Results for 'mapping and comparing different causal scenarios'

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  1. Turning Negative Causation Back to Positive.Peter Fazekas & George Kampis - manuscript
    In contemporary literature, the fact that there is negative causation is the primary motivation for rejecting the physical connection view, and arguing for alternative accounts of causation. In this paper we insist that such a conclusion is too fast. We present two frameworks, which help the proponent of the physical connection view to resist the anti-connectionist conclusion. According to the first framework, there are positive causal claims, which co-refer with at least some negative causal claims. According to the (...)
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  2. Comparing Different Stimulus Configurations for Population Receptive Field Mapping in Human fMRI.Ivan Alvarez, Benjamin de Haas, Chris A. Clark, Geraint Rees & D. Samuel Schwarzkopf - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
  3.  24
    Analysis of Minimal Complex Systems and Complex Problem Solving Require Different Forms of Causal Cognition.Joachim Funke - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
    In the last 20 years, a stream of research emerged under the label of „complex problem solving“ (CPS). This research was intended to describe the way people deal with complex, dynamic, and intransparent situations. Complex computer-simulated scenarios were as stimulus material in psychological experiments. This line of research lead to subtle insights into the way how people deal with complexity and uncertainty. Besides these knowledge-rich, realistic, intransparent, complex, dynamic scenarios with many variables, a second line of research used (...)
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  4.  11
    Can Farmers Map Their Farm System? Causal Mapping and the Sustainability of Sheep/Beef Farms in New Zealand.John R. Fairweather & Lesley M. Hunt - 2011 - Agriculture and Human Values 28 (1):55-66.
    It is generally accepted that farmers manage a complex farm system. In this article we seek answers to the following questions. How do farmers perceive and understand their farm system? Are they sufficiently aware of their farm system that they are able to represent it in the form of a map? The research reported describes how causal mapping was applied to sheep/beef farmers in New Zealand and shows that farmers can create maps of their farm systems in ways (...)
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  5.  8
    The Perception of Visual Emotion: Comparing Different Measures of Awareness.Remigiusz Szczepanowski, Jakub Traczyk, Michał Wierzchoń & Axel Cleeremans - 2013 - Consciousness and Cognition 22 (1):212-220.
    Here, we explore the sensitivity of different awareness scales in revealing conscious reports on visual emotion perception. Participants were exposed to a backward masking task involving fearful faces and asked to rate their conscious awareness in perceiving emotion in facial expression using three different subjective measures: confidence ratings , with the conventional taxonomy of certainty, the perceptual awareness scale , through which participants categorize “raw” visual experience, and post-decision wagering , which involves economic categorization. Our results show that (...)
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  6.  9
    Simulating the Emergence of Norms in Different Scenarios.Ulf Lotzmann, Michael Möhring & Klaus G. Troitzsch - 2013 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 21 (1):109 - 138.
    This paper deals with EMIL-S, a software tool box which was designed during the EMIL project for the simulation of processes during which norms emerged in an agent society. This tool box implements the cognitive architecture of normative agents which was designed during the EMIL project which is also discussed in other papers in this issue. This implementation is described in necessary detail, and two examples of its application to several different scenarios are given, namely a scenario in (...)
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  7.  8
    Differential Focus in Causal and Counterfactual Thinking: Different Possibilities or Different Functions?David R. Mandel - 2007 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (5-6):460-461.
    In The Rational Imagination, Byrne proposes a mental models account of why causal and counterfactual thinking often focus on different antecedents. This review critically examines the two central propositions of her account, finding both only weakly defensible. Byrne's account is contrasted with judgment dissociation theory, which offers a functional explanation for differences in the focus of causal and counterfactual thinking.
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  8.  14
    Flexible Spatial Mapping of Different Notations of Numbers in Chinese Readers.Yi-hui Hung, Daisy L. Hung, Ovid J.-L. Tzeng & Denise H. Wu - 2008 - Cognition 106 (3):1441-1450.
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  9.  66
    Causal and Constitutive Explanation Compared.Petri Ylikoski - 2013 - Erkenntnis 78 (2):277-297.
    This article compares causal and constitutive explanation. While scientific inquiry usually addresses both causal and constitutive questions, making the distinction is crucial for a detailed understanding of scientific questions and their interrelations. These explanations have different kinds of explananda and they track different sorts of dependencies. Constitutive explanations do not address events or behaviors, but causal capacities. While there are some interesting relations between building and causal manipulation, causation and constitution are not to be (...)
