Results for 'medical treatment'

999 found
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  1.  85
    Making Decisions About Life-Sustaining Medical Treatment in Patients with Dementia.Arthur R. Derse - 1999 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 20 (1):55-67.
    The problem of decision-making capacity in patients with dementia, such as those with early stage Alzheimer's, can be vexing, especially when these patients refuse life-sustaining medical treatments. However, these patients should not be presumed to lack decision-making capacity. Instead, an analysis of the patient's decision-making capacity should be made. Patients who have some degree of decision-making capacity may be able to make a choice about life-sustaining medical treatment and may, in many cases, choose to forgo treatment.
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  2.  69
    Parental Refusal of Medical Treatment for a Newborn.John J. Paris, Michael D. Schreiber & Michael P. Moreland - 2007 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 28 (5):427-441.
    When there is a conflict between parents and the physician over appropriate care due to an infant whose decision prevails? What standard, if any, should guide such decisions?This article traces the varying standards articulated over the past three decades from the proposal in Duff and Campbell’s 1973 essay that these decisions are best left to the parents to the Baby Doe Regs of the 1980s which required every life that could be salvaged be continued. We conclude with support for the (...)
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  3.  43
    Honeymoon, Medical Treatment or Big Business? An Analysis of the Meanings of the Term “Reproductive Tourism” in German and Israeli Public Media Discourses.Sharon Bassan & Merle A. Michaelsen - 2013 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 8:9.
    Background/IntroductionInfertile couples that travel to another country for reproductive treatment do not refer to themselves as “reproductive tourists”. They might even be offended by this term. “Tourism” is a metaphor with hidden connotations. We will analyze these connotations in public media discourses on “reproductive tourism” in Israel and Germany. We chose to focus on these two countries since legal, ethical and religious restrictions give couples a similar motivation to travel for reproductive care, while the cultural backgrounds and conceptions of (...)
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  4.  15
    The Singleton Case: Enforcing Medical Treatment to Put a Person to Death. [REVIEW]Mirko Daniel Garasic - 2013 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (4):795-806.
    In October 2003 the Supreme Court of the United States allowed Arkansas officials to force Charles Laverne Singleton, a schizophrenic prisoner convicted of murder, to take drugs that would render him sane enough to be executed. On January 6 2004 he was killed by lethal injection, raising many ethical questions. By reference to the Singleton case, this article will analyse in both moral and legal terms the controversial justifications of the enforced medical treatment of death-row inmates. Starting with (...)
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  5.  74
    The Futility of Futility: Death Causation is the 'Elephant in the Room' in Discussions About Limitation of Medical Treatment[REVIEW]Michael A. Ashby - 2011 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 8 (2):151-154.
    The term futility has been widely used in medical ethics and clinical medicine for more than twenty years now. At first glance it appears to offer a clear-cut categorical characterisation of medical treatments at the end of life, and an apparently objective way of making decisions that are seen to be emotionally painful for those close to the patient, and ethically, and also potentially legally hazardous for clinicians. It also appears to deal with causation, because omission of a (...)
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  6. Autonomy, Religious Values, and Refusal of Lifesaving Medical Treatment.M. J. Wreen - 1991 - Journal of Medical Ethics 17 (3):124-130.
    The principal question of this paper is: Why are religious values special in refusal of lifesaving medical treatment? This question is approached through a critical examination of a common kind of refusal of treatment case, one involving a rational adult. The central value cited in defence of honouring such a patient's refusal is autonomy. Once autonomy is isolated from other justificatory factors, however, possible cases can be imagined which cast doubt on the great valuational weight assigned it (...)
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  7. Rationality and the Refusal of Medical Treatment: A Critique of the Recent Approach of the English Courts.M. Stauch - 1995 - Journal of Medical Ethics 21 (3):162-165.
    This paper criticises the current approach of the courts to the problem of patients who refuse life-saving medical treatment. Recent judicial decisions have indicated that, so long as the patient satisfies the minimal test for capacity outlined in Gillick, the courts will not be concerned with the substantive grounds for the refusal. In particular, a 'rationality requirement' will not be imposed. This paper argues that, whilst this approach may accord with our desire to uphold the autonomy of a (...)
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  8.  21
    The Appleton Consensus: Suggested International Guidelines for Decisions to Forego Medical Treatment.J. M. Stanley - 1989 - Journal of Medical Ethics 15 (3):129-136.
