, justification is contingent on what can be (...)
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  15. Building machine learning pipelines.H. Hapke & L. Nelson - 2020 - O’Reilly Media.
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  16. Machine learning based privacy-preserving fair data trading in big data market.Y. Zhao, Y. Yu, Y. Li, G. Han & X. Du - 2019 - Information Sciences 478.
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  17. Using machine learning to predict decisions of the European Court of Human Rights.Masha Medvedeva, Michel Vols & Martijn Wieling - 2020 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 28 (2):237-266.
    When courts started publishing judgements, big data analysis within the legal domain became possible. By taking data from the European Court of Human Rights as an example, we investigate how natural language processing tools can be used to analyse texts of the court proceedings in order to automatically predict judicial decisions. With an average accuracy of 75% in predicting the violation of 9 articles of the European Convention on Human Rights our approach highlights the potential of machine learning (...)
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  18. Machine Learning, Misinformation, and Citizen Science.Adrian K. Yee - 2023 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 13 (56):1-24.
    Current methods of operationalizing concepts of misinformation in machine learning are often problematic given idiosyncrasies in their success conditions compared to other models employed in the natural and social sciences. The intrinsic value-ladenness of misinformation and the dynamic relationship between citizens' and social scientists' concepts of misinformation jointly suggest that both the construct legitimacy and the construct validity of these models needs to be assessed via more democratic criteria than has previously been recognized.
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  19.  14
    Using machine learning to predict decisions of the European Court of Human Rights.Masha Medvedeva, Michel Vols & Martijn Wieling - 2020 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 28 (2):237-266.
    When courts started publishing judgements, big data analysis within the legal domain became possible. By taking data from the European Court of Human Rights as an example, we investigate how natural language processing tools can be used to analyse texts of the court proceedings in order to automatically predict judicial decisions. With an average accuracy of 75% in predicting the violation of 9 articles of the European Convention on Human Rights our approach highlights the potential of machine learning (...)
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  20.  43
    Fairer machine learning in the real world: Mitigating discrimination without collecting sensitive data.Reuben Binns & Michael Veale - 2017 - Big Data and Society 4 (2):205395171774353.
    Decisions based on algorithmic, machine learning models can be unfair, reproducing biases in historical data used to train them. While computational techniques are emerging to address aspects of these concerns through communities such as discrimination-aware data mining and fairness, accountability and transparency machine learning, their practical implementation faces real-world challenges. For legal, institutional or commercial reasons, organisations might not hold the data on sensitive attributes such as gender, ethnicity, sexuality or disability needed to diagnose and mitigate (...)
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  21.  32
    Machine learning in medicine: should the pursuit of enhanced interpretability be abandoned?Chang Ho Yoon, Robert Torrance & Naomi Scheinerman - 2022 - Journal of Medical Ethics 48 (9):581-585.
    We argue why interpretability should have primacy alongside empiricism for several reasons: first, if machine learning models are beginning to render some of the high-risk healthcare decisions instead of clinicians, these models pose a novel medicolegal and ethical frontier that is incompletely addressed by current methods of appraising medical interventions like pharmacological therapies; second, a number of judicial precedents underpinning medical liability and negligence are compromised when ‘autonomous’ ML recommendations are considered to be en par with human instruction (...)
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  22.  6
    Fuzzy logic: applications in artificial intelligence, big data, and machine learning.Lefteri H. Tsoukalas - 2023 - New York: McGraw Hill.
    This hands-on guide offers clear explanations of fuzzy logic along with practical uses and detailed examples. Written by an award-winning engineer and experienced author, Fuzzy Logic: Applications in Artificial Intelligence, Big Data, and Machine Learning is aimed at improving competence and skills in students and professionals alike. Inside, you will discover how to apply fuzzy logic and migrate to a new man-machine relationship in the context of pervasive digitization and big data across emerging technologies. The book lays (...)