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  10.  1
    Corrigendum to “Flexible Spatial Mapping of Different Notations of Numbers in Chinese Readers” [Cognition 106 1441–1450]. [REVIEW]Yi-hui Hung, Daisy L. Hung, Ovid J.-L. Tzeng & Denise H. Wu - 2010 - Cognition 116 (2):302-302.
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  11. Comparing Different Models and Response Transformations in an Information Integration Task.Irwin P. Levin - 1976 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 7 (1):78-80.
  12. Mapping for Depth and Variety: Using a “Six W’s” Scaffold to Facilitate Concept Mapping for Different History Concepts with Different Degrees of Freedom.Jeng-Yi Tzeng - 2014 - Educational Studies 40 (3):253-276.
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  13.  3
    What We Imagine Versus How We Imagine, and a Problem for Explaining Counterfactual Thoughts with Causal Ones.Winston Chang Herrmann - 2007 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (5-6):455-456.
    Causal and counterfactual thoughts are bound together in Byrne's theory of human imagination. We think there are two issues in her theory that deserve clarification. First, Byrne describes which counterfactual possibilities we think of, but she leaves unexplained the mechanisms by which we generate these possibilities. Second, her exploration of and enablers gives two different predictions of which counterfactuals we think of in causal scenarios. On one account, we think of the counterfactuals which we have control (...)
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  14.  64
    Causal Concepts in Chemical Vernaculars.Rom Harré - 2010 - Foundations of Chemistry 12 (2):101-115.
    Though causality seems to have a natural place in chemical thought, the analysis of the underlying causal concepts requires attention to two different research styles. In Part One I attempt a classification and critical analysis of several philosophical accounts of causal concepts which appear to be very diverse. I summarize this diversity which ranges from causality as displayed in regular concomitances of types of events to causality as the activity of agents. Part Two is concerned with the (...)
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  15.  47
    Comparing Modal Sequent Systems.Greg Restall - unknown
    This is an exploratory and expository paper, comparing display logic formulations of normal modal logics with labelled sequent systems. We provide a translation from display sequents into labelled sequents. The comparison between different systems gives us a different way to understand the difference between display systems and other sequent calculi as a difference between local and global views of consequence. The mapping between display and labelled systems also gives us a way to understand labelled systems as (...)
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  16.  9
    Why Are Different Features Central for Natural Kinds and Artifacts?: The Role of Causal Status in Determining Feature Centrality.W. Ahn - 1998 - Cognition 69 (2):135-178.
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  17. Comparing the Effectiveness of Different Displays in Enhancing Illusions of Self-Movement.Bernhard E. Riecke & Jacqueline D. Jordan - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  18.  19
    Mapping Our Progress: Identifying, Categorizing and Comparing Universities' Ethics Infrastructures. [REVIEW]Patricia C. Kelley, Bradley R. Agle & Jason DeMott - 2005 - Journal of Academic Ethics 3 (2-4):205-229.
    Ethics researchers have scrutinized ethical business problems, which have been demonstrated through the actions of managers at Enron, WorldCom, and Arthur Andersen, among others. In response to these business transgressions, the US government has implemented the Sarbanes–Oxley Act to shore up businesses’ ethics infrastructures. However, universities, too, struggle with ethics problems. These include NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association) violations, discrimination issues, sexual harassment, endowment admits, plagiarism, and research funding manipulation. Despite these problems, we have little knowledge regarding universities’ ethics infrastructures (...)
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  19. To a Reader Voyaging Through the Meditations for the First Time, Descartes' Proofs for the Existence of God Can Seem Daunting, Especially the Argument of Meditation III, with its Appeal to Causal Principles That Seem Arcane, and to Medieval Doctrines About Different Modes of Being and Degrees of Reality. First-Time Readers Are Not Alone in Feeling Bewildered. Many Commentators Have Had the Same Reaction. In an Attempt at Charity, Some of Them Have Tried to Tame the Complexity of Descartes' Discussion by .. [REVIEW]Lawrence Nolan & Alan Nelson - 2006 - In Stephen Gaukroger (ed.), Blackwell Guide to Descartes’ Meditations. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 2--104.