    Thirty-three physicians, bioethicists, and medical economists from ten different countries met at Lawrence University, Appleton, Wisconsin, to create The Appleton Consensus: International Guidelines for Decisions to Forego Medical Treatment. The guidelines deal with four specific decision-making circumstances: 1. Five guidelines were created for decisions involving competent patients or patients who have executed an advance directive before becoming incompetent, and those guidelines fell into three categories. 2. Thirteen guidelines were created for decisions involving patients who were once competent, (...)
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  9.  40
    Are Patents for Methods of Medical Treatment Contrary to the Ordre Public and Morality or "Generally Inconvenient"?O. Mitnovetski - 2004 - Journal of Medical Ethics 30 (5):470-475.
    “No one has advanced a just and logical reason why reward for service to the public should be extended to the inventor of a mechanical toy and denied to the genius whose patience, foresight, and effort have given a valuable new [discovery] to mankind” . The law around the world permits the granting of patents for drugs, medical devices, and cosmetic treatment of the human body. At the same time, patentability for a method of treatment of the (...)
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  10.  1
    Valid Consent to Medical Treatment.Emma Cave - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics:medethics-2020-106287.
    When consent to medical treatment is described as ‘valid’, it might simply mean that it has a sound basis, or it could mean that it is legally valid. Where the two meanings are regularly interchanged, however, it can lead to aspects of the sound basis or the legal requirements being neglected. This article looks at how the term is used in a range of guidance on consent to treatment and argues for consistency.
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  11.  53
    Comment on Re B (Adult: Refusal of Medical Treatment) [2002] 2 All England Reports 449.M. Stauch - 2002 - Journal of Medical Ethics 28 (4):232-233.
    The judgment handed down in the case of Ms B confirms the right of the competent patient to refuse medical treatment even if the result is death. The case does, however, raise some interesting legal points. The facility for conscientious objection by doctors has not previously been explicitly recognised in case law. More importantly perhaps is that the detailed inquiry by the court into Ms B’s reasons for refusing treatment, apparently as a precondition for finding her competent, (...)
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  12.  13
    Autonomy of the child in the South African context: is a 12 year old of sufficient maturity to consent to medical treatment?Wandile Ganya, Sharon Kling & Keymanthri Moodley - 2016 - BMC Medical Ethics 17 (1):66.
    A child is a developing person with evolving capacities that include autonomy, mental capacity and capacity to assume responsibility. Hence, children are entitled to participatory rights in South Africa as observed in the Children’s Act 38 of 2005. According to section 129 of the Act a child may consent to his or her own medical treatment provided that he or she is over the age of 12 years and is of sufficient maturity and decisional capacity to understand the (...)
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  13.  15
    Between the Reasonable and the Particular: Deflating Autonomy in the Legal Regulation of Informed Consent to Medical Treatment.Michael Dunn, K. W. M. Fulford, Jonathan Herring & Ashok Handa - 2019 - Health Care Analysis 27 (2):110-127.
    The law of informed consent to medical treatment has recently been extensively overhauled in England. The 2015 Montgomery judgment has done away with the long-held position that the information to be disclosed by doctors when obtaining valid consent from patients should be determined on the basis of what a reasonable body of medical opinion agree ought to be disclosed in the circumstances. The UK Supreme Court concluded that the information that is material to a patient’s decision should (...)
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  14.  3
    Deciding For When You Can’T Decide: The Medical Treatment Planning and Decisions Act 2016.Courtney Hempton & Neera Bhatia - 2020 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 17 (1):109-120.
    The Australian state of Victoria introduced new legislation regulating medical treatment and associated decision-making in March 2018. In this article we provide an overview of the new Medical Treatment Planning and Decisions Act 2016 and compare it to the former Medical Treatment Act 1988. Most substantially, the new Act provides for persons with relevant decision-making capacity to make decisions in advance regarding their potential future medical care, to take effect in the event they (...)
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  15.  14
    Beyond the Equivalence Thesis: How to Think About the Ethics of Withdrawing and Withholding Life-Saving Medical Treatment.Nathan Emmerich & Bert Gordijn - 2019 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 40 (1):21-41.
    With few exceptions, the literature on withdrawing and withholding life-saving treatment considers the bare fact of withdrawing or withholding to lack any ethical significance. If anything, the professional guidelines on this matter are even more uniform. However, while no small degree of progress has been made toward persuading healthcare professionals to withhold treatments that are unlikely to provide significant benefit, it is clear that a certain level of ambivalence remains with regard to withdrawing treatment. Given that the absence (...)
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  16.  32
    Conflicts Between Parents and Health Professionals About a Child’s Medical Treatment: Using Clinical Ethics Records to Find Gaps in the Bioethics Literature.Rosalind McDougall, Lauren Notini & Jessica Phillips - 2015 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 12 (3):429-436.
