Results for 'metaphilosophy'

1000+ found
Order:
  1.  18
    Jan Wolenski Carnap's Metaphilosophy.Carnap'S. Metaphilosophy - 2003 - In Thomas Bonk (ed.), Language, Truth and Knowledge. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 2--27.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  2.  58
    Metaphilosophy in the Systems of Metatheories.Georg Brutian - 2012 - Metaphilosophy 43 (3):294-305.
    This article discusses the essence and form of various types of metatheory, paying special attention to metaphilosophy. It suggests the idea of the metatheoretical model—a completely new approach in philosophical discussion—and considers this concept with regard to the Platonic model and the Rhodian model. These models permit two different systems of metatheoretical construction. The paradigms of modern science allow the formation of metatheories that help further the development of logical, mathematical, and similar sciences. The Rhodian model allows the discovery (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  3.  49
    Creating the Journal Metaphilosophy.Terrell Ward Bynum - 2011 - Metaphilosophy 42 (3):186-190.
    Abstract: This brief article describes the circumstances that led to the creation of the journal Metaphilosophy in autumn 1968. A year after I had left graduate school, an unfortunate accident left me flat on my back for several weeks with nothing to do while recuperating from eye surgery. Bored, I decided to do something constructive, so I created a scholarly journal devoted to articles about the nature of philosophy, or how the different schools or branches of philosophy relate to (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  4. Metaphilosophy.Yuri Cath - 2011 - Oxford Bibliographies Online.
    Often philosophers have reason to ask fundamental questions about the aims, methods, nature, or value of their own discipline. When philosophers systematically examine such questions, the resulting work is sometimes referred to as “metaphilosophy.” Metaphilosophy, it should be said, is not a well-established, or clearly demarcated, field of philosophical inquiry like epistemology or the philosophy of art. However, in the late 20th and early 21st centuries there has been a great deal of metaphilosophical work on issues concerning the (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  5. Metaphilosophy and Free Will.Richard Double - 1996 - Oxford University Press.
    Why is debate over the free will problem so intractable? In this broad and stimulating look at the philosophical enterprise, Richard Double uses the free will controversy to build on the subjectivist conclusion he developed in The Non-Reality of Free Will (OUP 1991). Double argues that various views about free will--e.g., compatibilism, incompatibilism, and even subjectivism--are compelling if, and only if, we adopt supporting metaphilosophical views. Because metaphilosophical considerations are not provable, we cannot show any free will theory to be (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   7 citations  
  6. 'Science Itself Teaches'. A Fresh Look at Quine's Naturalistic Metaphilosophy.Geert Keil - 2003 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 66 (1):253-280.
    Quine famously holds that "philosophy is continuous with natural science". In order to find out what exactly the point of this claim is, I take up one of his preferred phrases and trace it through his writings, i.e., the phrase "Science itself teaches that …". Unlike Wittgenstein, Quine did not take much interest in determining what might be distinctive of philosophical investigations, or of the philosophical part of scientific investigations. I find this indifference regrettable, and I take a fresh look (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  7.  98
    Real Philosophy, Metaphilosophy, and Metametaphilosophy.Manuel Vargas - 2007 - CR 7 (3):51-78.
    This is an essay on philosophical methodology, the disciplinary prejudices of the Anglophone philosophical world, and how these things interact with some aspects of the content and form of Latin American philosophy to preclude the latter's integration with mainstream Anglophone philosophical work. Among the topics discussed of interest to analytic philosophers: metaphilosophy, the status hierarchy of philosophical subfields, experimental philosophy, and patterns of openness and exclusion in philosophy. Among the topics of interest to philosophers interested in Latin American philosophy (...)
    Direct download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  8.  92
    Metaphilosophy and Relativism.Fiona Ellis - 2001 - Metaphilosophy 32 (4):359-377.
  9. Post-Analytic Metaphilosophy and the Case of Compatibilism.Danilo Suster - 2002 - In Grazer Philosophische Studien. Atlanta: Rodopi. pp. 257-272.
    Terry Horgan (with D. Henderson and G. Graham) defends a new general metaphilosophical position called postanalytic metaphilosophy (PAM). I raise some critical points connected with the application of PAM to the problem of freedom. I question the distinction between opulent and austere construals of philosophical concepts. According to Horgan compatibilism comports better overall with the relevant data than does incompatibilism. I raise some objections. At the end I argue that contextualism is an inadequate explanation of incompatibilistic intuitions.