     
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  20.  3
    Physicians' Legal Defensiveness in End-of-Life Treatment Decisions: Comparing Attitudes and Knowledge in States with Different Laws.S. V. McCrary, J. W. Swanson, J. Coulehan, K. Faber-Langendoen, R. S. Olick & C. Belling - 2006 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 17 (1):15.
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  21.  14
    A Different Cut? Comparing Attitudes Toward Animals and Propensity for Aggression Within Two Primary Industry Cohorts—Farmers and Meatworkers.Nik Taylor, Emma Richards & Tania Signal - 2013 - Society and Animals 21 (4):395-413.
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  22.  6
    Comparing Student Understanding of Quantum Physics When Embedding Multimodal Representations Into Two Different Writing Formats: Presentation Format Versus Summary Report Format.Murat Gunel, Brian Hand & Sevket Gunduz - 2006 - Science Education 90 (6):1092-1112.
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  23.  1
    Mechanisms of Change in Dutch Inspected Schools: Comparing Schools in Different Inspection Treatments.Melanie C. M. Ehren & Nichola Shackleton - 2016 - British Journal of Educational Studies 64 (2):185-213.
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  24. What's Alike? What's Different?: The Book of Comparing.Jack Wassermann - 1990 - Walker & Co..
     
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  25.  7
    Uncertainties, Plurality, and Robustness in Climate Research and Modeling: On the Reliability of Climate Prognoses.Anna Leuschner - 2015 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 46 (2):367-381.
    The paper addresses the evaluation of climate models and gives an overview of epistemic uncertainties in climate modeling; the uncertainties concern the data situation as well as the causal behavior of the climate system. In order to achieve reasonable results nonetheless, multimodel ensemble studies are employed in which diverse models simulate the future climate under different emission scenarios. The models jointly deliver a robust range of climate prognoses due to a broad plurality of theories, techniques, and methods (...)
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  26.  10
    The Effects of Transgressor Sex on Judgments of Unethical Behavior.Karen J. Maher & Jeffrey J. Bailey - 1999 - Journal of Business Ethics 18 (2):157 - 171.
    This study investigated the effect of gender stereotypes on evaluator judgments of unethical behavior. Subjects were working adults who completed a mailed survey in which they evaluated unethical behavior depicted in written scenarios. Sex of the transgressor in the scenarios was manipulated. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses indicated that there are no stable differences in evaluations of men and women across scenarios. These results suggest that evaluators do not hold different standards of ethical behavior for men (...)
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  27. Thinking with Maps.Elisabeth Camp - 2007 - Philosophical Perspectives 21 (1):145–182.
    Most of us create and use a panoply of non-sentential representations throughout our ordinary lives: we regularly use maps to navigate, charts to keep track of complex patterns of data, and diagrams to visualize logical and causal relations among states of affairs. But philosophers typically pay little attention to such representations, focusing almost exclusively on language instead. In particular, when theorizing about the mind, many philosophers assume that there is a very tight mapping between language and thought. Some (...)
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  28. COMPARING PART-WHOLE REDUCTIVE EXPLANATIONS IN BIOLOGY AND PHYSICS.Alan C. Love & Andreas Hüttemann - 2011 - In Dennis Dieks, Wenceslao Gonzalo, Thomas Uebel, Stephan Hartmann & Marcel Weber (eds.), Explanation, Prediction, and Confirmation. Springer. pp. 183--202.
    Many biologists and philosophers have worried that importing models of reasoning from the physical sciences obscures our understanding of reasoning in the life sciences. In this paper we discuss one example that partially validates this concern: part-whole reductive explanations. Biology and physics tend to incorporate different models of temporality in part-whole reductive explanations. This results from differential emphases on compositional and causal facets of reductive explanations, which have not been distinguished reliably in prior philosophical analyses. Keeping these two (...)
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  29.  72
    The Possibilities of History.Daniel Nolan - 2016 - Journal of the Philosophy of History 10 (3):441-456.
    _ Source: _Volume 10, Issue 3, pp 441 - 456 Several kinds of historical alternatives are distinguished. Different kinds of historical alternatives are valuable to the practice of history for different reasons. Important uses for historical alternatives include representing different sides of historical disputes; distributing chances of different outcomes over alternatives; and offering explanations of why various alternatives did _not_ in fact happen. Consideration of counterfactuals about what would have happened had things been different in (...)