    Clinical ethics records offer bioethics researchers a rich source of cases that clinicians have identified as ethically complex. In this paper, we suggest that clinical ethics records can be used to point to types of cases that lack attention in the current bioethics literature, identifying new areas in need of more detailed bioethical work. We conducted an analysis of the clinical ethics records of one paediatric hospital in Australia, focusing specifically on conflicts between parents and health professionals about a child’s (...)
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  17.  12
    Egalitarian Provision of Necessary Medical Treatment.Robert C. Hughes - 2020 - Journal of Ethics 24 (1):55-78.
    Considerations of autonomy and independence, properly understood, support strictly egalitarian provision of necessary medical treatment. If the financially better-off can purchase access to necessary medical treatments that the financially less well-off cannot purchase without help, then their discretionary power to give or to withhold monetary gifts indirectly gives them the power to make life-and-death or sickness-and-health decisions for others. To prevent private citizens from having this objectionable form of power, government must ensure that citizens’ finances do not (...)
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  18.  87
    Minors and Refusal of Medical Treatment: A Critique of the Law Regarding the Current Lack of Meaningful Consent with Regards to Minors and Recommendations for Future Change.S. O'Brien - 2012 - Clinical Ethics 7 (2):67-72.
    The autonomous right of competent adults to decide what happens to their own body and the corresponding right to consent to or refuse medical treatment are cornerstones of modern health care. For minors the situation is not so clear cut. Since the well-known case of Gillick, mature children under the age of 16 can agree to proposed medical treatment. However, those under the age of 18 do not enjoy any corresponding right to refuse medical (...). Can this separation of the right to agree to treatment and the right to refuse treatment for those under 18, regardless of capacity, be justified? This paper evaluates the key cases in this area of the law. Changes to the current law are then proposed which aim to make the law more consistent and reasonable. (shrink)
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  19.  60
    Operational Conditions: Legal Capacity of a Patient Soldier Refusing Medical Treatment.J. C. Kelly - 2011 - Nursing Ethics 18 (6):825-834.
    Using a three-dimensional ethical role-specific model, this article considers the dual loyalty conflict between following military orders and professional codes of practice in an operational military environment when a patient soldier refuses life-saving medical treatment and where their legal capacity is questionable. The article suggests that although every competent patient has the right to refuse medical treatment even though they may die as a consequence. Ordinarily, it is unethical to exert any undue influence on a patient (...)
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  20. The Relationship of Clinical and Legal Perspectives Regarding Medical Treatment Decision-Making in Four Cultures.L. Rothenberg, Jon Merz, Neil Wenger, Marjorie Kagawa-SInger & Darryl Macer - 1996 - Jahrbuch für Recht Und Ethik 4.
    This paper examines a number of questions about the degree to which the clinical practice of medicine is affected, if at all, by the legal systems in four countries: Chile, Germany, Japan and the United States. The focus on these four countries in four different regions of the world offers a unique perspective within which to examine medical treatment decisions made by patients and their proxies or surrogates, the potential role for universal written instruments such as advance directives, (...)
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  21.  22
    The Medical Treatment of Wild Animals.Robert W. Loftin - 1985 - Environmental Ethics 7 (3):231-239.
    The medical treatment of wild animals is an accepted practice in our society. Those who take it upon themselves to treat wildlife are well-intentioned and genuinely concerned about their charges. However, the doctoring of sick animals is of extremely limited value and for the most part based on biological illiteracy. It wastes scarce resources and diverts attention from more worthwhile goals. While it is not wrong to minister to wildlife, it is not right either. The person who refuses (...)
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  22.  7
    The Medical Treatment of Wild Animals.Robert W. Loftin - 1985 - Environmental Ethics 7 (3):231-239.
    The medical treatment of wild animals is an accepted practice in our society. Those who take it upon themselves to treat wildlife are well-intentioned and genuinely concerned about their charges. However, the doctoring of sick animals is of extremely limited value and for the most part based on biological illiteracy. It wastes scarce resources and diverts attention from more worthwhile goals. While it is not wrong to minister to wildlife, it is not right either. The person who refuses (...)
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  23. Parental Refusals of Medical Treatment: The Harm Principle as Threshold for State Intervention.Douglas Diekema - 2004 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 25 (4):243-264.
    Minors are generally considered incompetent to provide legally binding decisions regarding their health care, and parents or guardians are empowered to make those decisions on their behalf. Parental authority is not absolute, however, and when a parent acts contrary to the best interests of a child, the state may intervene. The best interests standard is the threshold most frequently employed in challenging a parent''s refusal to provide consent for a child''s medical care. In this paper, I will argue that (...)