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  10.  55
    Metaphilosophy in Practice: The Responsibility of Psychopathic Offenders as a Case Study.Marko Jurjako & Luca Malatesti - 2015/2016 - Anthropology and Philosophy 12:85-100.
    We argue that philosophy has an important role to play in bridging certain social practices with certain scientific advancements. Specifically, we describe such a role by focusing on the issue of how and whether neuropsychological data concerning psychopathic offenders reflect on their criminal culpability. We offer some methodological requirements for this type of philosophical application. In addition, we show how it might help in addressing the problem of determining the criminal responsibility of psychopathic offenders.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  11.  18
    On the Domain of Metaphilosophy.Bob Plant - 2017 - Metaphilosophy 48 (1-2):3-24.
    This article argues for four interrelated claims: Metaphilosophy is not one sub-discipline of philosophy, nor is it restricted to questions of methodology. Rather, metaphilosophical inquiry encompasses the general background conditions of philosophical practice. These background conditions are of various sorts, not only those routinely considered “philosophical” but also those considered biographical, historical, and sociological. Accordingly, we should be wary of the customary distinction between what is proper and merely contingent to philosophy. “What is philosophy?” is best understood as a (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  12.  55
    Transcendental Pragmatics? Pragmatism, Deleuze, and Metaphilosophy.Jack Reynolds - 2014 - In Sean Bowden, Simone Bignall & Paul Patton (eds.), Deleuze and Pragmatism. Routledge. pp. 235-46.
    In this chapter I juxtapose the methodological commitments of Gilles Deleuze with some different forms of contemporary neo-pragmatism developed by Nicholas Rescher, Sami Pihlstrom and Joseph Margolis. Focusing upon their respective conceptions of transcendental reasoning, naturalism, and common sense, I conclude that Deleuze’s philosophy challenges some core aspects of contemporary neo-pragmatism, and hence also the prospects for a rapprochement that might warrant the name of "transcendental pragmatics".
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  13.  25
    Metaphilosophy and the Role of Intuitions.Julia Langkau - forthcoming - Topoi:1-9.
    The practice of appealing to intuitions as evidence has recently been criticized by experimental philosophers. While some traditional philosophers defend intuitions as a trustworthy source of evidence, others try to undermine the challenge this criticism poses to philosophical methodology. This paper argues that some recent attempts to undermine the challenge from experimental philosophy fail. It concludes that the metaphilosophical question whether intuitions play a role in philosophy cannot be decided by analyzing our use of the word ‘intuition’ or related terms, (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  14.  8
    Theodicy, Metaphysics, and Metaphilosophy in Leibniz.Paul Lodge - 2015 - Philosophical Topics 43 (1-2):27-52.
    In this paper I offer a discussion of chapter 3 of Adrian Moore’s The Evolution of Modern Metaphysics, which is titled “Leibniz: Metaphysics in the Service of Theodicy.” Here Moore discusses the philosophy of Leibniz and comes to a damning conclusion. My main aim is to suggest that such a conclusion might be a little premature. I begin by outlining Moore’s discussion of Leibniz and then raise some problems for the objections that Moore presents. I follow this by raising a (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  15.  19
    Søren Overgaard, Paul Gilbert and Stephen Burwood. An Introduction to Metaphilosophy. Reviewed By.Robert Piercey - 2015 - Philosophy in Review 35 (3):162-164.
  16.  6
    Philosophy of Philosophy: Rescher's Metaphilosophy.Ulrich de Balbian - manuscript
    I work through 2 reviews and the first chapter of Rescher's book on meta-philosophy.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  17.  3
    There Is Not Just a War: Recalling the Therapeutic Metaphor in Western Metaphilosophy.Matthew Sharpe - 2016 - Sophia 55 (1):31-54.
    This paper offers a critical response to the claims of Sivin and Lloyd and Mattice to the effect that Greek and Roman philosophy was characterised by a predominance of combat metaphors. Drawing on Plato and Plutarch, as well as contemporary studies led by Nussbaum, I argue that a host of different metaphors was demonstrably used in the Greek tradition to describe philosophy and its subjects, led by the therapeutic or medicinal metaphor of philosophy as ‘therapy of desire’ or of desiderative (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  18. Metaphilosophy Series in Philosophy Thomas W. Pogge.Arman T. Marsoobian & Brian J. Huschle - 2001 - Metaphilosophy 32 (1/2).
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  19.  30
    A Course in Metaphilosophy for Undergraduates.Renée Smith - 2017 - Teaching Philosophy 40 (1):57-85.