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  30.  13
    Spanish and American Executives' Ethical Judgments and Intentions.Terri L. Rittenburg & Sean R. Valentine - 2002 - Journal of Business Ethics 38 (4):291 - 306.
    This study explores differences between executives in the U.S. and Spain in their perceptions of ethical issues in pricing, specifically comparing a domestic firm's actions affecting a foreign market versus a foreign firm's actions affecting the domestic market. Overall, Spanish and American executives provided somewhat different responses to the scenarios. Findings indicate that ethical judgments and intentions among Spanish executives did not vary based on which country was harmed. U.S. executives generally perceived that a morally questionable act (...)
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  31. Your Money Or Your Life: Comparing Judgements In Trolley Problems Involving Economic And Emotional Harms, Injury And Death.Natalie Gold, Briony Pulford & Andrew Colman - 2013 - Economics and Philosophy 29 (02):213-233.
    There is a long-standing debate in philosophy about whether it is morally permissible to harm one person in order to prevent a greater harm to others and, if not, what is the moral principle underlying the prohibition. Hypothetical moral dilemmas are used in order to probe moral intuitions. Philosophers use them to achieve a reflective equilibrium between intuitions and principles, psychologists to investigate moral decision-making processes. In the dilemmas, the harms that are traded off are almost always deaths. However, the (...)
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  32.  95
    Explanatory Completeness and Idealization in Large Brain Simulations: A Mechanistic Perspective.Marcin Miłkowski - 2016 - Synthese 193 (5):1457-1478.
    The claim defended in the paper is that the mechanistic account of explanation can easily embrace idealization in big-scale brain simulations, and that only causally relevant detail should be present in explanatory models. The claim is illustrated with two methodologically different models: Blue Brain, used for particular simulations of the cortical column in hybrid models, and Eliasmith’s SPAUN model that is both biologically realistic and able to explain eight different tasks. By drawing on the mechanistic theory of computational (...)
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  33.  21
    Inference to the Best Explanation and the Challenge of Skepticism.Bryan C. Appley - unknown
    In this dissertation I consider the problem of external world skepticism and attempts at providing an argument to the best explanation against it. In chapter one I consider several different ways of formulating the crucial skeptical argument, settling on an argument that centers on the question of whether we're justified in believing propositions about the external world. I then consider and reject several options for getting around this issue which I take to be inadequate. I finally conclude that the (...)
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  34.  54
    Moral Inertia.Carolina Sartorio - 2008 - Philosophical Studies 140 (1):117 - 133.
    I argue that, according to ordinary morality, there is moral inertia, that is, moral pressure to fail to intervene in certain circumstances. Moral inertia is manifested in scenarios with a particular causal structure: deflection scenarios, where a threatening or benefiting process is diverted from a group of people to another. I explain why the deflection structure is essential for moral inertia to be manifested. I argue that there are two different manifestations of moral inertia: strict prohibitions (...)
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  35.  13
    Comparing the Actual and Expected Persuasiveness of Evidence Types: How Good Are Lay People at Selecting Persuasive Evidence? [REVIEW]Jos Hornikx - 2008 - Argumentation 22 (4):555-569.
    Whereas there are many publications in which argumentation quality has been defined by argumentation theorists, considerably less research attention has been paid to lay people’s considerations regarding argument quality. Considerations about strong and weak argumentation are relevant because they can be compared with actual persuasive success. Argumentation theorists’ conceptions have to some extent been shown to be compatible with actual effectiveness, but for lay people such compatibility has yet to be determined. This study experimentally investigated lay people’s expectations about the (...)
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  36.  46
    Cognitive Science as an Interface Between Rational and Mechanistic Explanation.Nick Chater - 2014 - Topics in Cognitive Science 6 (2):331-337.
    Cognitive science views thought as computation; and computation, by its very nature, can be understood in both rational and mechanistic terms. In rational terms, a computation solves some information processing problem (e.g., mapping sensory information into a description of the external world; parsing a sentence; selecting among a set of possible actions). In mechanistic terms, a computation corresponds to causal chain of events in a physical device (in engineering context, a silicon chip; in biological context, the nervous system). (...)