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  24.  7
    Artificial Womb Technology and Clinical Translation: Innovative Treatment or Medical Research?Elizabeth Chloe Romanis - 2020 - Bioethics 34 (4):392-402.
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  25.  60
    Electronic Medical Record System at an Opioid Agonist Treatment Programme: Study Design, Pre‐Implementation Results and Post‐Implementation Trends.Steven Kritz, Lawrence S. Brown Jr, Melissa Chu, Carlota John‐Hull, Charles Madray, Roberto Zavala & Ben Louie - 2012 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (4):739-745.
  26. Advance Statements About Medical Treatment Code of Practice with Explanatory Notes.Derek British Medical Association & Morgan - 1995
     
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  27.  22
    Settling for Second Best: When Should Doctors Agree to Parental Demands for Suboptimal Medical Treatment?Tara Nair, Julian Savulescu, Jim Everett, Ryan Tonkens & Dominic Wilkinson - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics 43 (12):831-840.
    Background Doctors sometimes encounter parents who object to prescribed treatment for their children, and request suboptimal substitutes be administered instead. Previous studies have focused on parental refusal of treatment and when this should be permitted, but the ethics of requests for suboptimal treatment has not been explored. Methods The paper consists of two parts: an empirical analysis and an ethical analysis. We performed an online survey with a sample of the general public to assess respondents’ thresholds for (...)
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  28.  13
    Approaches to Parental Demand for Non-Established Medical Treatment: Reflections on the Charlie Gard Case.John J. Paris, Brian M. Cummings, Michael P. Moreland & Jason N. Batten - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (7):443-447.
    The opinion of Mr. Justice Francis of the English High Court which denied the parents of Charlie Gard, who had been born with an extremely rare mutation of a genetic disease, the right to take their child to the United States for a proposed experimental treatment occasioned world wide attention including that of the Pope, President Trump, and the US Congress. The case raise anew a debate as old as the foundation of Western medicine on who should decide and (...)
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  29.  9
    Family Refusal of Emergency Medical Treatment in China: An Investigation From Legal, Empirical and Ethical Perspectives.Pingyue Jin & Xinqing Zhang - 2020 - Bioethics 34 (3):306-317.
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  30.  59
    False Belief and the Refusal of Medical Treatment.R. Faden & A. Faden - 1977 - Journal of Medical Ethics 3 (3):133-136.
    May a doctor treat a patient, despite that patient's refusal, when in his professional opinion treatment is necessary? This is the dilemma which must from time to time confront most physicians. An examination of the validity of such a refusal is provided by the present authors who use the case history of a patient refusing treatment, for cancer as well as for a fractured hip, to evaluate the grounds for intervention in such circumstances. In such a situation the (...)
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  31. Medicine in Handcuffs: Restraining Prisoners and Detainees Undergoing Medical Treatment and Hospitalisation.Noam Lubell - 2003 - Physicians for Human Rights-Israel.
     
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  32.  70
    The Zone of Parental Discretion: An Ethical Tool for Dealing with Disagreement Between Parents and Doctors About Medical Treatment for a Child.L. Gillam - 2016 - Clinical Ethics 11 (1):1-8.
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  33. The Limits of Impartial Medical Treatment During Armed Conflict.M. L. Gross - 2013 - In Michael L. Gross & Don Carrick (eds.), Military Medical Ethics for the 21st Century. Ashgate.
     
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  34.  62
    Rational Noncompliance with Prescribed Medical Treatment.O. Stewart Douglas & P. DeMarco Joseph - 2010 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 20 (3):277-290.
    Patient noncompliance with physician prescriptions, especially in nonsymptomatic chronic diseases, is frequently characterized in the literature as harmful and economically costly (Miller 1997).1 Nancy Houston Miller views patient noncompliance as harmful because noncompliance can result in continued or new health problems leading to hospital admissions. Further, she places the annual monetary cost of noncompliance at $100 billion.Patient noncompliance with prescribed treatment is considered the least understood form of health behavior (Coons 2001). Despite the plethora of attention in journal articles, (...)
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  35.  48
    Medical Futility, Treatment Withdrawal and the Persistent Vegetative State.K. R. Mitchell, I. H. Kerridge & T. J. Lovat - 1993 - Journal of Medical Ethics 19 (2):71-76.
    Why do we persist in the relentless pursuit of artificial nourishment and other treatments to maintain a permanently unconscious existence? In facing the future, if not the present world-wide reality of a huge number of persistent vegetative state (PVS) patients, will they be treated because of our ethical commitment to their humanity, or because of an ethical paralysis in the face of biotechnical progress? The PVS patient is cut off from the normal patterns of human connection and communication, with a (...)