    This paper describes an undergraduate course in metaphilosophy for philosophy majors and argues that there are four potential benefits to students; namely that doing metaphilosophy allows students to draw their own conclusions about what philosophy is, develops students’ metacognitive skills to promote learning, establishes students as members of the philosophical community, and disposes students to live lives that reflect their philosophical education. It describes issues of transparency of course design and the particulars of the course, including course content, (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  20. The “Evolutionary Argument” and the Metaphilosophy of Commonsense.Stephen J. Boulter - 2007 - Biology and Philosophy 22 (3):369-382.
    Recently in these pages it has been argued that a relatively straightforward version of an old argument based on evolutionary biology and psychology can be employed to support the view that innate ideas are a naturalistic source of metaphysical knowledge. While sympathetic to the view that the “evolutionary argument” is pregnant with philosophical implications, I show in this paper how it needs to be developed and deployed in order to avoid serious philosophical difficulties and unnecessary complications. I sketch a revised (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   7 citations  
  21. The Metaphilosophy of Naturalism.Quentin Smith - 2001 - Philo 4 (2):195-215.
    The metaphilosophy of naturalism is about the nature and goals of naturalist philosophy. A real or..
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  22. Wittgenstein's Metaphilosophy.Paul Horwich - 2011 - Oxford University Press.
    Paul Horwich presents a bold new interpretation of Wittgenstein's later work. He argues that it is Wittgenstein's radically anti-theoretical metaphilosophy - and not his identification of the meaning of a word with its use - that underpins his discussions of specific issues concerning language, the mind, mathematics, knowledge, art, and religion.
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  23. Naturalized Metaphilosophy.David R. Morrow & Chris Alen Sula - 2011 - Synthese 182 (2):297-313.
    Traditional representations of philosophy have tended to prize the role of reason in the discipline. These accounts focus exclusively on ideas and arguments as animating forces in the field. But anecdotal evidence and more rigorous sociological studies suggest there is more going on in philosophy. In this article, we present two hypotheses about social factors in the field: that social factors influence the development of philosophy, and that status and reputation—and thus social influence—will tend to be awarded to philosophers who (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  24.  64
    A Note on ‘Metaphilosophy’.Morris Lazerowitz - 1970 - Metaphilosophy 1 (1):91–91.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   4 citations  
  25.  9
    Metaphor and Metaphilosophy: Philosophy as Combat, Play, and Aesthetic Experience by Sarah A. Mattice.Ann A. Pang-White - 2016 - Philosophy East and West 66 (4):1374-1376.
    What is philosophy? What is metaphor? Could thinking take place metaphorically? If one follows the mainstream Western definition of philosophy, the answer to the latter question would certainly be negative. Metaphors are perceived as primitive, pre-analytical, and imprecise—thus pre-philosophical! Drawing on multiple cross-cultural resources, Metaphor and Metaphilosophy: Philosophy as Combat, Play, and Aesthetic Experience by Sarah A. Mattice insightfully challenges this widespread assumption in the current...
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  26.  66
    Metaphilosophy, Pragmatism and a Kind of Critical Theory: Kai Nielsen and Richard Rorty.Kai Nielsen - 2007 - Philosophical Papers 36 (1):119-150.
    Metaphilosophy is itself philosophy about philosophy. It is not something before or independent of philosophy. Both Kai Nielsen and Richard Rorty are deeply concerned (someone might say obsessively preoccupied) with metaphilosophy. They both are thoroughly historicist and contextualist resolutely rejecting any form of a transcendental or metaphysical turn. They argue against claims to absolute validity (as well as against absolutism in any form) and a natural order of reasons: some 'Reason' to which any rational agent must be committed. (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  27.  60
    Critical Theory as Metaphilosophy.James Bohman - 1990 - Metaphilosophy 21 (3):239-252.
  28.  19
    The Metaphilosophy of Commonsense.Edward H. Madden - 1983 - American Philosophical Quarterly 20 (1):23 - 36.
    Implicit in the scottish tradition is a metaphilosophy of commonsense which deserves as much attention as that recently given to scottish presentative realism and agent causality. The author articulates this metaphilosophy by (a) sketching a systematic metaphilosophy of commonsense, (b) considering to what extent thomas reid fits this pattern, And (c) deciding to what extent asa mahan, One of the ablest of the american realists, Fits it. The result is a characterization of a coherent scottish metaphilosophy (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  29.  52
    On Rorty's Evangelical Metaphilosophy.David Rondel - 2011 - Philosophy and Rhetoric 44 (2):150-170.