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  37.  66
    Probability in Biology: The Case of Fitness.Roberta L. Millstein - 2016 - In A. Hájek & C. R. Hitchcock (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Probability and Philosophy. Oxford University Press. pp. 601-622.
    I argue that the propensity interpretation of fitness, properly understood, not only solves the explanatory circularity problem and the mismatch problem, but can also withstand the Pandora’s box full of problems that have been thrown at it. Fitness is the propensity (i.e., probabilistic ability, based on heritable physical traits) for organisms or types of organisms to survive and reproduce in particular environments and in particular populations for a specified number of generations; if greater than one generation, “reproduction” includes descendants of (...)
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  38.  1
    Crosscutting Psycho-Neural Taxonomies: The Case of Episodic Memory.Muhammad Ali Khalidi - 2017 - Philosophical Explorations 20 (2):191-208.
    I will begin by proposing a taxonomy of taxonomic positions regarding the mind–brain: localism, globalism, revisionism, and contextualism, and will go on to focus on the last position. Although some versions of contextualism have been defended by various researchers, they largely limit themselves to a version of neural contextualism: different brain regions perform different functions in different neural contexts. I will defend what I call “environmental-etiological contextualism,” according to which the psychological functions carried out by various neural (...)
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  39.  29
    Non-Branching Moderate Moralism.W. Scott Clifton - 2014 - Philosophia 42 (1):95-111.
    Noël Carroll’s (“Moderate Moralism”) conceptual framework includes four positions: radical autonomism, moderate autonomism, moderate moralism, and radical moralism. Alessandro Giovanelli (“The Ethical Criticism of Art: A New Mapping of the Territory”) argues that the radical positions, as Carroll defines them, have no modern day adherents. Therefore, the framework should be adapted such that we can see interestingly new distinctions. On Giovanelli’s new framework Carroll’s account is a moderate autonomist view. In this paper I adopt Giovanelli’s framework and raise a (...)
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  40.  16
    Regional Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Akinetic Catatonia and After Remission.S. Goldman - unknown
    K L Kahlbaum published in 1874 the first recorded description of catatonia. Akinetic catatonia is now defined as a neuropsychiatric syndrome principally characterised by akinesia, mutism, stupor, and catalepsy. 1 Even if some advances have been made in the recognition of catatonia, in particular by the development of different rating scales, 1 the pathophysiology of this syndrome is not clearly established. A right handed 14 year old girl presented with akinetic catatonia during an episode of depression in the context (...)
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  41.  61
    Space and Sense: The Role of Location in Understanding Demonstrative Concepts.Gloria Ayob - 2008 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 108 (1pt3):347-354.
    My aim in this paper is to critically evaluate John Campbell's (2002) characterization of the sense of demonstrative terms and his account of why an object's location matters in our understanding of perceptually-based demonstrative terms. Campbell thinks that the senses of a demonstrative term are the different ways of consciously attending to an object. I will evaluate Campbell's account of sense by exploring and comparing two scenarios in which the actual location of a seen object is (...) from its perceived location. I do this in order to motivate the following point: Campbell's characterization of the sense of a demonstrative term turns sense into a psychologistic notion. As a consequence of this, it is difficult to see how sense could underwrite reference. In short, I shall be arguing that Campbell's account of the ways of perceiving an object is simply inadequate as an account of the Fregean notion of sense, according to which the senses of a demonstrative term are the different ways of thinking about an object. (shrink)
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  42.  11
    Mapping Complex Social Transmission: Technical Constraints on the Evolution of Cultures.Mathieu Charbonneau - 2015 - Biology and Philosophy 30 (4):527-546.
    Social transmission is at the core of cultural evolutionary theory. It occurs when a demonstrator uses mental representations to produce some public displays which in turn allow a learner to acquire similar mental representations. Although cultural evolutionists do not dispute this view of social transmission, they typically abstract away from the multistep nature of the process when they speak of cultural variants at large, thereby referring both to variation and evolutionary change in mental representations as well as in their corresponding (...)
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  43.  27
    Analysing Biodiversity: The Necessity of Interdisciplinary Trends in the Development of Ecological Theory.Broder Breckling & Hauke Reuter - 2004 - Poiesis and Praxis 3 (s 1-2):83-105.
