Results for 'modal plural logic'

999 found
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  1. The Interpretation of Two Systems of Modal Logic.A. N. Prior & Institute of Applied Logic - 1954 - Institute of Applied Logic.
     
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  2.  84
    We Belong Together? A Plea for Modesty in Modal Plural Logic.Simon Hewitt - manuscript
    It is often assumed that pluralities are rigid, in the sense of having all and only their actual members necessarily. This assumption is operative in standard approaches to modal plural logic. I argue that a sceptical approach towards the assumption is warranted.
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  3.  81
    Quantified Modal Logic and the Plural De Re.Phillip Bricker - 1989 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 14 (1):372-394.
    Modal sentences of the form "every F might be G" and "some F must be G" have a threefold ambiguity. in addition to the familiar readings "de dicto" and "de re", there is a third reading on which they are examples of the "plural de re": they attribute a modal property to the F's plurally in a way that cannot in general be reduced to an attribution of modal properties to the individual F's. The plural (...)
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  4.  48
    Plural Quantifiers: A Modal Interpretation.Rafal Urbaniak - 2014 - Synthese 191 (7):1-22.
    One of the standard views on plural quantification is that its use commits one to the existence of abstract objects–sets. On this view claims like ‘some logicians admire only each other’ involve ineliminable quantification over subsets of a salient domain. The main motivation for this view is that plural quantification has to be given some sort of semantics, and among the two main candidates—substitutional and set-theoretic—only the latter can provide the language of plurals with the desired expressive power (...)
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  5. Extensionalizing Intensional Second-Order Logic.Jonathan Payne - 2015 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 56 (1):243-261.
    Neo-Fregean approaches to set theory, following Frege, have it that sets are the extensions of concepts, where concepts are the values of second-order variables. The idea is that, given a second-order entity $X$, there may be an object $\varepsilon X$, which is the extension of X. Other writers have also claimed a similar relationship between second-order logic and set theory, where sets arise from pluralities. This paper considers two interpretations of second-order logic—as being either extensional or intensional—and whether (...)
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  6.  57
    Modalising Plurals.Simon Hewitt - 2012 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 41 (5):853-875.
    There has been very little discussion of the appropriate principles to govern a modal logic of plurals. What debate there has been has accepted a principle I call (Necinc); informally if this is one of those then, necessarily: this is one of those. On this basis Williamson has criticised the Boolosian plural interpretation of monadic second-order logic. I argue against (Necinc), noting that it isn't a theorem of any logic resulting from adding modal axioms (...)
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  7.  88
    Plural Logic and Sensitivity to Order.Salvatore Florio & David Nicolas - 2015 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 93 (3):444-464.
    Sentences that exhibit sensitivity to order (e.g. 'John and Mary arrived at school in that order' and 'Mary and John arrived at school in that order') present a challenge for the standard formulation of plural logic. In response, some authors have advocated new versions of plural logic based on fine-grained notions of plural reference, such as serial reference (Hewitt 2012) and articulated reference (Ben-Yami 2013). The aim of this article is to show that sensitivity to (...)
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  8.  40
    A Note on Plural Logic.Gustavo Fernández Díez - 2010 - Organon F: Medzinárodný Časopis Pre Analytickú Filozofiu 17 (2):150-162.
    A distinction is introduced between itemized and non-itemized plural predication. It is argued that a full-fledged system of plural logic is not necessary in order to account for the validity of inferences concerning itemized collective predication. Instead, it is shown how this type of inferences can be adequately dealt with in a first-order logic system, after small modifications on the standard treatment. The proposed system, unlike plural logic, has the advantage of preserving completeness. And (...)
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  9.  7
    Frege's Theorem in Plural Logic.Simon Hewitt - manuscript
    A version of Frege's theorem can be proved in a plural logic with pair abstraction. We talk through this and discuss the philosophical implications of the result.
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  10.  23
    The Dynamification of Modal Dependence Logic.Pietro Galliani - 2013 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 22 (3):269-295.