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  23.  99
    Machine Learning and the Future of Scientific Explanation.Florian J. Boge & Michael Poznic - 2021 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 52 (1):171-176.
    The workshop “Machine Learning: Prediction Without Explanation?” brought together philosophers of science and scholars from various fields who study and employ Machine Learning (ML) techniques, in order to discuss the changing face of science in the light of ML's constantly growing use. One major focus of the workshop was on the impact of ML on the concept and value of scientific explanation. One may speculate whether ML’s increased use in science exemplifies a paradigmatic turn towards mere (...)
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  24.  29
    Machine learning and power relations.Jonne Maas - forthcoming - AI and Society.
    There has been an increased focus within the AI ethics literature on questions of power, reflected in the ideal of accountability supported by many Responsible AI guidelines. While this recent debate points towards the power asymmetry between those who shape AI systems and those affected by them, the literature lacks normative grounding and misses conceptual clarity on how these power dynamics take shape. In this paper, I develop a workable conceptualization of said power dynamics according to Cristiano Castelfranchi’s conceptual framework (...)
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  25. Introduction: Machine learning as philosophy of science.Kevin B. Korb - 2004 - Minds and Machines 14 (4):433-440.
    I consider three aspects in which machine learning and philosophy of science can illuminate each other: methodology, inductive simplicity and theoretical terms. I examine the relations between the two subjects and conclude by claiming these relations to be very close.
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  26. Understanding from Machine Learning Models.Emily Sullivan - 2022 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 73 (1):109-133.
    Simple idealized models seem to provide more understanding than opaque, complex, and hyper-realistic models. However, an increasing number of scientists are going in the opposite direction by utilizing opaque machine learning models to make predictions and draw inferences, suggesting that scientists are opting for models that have less potential for understanding. Are scientists trading understanding for some other epistemic or pragmatic good when they choose a machine learning model? Or are the assumptions behind why minimal models (...)
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  27. What is it for a Machine Learning Model to Have a Capability?Jacqueline Harding & Nathaniel Sharadin - forthcoming - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
    What can contemporary machine learning (ML) models do? Given the proliferation of ML models in society, answering this question matters to a variety of stakeholders, both public and private. The evaluation of models' capabilities is rapidly emerging as a key subfield of modern ML, buoyed by regulatory attention and government grants. Despite this, the notion of an ML model possessing a capability has not been interrogated: what are we saying when we say that a model is able to (...)
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  28. Clinical applications of machine learning algorithms: beyond the black box.David S. Watson, Jenny Krutzinna, Ian N. Bruce, Christopher E. M. Griffiths, Iain B. McInnes, Michael R. Barnes & Luciano Floridi - 2019 - British Medical Journal 364:I886.
    Machine learning algorithms may radically improve our ability to diagnose and treat disease. For moral, legal, and scientific reasons, it is essential that doctors and patients be able to understand and explain the predictions of these models. Scalable, customisable, and ethical solutions can be achieved by working together with relevant stakeholders, including patients, data scientists, and policy makers.
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  29.  10
    What Machine Learning Can Tell Us About the Role of Language Dominance in the Diagnostic Accuracy of German LITMUS Non-word and Sentence Repetition Tasks.Lina Abed Ibrahim & István Fekete - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
    This study investigates the performance of 21 monolingual and 56 bilingual children aged 5;6-9;0 on German-LITMUS-sentence-repetition (SRT; Hamann et al., 2013) and nonword-repetition-tasks (NWRT; Grimm et al., 2014), which were constructed according to the LITMUS-principles (Language Impairment Testing in Multilingual Settings; Armon-Lotem et al., 2015). Both tasks incorporate complex structures shown to be cross-linguistically challenging for children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and aim at minimizing bias against bilingual children while still being indicative of the presence of language impairment across (...)
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  30. Explaining Machine Learning Decisions.John Zerilli - 2022 - Philosophy of Science 89 (1):1-19.