    I have spent 40 years looking for a coherent and convincing way of formulating my worries about what, if anything, philosophy is good for.Richard Rorty had an unusually avid interest in metaphilosophy. Again and again he would return to questions about the practical uses (if any) to which philosophy might be put, about philosophy's role in intellectual culture, about what philosophy is or might become. His answers to these questions were famously negative: philosophy's practical uses are few, its cultural (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  30.  12
    Universalism as a Metaphilosophy.Michael H. Mitias - 2004 - Dialogue and Universalism 14 (10):87-101.
    In this article I offer an account of what it means for Universalism to be a metaphilosophy. I first argue that traditional philosophical systems and views suffer from two main defects. First, they are closed, in the sense that they have made their final judgment on what the world is like. Second, they are mostly Eurocentric; regardless of their attempt to be objective and universalist in their orientation, they express the European values, beliefs, and world views. As a (...), Universalism is an open concept. It recognizes that our knowledge of the world is an on-going process of discovery. It does not attempt to synthesize or reject the variety of religious, ideological, and philosophical views and approaches; on the contrary, it seeks to provide a universal conceptual framework within which these views and approaches can thrive and dialogue with each other. The structure of this framework is made up of the universal features of nature and human nature. Accordingly the universal is not an ideal or natural or metaphysical essence of some kind. The universal is made, and it is made collectively by scholars from the different academic disciplines. This is why Universalism aspires to articulate the most comprehensive vision of the world. In this attempt it tries to grasp the highest fruits of all the achievements of the human spirit in religion, ideology, philosophy, and culture. I also discuss two more important features of Universalism as a metaphilosophy: co-creation and metanoia. (shrink)
    No categories
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  31.  7
    Descartes "Vs." Berkeley: A Study in Early Modern Metaphilosophy.Donald F. Henze - 1977 - Metaphilosophy 8:147.
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  32.  19
    Philosophy and Metaphilosophy.G. A. Brutian - 1986 - Russian Studies in Philosophy 25 (1):73-86.
    The fate of concepts which comprise the philosophical knowledge of our epoch, an epoch in which the information explosion, including scientific information, has become a universal conditioning factor, unfolds in various ways. Some of these concepts are inscribed in a basic way in the categorial apparatus of philosophy. Others, having failed the tests of time and philosophical and methodological practice, lose their significance for philosophy and drop out of the conceptual apparatus as easily as they entered. Among the various new (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  33.  42
    Descartes Vs. Berkeley: A Study in Early Metaphilosophy.Donald F. Henze - 1977 - Metaphilosophy 8 (2-3):147-163.
  34.  37
    Metaphilosophy as First Philosophy.Robert Piercey - 2010 - International Philosophical Quarterly 50 (3):335-349.
    This paper describes and evaluates two different ways of doing philosophy: a “reflexive” approach that sees metaphilosophical inquiry as fundamental, and a “nonreflexive” approach that sees metaphilosophy as dispensable. It examines arguments that have been advanced for these approaches by Gilbert Ryle, Jerry Fodor, and Richard Rorty, and claims that none of these arguments are convincing. Finally, the paper draws on Alasdair MacIntyre’s work to propose a different way of choosing between the approaches, one that asks which approach is (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  35.  22
    Against Orientational Pluralism in Metaphilosophy.Joseph Wayne Smith - 1985 - Metaphilosophy 16 (2-3):214-220.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  36.  5
    Contemporary Metaphilosophy.Nicholas Joll - 2010 - Internet Encylopedia of Philosophy.
    [From the article's Introduction]: The main topic of the article is the Western metaphilosophy of the last hundred years or so. But that topic is broached via a sketch of some earlier Western metaphilosophies. (In the case of the sketch, ‘Western’ means European. In the remainder of the article, ‘Western’ means European and North American. On Eastern meta­philosophy, see the entries filed under such heads as ‘Chinese philosophy’ and ‘Indian philosophy’.) Once that sketch is in hand, the article defines (...)
    Direct download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  37.  53
    Les Culs-de-Sac of Enlightenment Aesthetics: A Metaphilosophy of Art.Noël Carroll - 2009 - Metaphilosophy 40 (2):157-178.