    We examine the transitions between sets of possible worlds described by the compositional semantics of Modal Dependence Logic, and we use them as the basis for a dynamic version of this logic. We give a game theoretic semantics, a (compositional) transition semantics and a power game semantics for this new variant of modal Dependence Logic, and we prove their equivalence; and furthermore, we examine a few of the properties of this formalism and show that (...) Dependence Logic can be recovered from it by reasoning in terms of reachability. Then we show how we can generalize this approach to a very general formalism for reasoning about transformations between pointed Kripke models. (shrink)
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  11.  26
    Complexity Results for Modal Dependence Logic.Peter Lohmann & Heribert Vollmer - 2013 - Studia Logica 101 (2):343-366.
    Modal dependence logic was introduced recently by Väänänen. It enhances the basic modal language by an operator = (). For propositional variables p 1, . . . , p n , = (p 1, . . . , p n-1, p n ) intuitively states that the value of p n is determined by those of p 1, . . . , p n-1. Sevenster (J. Logic and Computation, 2009) showed that satisfiability for modal dependence (...)
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  12. Modal Set Theory.Christopher Menzel - forthcoming - In Otávio Bueno & Scott Shalkowski (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Modality. London and New York: Routledge.
    This article presents an overview of the basic philosophical motivations for, and some recent work in, modal set theory.
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  13.  48
    Partiality and Adjointness in Modal Logic.Wesley H. Holliday - 2014 - In Rajeev Goré, Barteld Kooi & Agi Kurucz (eds.), Advances in Modal Logic, Vol. 10. College Publications. pp. 313-332.
    Following a proposal of Humberstone, this paper studies a semantics for modal logic based on partial “possibilities” rather than total “worlds.” There are a number of reasons, philosophical and mathematical, to find this alternative semantics attractive. Here we focus on the construction of possibility models with a finitary flavor. Our main completeness result shows that for a number of standard modal logics, we can build a canonical possibility model, wherein every logically consistent formula is satisfied, by simply (...)
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  14.  42
    Intuitionism and the Modal Logic of Vagueness.Susanne Bobzien & Ian Rumfitt - forthcoming - Journal of Philosophical Logic.
    ABSTRACT: Intuitionistic logic provides an elegant solution to the Sorites Paradox. Its acceptance has been hampered by two factors. First, the lack of an accepted semantics for languages containing vague terms has led even philosophers sympathetic to intuitionism to complain that no explanation has been given of why intuitionistic logic is the correct logic for such languages. Second, switching from classical to intuitionistic logic, while it may help with the Sorites, does not appear to offer any (...)
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  15.  80
    Rigid and Flexible Quantification in Plural Predicate Logic.Lucas Champollion, Justin Bledin & Haoze Li - forthcoming - Semantics and Linguistic Theory 27.
    Noun phrases with overt determiners, such as <i>some apples</i> or <i>a quantity of milk</i>, differ from bare noun phrases like <i>apples</i> or <i>milk</i> in their contribution to aspectual composition. While this has been attributed to syntactic or algebraic properties of these noun phrases, such accounts have explanatory shortcomings. We suggest instead that the relevant property that distinguishes between the two classes of noun phrases derives from two modes of existential quantification, one of which holds the values of a variable fixed (...)
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  16. Mass Nouns and Plural Logic.David Nicolas - 2008 - Linguistics and Philosophy 31 (2):211-244.
    A dilemma put forward by Schein (1993) and Rayo (2002) suggests that, in order to characterize the semantics of plurals, we should not use predicate logic, but non-singular logic, a formal language whose terms may refer to several things at once. We show that a similar dilemma applies to mass nouns. If we use predicate logic and sets, we arrive at a Russellian paradox when characterizing the semantics of mass nouns. Likewise, a semantics of mass nouns based (...)
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  17.  85
    Modal Logic with Names.George Gargov & Valentin Goranko - 1993 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 22 (6):607 - 636.
    We investigate an enrichment of the propositional modal language L with a "universal" modality ■ having semantics x ⊧ ■φ iff ∀y(y ⊧ φ), and a countable set of "names" - a special kind of propositional variables ranging over singleton sets of worlds. The obtained language ℒ $_{c}$ proves to have a great expressive power. It is equivalent with respect to modal definability to another enrichment ℒ(⍯) of ℒ, where ⍯ is an additional modality with the semantics x (...)