    The operations of deep networks are widely acknowledged to be inscrutable. The growing field of Explainable AI has emerged in direct response to this problem. However, owing to the nature of the opacity in question, XAI has been forced to prioritise interpretability at the expense of completeness, and even realism, so that its explanations are frequently interpretable without being underpinned by more comprehensive explanations faithful to the way a network computes its predictions. While this has been taken to be a (...)
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  31. Human Induction in Machine Learning: A Survey of the Nexus.Petr Spelda & Vit Stritecky - forthcoming - ACM Computing Surveys.
    As our epistemic ambitions grow, the common and scientific endeavours are becoming increasingly dependent on Machine Learning (ML). The field rests on a single experimental paradigm, which consists of splitting the available data into a training and testing set and using the latter to measure how well the trained ML model generalises to unseen samples. If the model reaches acceptable accuracy, an a posteriori contract comes into effect between humans and the model, supposedly allowing its deployment to target (...)
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  32.  6
    Machine learning and the quest for objectivity in climate model parameterization.Julie Jebeile, Vincent Lam, Mason Majszak & Tim Räz - 2023 - Climatic Change 176 (101).
    Parameterization and parameter tuning are central aspects of climate modeling, and there is widespread consensus that these procedures involve certain subjective elements. Even if the use of these subjective elements is not necessarily epistemically problematic, there is an intuitive appeal for replacing them with more objective (automated) methods, such as machine learning. Relying on several case studies, we argue that, while machine learning techniques may help to improve climate model parameterization in several ways, they still require (...)
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  33.  24
    Machine learning in healthcare and the methodological priority of epistemology over ethics.Thomas Grote - forthcoming - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy.
    This paper develops an account of how the implementation of ML models into healthcare settings requires revising the methodological apparatus of philosophical bioethics. On this account, ML models are cognitive interventions that provide decision-support to physicians and patients. Due to reliability issues, opaque reasoning processes, and information asymmetries, ML models pose inferential problems for them. These inferential problems lay the grounds for many ethical problems that currently claim centre-stage in the bioethical debate. Accordingly, this paper argues that the best way (...)
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  34.  7
    Machine Learning.Paul Thagard - 2017 - In William Bechtel & George Graham (eds.), A Companion to Cognitive Science. Oxford, UK: Blackwell. pp. 245–249.
    Machine learning is the study of algorithms that enable computers to improve their performance and increase their knowledge base. Research in machine learning has taken place since the beginning of artificial intelligence in the mid‐1950s. The first notable success was Arthur Samuel's program that learned to play checkers well enough to beat skilled humans. The program estimated the best move in a situation by using a mathematical function whose sixteen parameters describe board positions, and it improved (...)
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  35.  25
    Applying machine learning methods to quantify emotional experience in installation art.Sofia Vlachou & Michail Panagopoulos - 2023 - Technoetic Arts 21 (1):53-72.
    Aesthetic experience is original, dynamic and ever-changing. This article covers three research questions (RQs) concerning how immersive installation artworks can elicit emotions that may contribute to their popularity. Based on Yayoi Kusama’s and Peter Kogler’s kaleidoscopic rooms, this study aims to predict the emotions of visitors of immersive installation art based on their Twitter activity. As indicators, we employed the total number of likes, comments, retweets, followers, followings, the average of tweets per user, and emotional response. According to our evaluation (...)
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  36.  72
    Using machine learning to create a repository of judgments concerning a new practice area: a case study in animal protection law.Joe Watson, Guy Aglionby & Samuel March - 2023 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 31 (2):293-324.
    Judgments concerning animals have arisen across a variety of established practice areas. There is, however, no publicly available repository of judgments concerning the emerging practice area of animal protection law. This has hindered the identification of individual animal protection law judgments and comprehension of the scale of animal protection law made by courts. Thus, we detail the creation of an initial animal protection law repository using natural language processing and machine learning techniques. This involved domain expert classification of (...)