    : This article charts the rise and fall of the Modern System of the Arts and the failure of the aesthetic theory of art to define membership in the so-called system, which, instead, I argue, is and has been, for a long time, merely a historically evolved collection. Rather than endorsing the continued attempt to define Art with a capital A in terms of aesthetic experience, I recommend alternative lines of research for contemporary philosophers of the arts.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  38.  11
    Rescher's Metaphilosophy.Timm Triplett - 1999 - Metaphilosophy 30 (3):209-230.
    Direct download (3 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  39.  6
    Hegel's Metaphilosophy and Historical Metamorphosis.R. Ware - 1996 - History of Political Thought 17 (2):253-279.
    Hegel is commonly understood to have required that the philosophy of history must be retrospective and therefore fundamentally conservative. Yet at the same time he is thought to have claimed that his system involved an absolute truth beyond which no philosophy could advance, and that it therefore marked the end of the history of philosophy. The two claims are evidently inconsistent, since a history of philosophy, which must be bound by constraints on the philosophy of history, could not legitimately comment (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  40.  17
    The Rise and Essence of Universalism as a Metaphilosophy and Social Movement.Zbigniew Wendland - 2007 - Dialogue and Universalism 17 (7-8):123-131.
    This paper discusses how Universalism came into being as a metaphilosophy and social movement, and outlines its main characteristics, meaning and content. The paper’s central theme is the accentuation of the two main aspects of Universalism. The first aspect is the key role of dialogue in Universalism. The second is the belief that Universalism is first and foremost a social movement, rather than a philosophical doctrine. In outlining the origins of Universalism, the invaluable role of Professor Kuczyński as its (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  41.  40
    Metaphilosophy and the Teaching of Philosophy.E. A. Burtt - 1971 - Metaphilosophy 2 (4):368–368.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  42.  28
    Introduction to the Fortieth Anniversary of Metaphilosophy Special Issue.Armen T. Marsoobian - 2011 - Metaphilosophy 42 (3):183-185.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  43.  32
    Did Reid's Metaphilosophy Survive Kant, Hamilton, and Mill?Edward H. Madden - 1987 - Metaphilosophy 18 (1):31–48.
  44. Post-Analytic Metaphilosophy Tnd the Case of Compatibilism.Danilo Uster - 2002 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 63 (1):257-272.
    Terry Horgan defends a new general metaphilosophical position called postanalytic metaphilosophy. I raise some critical points connected with the application of PAM to the problem of freedom. I question the distinction between opulent and austere construals of philosophical concepts. According to Horgan compatibilism comports better overall with the relevant data than does incompatibilism. I raise some objections. At the end I argue that contextualism is an inadequate explanation of incompatibilistic intuitions.
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  45.  12
    Deconstructive Metaphilosophy, Inadvertent Neo-Hegelianism, Promethean Mysticism, and the Deweyan Aesthetic of Philosophical Reconstruction: Thinking About Richard Gale on John Dewey.Charles Munitz - 2012 - Metaphilosophy 43 (1-2):165-182.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  46.  14
    Four Kinds of Metaphilosophy: Griswold on Platonic Dialogue.Michael J. Quirk - 1992 - Metaphilosophy 23 (1-2):147-158.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  47.  11
    Morris Lazerowitz and Metaphilosophy.William L. Reese - 1990 - Metaphilosophy 21 (1-2):28-42.
  48.  5
    Report on the Third International Philosophical-Cultural Symposium on Metaphilosophy.Tom Rockmore - 1998 - Metaphilosophy 29 (1&2):3-5.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  49. Naess's Pluralistic Metaphilosophy.Ingemund Gullv - 1975 - Inquiry : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 18 (4):391 – 408.
    The article begins by outlining Naess's pluralistic theory of philosophical systems and indicating its connection with Naess's semantics, i.e. his account of interpretation, preciseness, definiteness of intention, and level of discrimination. Reference is also made to the indeterminacy relation which Naess claims holds between, on the one hand, philosophically relevant preciseness, definite-ness of intention, and level of discrimination, and, on the other, comparability and philosophical neutrality of standpoints. Naess claims philosophical neutrality for his theory of systems, on the basis of (...)
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  50. Metaphor and Metaphilosophy: Philosophy as Combat, Play, and Aesthetic Experience.Dr Sarah A. Mattice - 2014 - Lexington Books.
    Sarah A. Mattice develops a comparative intervention in contemporary metaphilosophy. Drawing on resources from hermeneutics, cognitive linguistics, aesthetics, and Chinese philosophy, she explores how philosophical language is deeply intertwined with the definition and practice of the discipline.
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
1 — 50 / 1000