    Technological advancement has an ambivalent character concerning the impact on biodiversity. It accounts for major detrimental environmental impacts and aggravates threads to biodiversity. On the other hand, from an application perspective of environmental science, there are technical advancements, which increase the potential of analysis, detection and monitoring of environmental changes and open a wider spectrum of sustainable use strategies.The concept of biodiversity emerged in the last two decades as a political issue to protect the structural and functional basis of earthbound (...)
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  44.  2
    The Idea of a Lost Chance.N. Jansen - 1999 - Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 19 (2):271-296.
    The idea that a lost chance could be a harm generating recovery is relevant for cases of unclear causation. This article examines that idea explaining it as being conceptually based on the common linguistic separation between changes and final events. The idea of a lost change establishes changes as legal rights which constitute limits against tracing hypothetical consequences, where it is principally impossible to establish a causal connection between a damaging event and a finally suffered injury or loss. This (...)
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  45. Your Money or Your Life: Comparing Judgements in Trolley Problems Involving Economic and Emotional Harms, Injury and Death: Natalie Gold Et Al.Natalie Gold, Briony D. Pulford & Andrew M. Colman - 2013 - Economics and Philosophy 29 (2):213-233.
    There is a long-standing debate in philosophy about whether it is morally permissible to harm one person in order to prevent a greater harm to others and, if not, what is the moral principle underlying the prohibition. Hypothetical moral dilemmas are used in order to probe moral intuitions. Philosophers use them to achieve a reflective equilibrium between intuitions and principles, psychologists to investigate moral decision-making processes. In the dilemmas, the harms that are traded off are almost always deaths. However, the (...)
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  46.  56
    Causality as a Theoretical Concept: Explanatory Warrant and Empirical Content of the Theory of Causal Nets.Gerhard Schurz & Alexander Gebharter - 2016 - Synthese 193 (4):1073-1103.
    We start this paper by arguing that causality should, in analogy with force in Newtonian physics, be understood as a theoretical concept that is not explicated by a single definition, but by the axioms of a theory. Such an understanding of causality implicitly underlies the well-known theory of causal nets and has been explicitly promoted by Glymour. In this paper we investigate the explanatory warrant and empirical content of TCN. We sketch how the assumption of directed cause–effect relations can (...)
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  47. Making Things Happen: A Theory of Causal Explanation.James Woodward - 2003 - Oxford University Press.
    Woodward's long awaited book is an attempt to construct a comprehensive account of causation explanation that applies to a wide variety of causal and explanatory claims in different areas of science and everyday life. The book engages some of the relevant literature from other disciplines, as Woodward weaves together examples, counterexamples, criticisms, defenses, objections, and replies into a convincing defense of the core of his theory, which is that we can analyze causation by appeal to the notion of (...)
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  48.  28
    What Difference Reveals About Similarity.Eyal Sagi, Dedre Gentner & Andrew Lovett - 2012 - Cognitive Science 36 (6):1019-1050.
    Detecting that two images are different is faster for highly dissimilar images than for highly similar images. Paradoxically, we showed that the reverse occurs when people are asked to describe how two images differ—that is, to state a difference between two images. Following structure-mapping theory, we propose that this disassociation arises from the multistage nature of the comparison process. Detecting that two images are different can be done in the initial (local-matching) stage, but only for pairs with (...)
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  49. Folk Intuitions About the Causal Theory of Perception.Pendaran Roberts, Keith Allen & Kelly Schmidtke - 2016 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy.
    It is widely held by philosophers not only that there is a causal condition on perception but also that the causal condition is a conceptual truth about perception. One influential line of argument for this claim is based on intuitive responses to a style of thought experiment popularized by Grice. Given the significance of these thought experiments to the literature, it is important to see whether the folk in fact respond to these cases in the way that philosophers (...)
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  50. Genotype–Phenotype Mapping and the End of the ‘Genes as Blueprint’ Metaphor.Massimo Pigliucci - 2010 - Philosophical Transactions Royal Society B 365:557–566.
    In a now classic paper published in 1991, Alberch introduced the concept of genotype–phenotype (G!P) mapping to provide a framework for a more sophisticated discussion of the integration between genetics and developmental biology that was then available. The advent of evo-devo first and of the genomic era later would seem to have superseded talk of transitions in phenotypic space and the like, central to Alberch’s approach. On the contrary, this paper shows that recent empirical and theoretical advances have only (...)
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