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  37.  45
    Machines Learn Better with Better Data Ontology: Lessons from Philosophy of Induction and Machine Learning Practice.Dan Li - 2023 - Minds and Machines 33 (3):429-450.
    As scientists start to adopt machine learning (ML) as one research tool, the security of ML and the knowledge generated become a concern. In this paper, I explain how supervised ML can be improved with better data ontology, or the way we make categories and turn information into data. More specifically, we should design data ontology in such a way that is consistent with the knowledge that we have about the target phenomenon so that such ontology can help (...)
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  38.  37
    Machine learning and essentialism.Kristina Šekrst & Sandro Skansi - 2022 - Zagadnienia Filozoficzne W Nauce 73:171-196.
    Machine learning and essentialism have been connected in the past by various researchers, in order to state that the main paradigm in machine learning processes is equivalent to choosing the “essential” attributes for the machine to search for. Our goal in this paper is to show that there are connections between machine learning and essentialism, but only for some kinds of machine learning, and often not including deep learning methods. Similarity-based (...)
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  39.  30
    Machine learning applications in healthcare and the role of informed consent: Ethical and practical considerations.Giorgia Lorenzini, David Martin Shaw, Laura Arbelaez Ossa & Bernice Simone Elger - forthcoming - Clinical Ethics:147775092210944.
    Informed consent is at the core of the clinical relationship. With the introduction of machine learning in healthcare, the role of informed consent is challenged. This paper addresses the issue of whether patients must be informed about medical ML applications and asked for consent. It aims to expose the discrepancy between ethical and practical considerations, while arguing that this polarization is a false dichotomy: in reality, ethics is applied to specific contexts and situations. Bridging this gap and considering (...)
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  40. Fair machine learning under partial compliance.Jessica Dai, Sina Fazelpour & Zachary Lipton - 2021 - In Jessica Dai, Sina Fazelpour & Zachary Lipton (eds.), Proceedings of the 2021 AAAI/ACM Conference on AI, Ethics, and Society. pp. 55–65.
    Typically, fair machine learning research focuses on a single decision maker and assumes that the underlying population is stationary. However, many of the critical domains motivating this work are characterized by competitive marketplaces with many decision makers. Realistically, we might expect only a subset of them to adopt any non-compulsory fairness-conscious policy, a situation that political philosophers call partial compliance. This possibility raises important questions: how does partial compliance and the consequent strategic behavior of decision subjects affect the (...)
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  41.  13
    Machine learning in tutorials – Universal applicability, underinformed application, and other misconceptions.Andreas Breiter, Juliane Jarke & Hendrik Heuer - 2021 - Big Data and Society 8 (1).
    Machine learning has become a key component of contemporary information systems. Unlike prior information systems explicitly programmed in formal languages, ML systems infer rules from data. This paper shows what this difference means for the critical analysis of socio-technical systems based on machine learning. To provide a foundation for future critical analysis of machine learning-based systems, we engage with how the term is framed and constructed in self-education resources. For this, we analyze machine (...)
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  42. Machine learning theory and practice as a source of insight into universal grammar.Shalom Lappin - unknown
    In this paper, we explore the possibility that machine learning approaches to naturallanguage processing being developed in engineering-oriented computational linguistics may be able to provide specific scientific insights into the nature of human language. We argue that, in principle, machine learning results could inform basic debates about language, in one area at least, and that in practice, existing results may offer initial tentative support for this prospect. Further, results from computational learning theory can inform arguments (...)
     
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  43.  83
    Machine learning by imitating human learning.Chang Kuo-Chin, Hong Tzung-Pei & Tseng Shian-Shyong - 1996 - Minds and Machines 6 (2):203-228.
    Learning general concepts in imperfect environments is difficult since training instances often include noisy data, inconclusive data, incomplete data, unknown attributes, unknown attribute values and other barriers to effective learning. It is well known that people can learn effectively in imperfect environments, and can manage to process very large amounts of data. Imitating human learning behavior therefore provides a useful model for machine learning in real-world applications. This paper proposes a new, more effective way to (...)