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  36.  18
    Medical Treatment, Medical Research and Informed Consent.R. Gillon - 1989 - Journal of Medical Ethics 15 (1):3-11.
  37.  21
    Fatal Licence: Commentary on the 'Consent to Medical Treatment and Palliative Care (Voluntary Euthanasia) Amendment Bill 2008'. [REVIEW]Brian Pollard - 2010 - Bioethics Research Notes 22 (2):19.
    Pollard, Brian The extreme difficulties in attempting to make safe euthanasia law, with an argument of treatment in case of patients who can ask for death to escape from pain and patients who are not in a position to ask, are documented. Published findings of five large inquiries into the issue show that it would not be possible to make such law without endangering the lives of some of those who did not want to die.
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  38. Ordinary, Extraordinary and Neutral Medical Treatment.Clifton Perry - 1983 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 4 (1).
    The terms ordinary and extraordinary, when employed in the medical setting, quite often appear vacuous to the point of justifying their elimination. This appraisal appears to be based upon the belief that certain procedures are ordinary and others are extraordinary independent of the particular factors of the clinical setting. This belief may be shown mistaken once it is realized that the conditions sufficient for determining whether a medical procedure is ordinary or extraordinary are themselves specifiable only within the (...)
     
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  39.  12
    Advance Statements About Medical Treatment. Code of Practice with Explanatory Notes.G. R. Dunstan - 1996 - Journal of Medical Ethics 22 (2):126-126.
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  40.  9
    COMET: A Computer Program Dealing with Consent to Medical Treatment.A. Duncan - 1988 - Journal of Medical Ethics 14 (4):212-213.
  41.  1
    Medical Treatment of Prisoners.M. Wright - 1977 - Journal of Medical Ethics 3 (1):50-50.
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  42.  2
    Apnea Testing is Medical Treatment Requiring Informed Consent.Greg Yanke, Mohamed Y. Rady, Joseph Verheijde & Joan McGregor - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (6):22-24.
    Volume 20, Issue 6, June 2020, Page 22-24.
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  43.  10
    ""17 Informed Demand for" Non—Beneficial" Medical Treatment.Steven H. Miles - forthcoming - Bioethics: Basic Writings on the Key Ethical Questions That Surround the Major, Modern Biological Possibilities and Problems.
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  44. Consent to Medical Treatment: The Complex Interplay of Patients, Families, and Physicians.Ruiping Fan & Julia Tao - 2004 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 29 (2):139 – 148.
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  45.  45
    Children's Competence to Consent to Medical Treatment.Priscilla Alderson, Katy Sutcliffe & Katherine Curtis - 2006 - Hastings Center Report 36 (6):25-34.
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  46. Future People, Involuntary Medical Treatment in Pregnancy and the Duty of Easy Rescue.Julian Savulescu - 2007 - Utilitas 19 (1):1-20.
    I argue that pregnant women have a duty to refrain from behaviours or to allow certain acts to be done to them for the sake of their foetus if the foetus has a reasonable chance of living and being in a harmed state if the woman does not refrain from those behaviours or allow those things to be done to her. There is a proviso: that her refraining from acting or allowing acts to be performed upon her does not significantly (...)
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  47.  22
    Determining a Child’s Best Interests When Parents Refuse Medical Treatment—CAHS V Kiszko & Anor [2016] FCWA 19.Michaela Okninski - 2016 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 13 (3):365-368.
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  48.  26
    Learning and Recall of Medical Treatment-Related Information in Older Adults Using the Differential Outcomes Procedure.Victoria Plaza, Michael Molina, Luis J. Fuentes & Angeles F. Estévez - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  49.  22
    Assessment of the Capacity to Consent to Treatment in Patients Admitted to Acute Medical Wards.Sylfa Fassassi, Yanik Bianchi, Friedrich Stiefel & Gérard Waeber - 2009 - BMC Medical Ethics 10 (1):15-.
    BackgroundAssessment of capacity to consent to treatment is an important legal and ethical issue in daily medical practice. In this study we carefully evaluated the capacity to consent to treatment in patients admitted to an acute medical ward using an assessment by members of the medical team, the specific Silberfeld's score, the MMSE and an assessment by a senior psychiatrist.MethodsOver a 3 month period, 195 consecutive patients of an internal medicine ward in a university hospital (...)
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  50.  6
    Refusing Life-Prolonging Medical Treatment and the ECHR.Isra Black - 2018 - Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 38 (2):299-327.
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