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  44. Machine learning in scientific grant review: algorithmically predicting project efficiency in high energy physics.Vlasta Sikimić & Sandro Radovanović - 2022 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 12 (3):1-21.
    As more objections have been raised against grant peer-review for being costly and time-consuming, the legitimate question arises whether machine learning algorithms could help assess the epistemic efficiency of the proposed projects. As a case study, we investigated whether project efficiency in high energy physics can be algorithmically predicted based on the data from the proposal. To analyze the potential of algorithmic prediction in HEP, we conducted a study on data about the structure and outcomes of HEP experiments (...)
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  45. Against Interpretability: a Critical Examination of the Interpretability Problem in Machine Learning.Maya Krishnan - 2020 - Philosophy and Technology 33 (3):487-502.
    The usefulness of machine learning algorithms has led to their widespread adoption prior to the development of a conceptual framework for making sense of them. One common response to this situation is to say that machine learning suffers from a “black box problem.” That is, machine learning algorithms are “opaque” to human users, failing to be “interpretable” or “explicable” in terms that would render categorization procedures “understandable.” The purpose of this paper is to challenge (...)
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  46.  25
    Machine learning in human creativity: status and perspectives.Mirko Farina, Andrea Lavazza, Giuseppe Sartori & Witold Pedrycz - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-13.
    As we write this research paper, we notice an explosion in popularity of machine learning in numerous fields (ranging from governance, education, and management to criminal justice, fraud detection, and internet of things). In this contribution, rather than focusing on any of those fields, which have been well-reviewed already, we decided to concentrate on a series of more recent applications of deep learning models and technologies that have only recently gained significant track in the relevant literature. These (...)
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  47. Machine learning theory and practice as a source of insight into universal grammar.Stuartm Shieber - unknown
    In this paper, we explore the possibility that machine learning approaches to naturallanguage processing being developed in engineering-oriented computational linguistics may be able to provide specific scientific insights into the nature of human language. We argue that, in principle, machine learning results could inform basic debates about language, in one area at least, and that in practice, existing results may offer initial tentative support for this prospect. Further, results from computational learning theory can inform arguments (...)
     
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  48.  6
    Machine Learning to Assess Relatedness: The Advantage of Using Firm-Level Data.Giambattista Albora & Andrea Zaccaria - 2022 - Complexity 2022:1-12.
    The relatedness between a country or a firm and a product is a measure of the feasibility of that economic activity. As such, it is a driver for investments at a private and institutional level. Traditionally, relatedness is measured using networks derived by country-level co-occurrences of product pairs, that is counting how many countries export both. In this work, we compare networks and machine learning algorithms trained not only on country-level data, but also on firms, which is something (...)
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  49. Machine learning, inductive reasoning, and reliability of generalisations.Petr Spelda - 2020 - AI and Society 35 (1):29-37.
    The present paper shows how statistical learning theory and machine learning models can be used to enhance understanding of AI-related epistemological issues regarding inductive reasoning and reliability of generalisations. Towards this aim, the paper proceeds as follows. First, it expounds Price’s dual image of representation in terms of the notions of e-representations and i-representations that constitute subject naturalism. For Price, this is not a strictly anti-representationalist position but rather a dualist one (e- and i-representations). Second, the paper (...)
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    Machine learning’s limitations in avoiding automation of bias.Daniel Varona, Yadira Lizama-Mue & Juan Luis Suárez - 2021 - AI and Society 36 (1):197-203.
    The use of predictive systems has become wider with the development of related computational methods, and the evolution of the sciences in which these methods are applied Solon and Selbst and Pedreschi et al.. The referred methods include machine learning techniques, face and/or voice recognition, temperature mapping, and other, within the artificial intelligence domain. These techniques are being applied to solve problems in socially and politically sensitive areas such as crime prevention and justice management, crowd management, and emotion (...)
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