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  18.  27
    Common Knowledge: Relating Anti-Founded Situation Semantics to Modal Logic Neighbourhood Semantics. [REVIEW]L. Lismont - 1994 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 3 (4):285-302.
    Two approaches for defining common knowledge coexist in the literature: the infinite iteration definition and the circular or fixed point one. In particular, an original modelization of the fixed point definition was proposed by Barwise in the context of a non-well-founded set theory and the infinite iteration approach has been technically analyzed within multi-modal epistemic logic using neighbourhood semantics by Lismont. This paper exhibits a relation between these two ways of modelling common knowledge which seem at first quite (...)
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  19.  30
    A Warning About the Choice of Primitive Operators in Modal Logic.David Makinson - 1973 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 2 (2):193 - 196.
    Draws attention to some unexpected consequences of using a zero-ary connective in modal propositional logic.
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  20. A Modal Interpretation of the Logic of Interrogation.Rani Nelken & Chung-Chieh Shan - 2006 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 15 (3):251-271.
    We propose a novel interpretation of natural-language questions using a modal predicate logic of knowledge. Our approach brings standard model-theoretic and proof-theoretic techniques from modal logic to bear on questions. Using the former, we show that our interpretation preserves Groenendijk and Stokhof's answerhood relation, yet allows an extensional interpretation. Using the latter, we get a sound and complete proof procedure for the logic for free. Our approach is more expressive; for example, it easily treats complex (...)
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  21. Modal Logic as Metaphysics.Timothy Williamson - 2013 - Oxford University Press.
    Timothy Williamson gives an original and provocative treatment of deep metaphysical questions about existence, contingency, and change, using the latest resources of quantified modal logic. Contrary to the widespread assumption that logic and metaphysics are disjoint, he argues that modal logic provides a structural core for metaphysics.
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  22.  48
    A Two Dimensional Tense-Modal Sortal Logic.Max A. Freund - 2007 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 36 (5):571-598.
    We consider a formal language whose logical syntax involves both modal and tense propositional operators, as well as sortal quantifiers, sortal identities and (second order) quantifiers over sortals. We construct an intensional semantics for the language and characterize a formal logical system which we prove to be sound and complete with respect to the semantics. Conceptualism is the philosophical background of the semantic system.
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  23. Interrogative Belief Revision in Modal Logic.Sebastian Enqvist - 2009 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 38 (5):527-548.
    The well known AGM framework for belief revision has recently been extended to include a model of the research agenda of the agent, i.e. a set of questions to which the agent wishes to find answers (Olsson & Westlund in Erkenntnis , 65 , 165–183, 2006 ). The resulting model has later come to be called interrogative belief revision . While belief revision has been studied extensively from the point of view of modal logic, so far interrogative belief (...)
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  24.  27
    Realizability Semantics for Quantified Modal Logic: Generalizing Flagg’s 1985 Construction.Benjamin G. Rin & Sean Walsh - 2016 - Review of Symbolic Logic 9 (4):752-809.
    A semantics for quantified modal logic is presented that is based on Kleene's notion of realizability. This semantics generalizes Flagg's 1985 construction of a model of a modal version of Church's Thesis and first-order arithmetic. While the bulk of the paper is devoted to developing the details of the semantics, to illustrate the scope of this approach, we show that the construction produces (i) a model of a modal version of Church's Thesis and a variant of (...)
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  25.  40
    Derivation Rules as Anti-Axioms in Modal Logic.Yde Venema - 1993 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 58 (3):1003-1034.
    We discuss a `negative' way of defining frame classes in (multi)modal logic, and address the question of whether these classes can be axiomatized by derivation rules, the `non-ξ rules', styled after Gabbay's Irreflexivity Rule. The main result of this paper is a metatheorem on completeness, of the following kind: If Λ is a derivation system having a set of axioms that are special Sahlqvist formulas and Λ+ is the extension of Λ with a set of non-ξ rules, then (...)
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  26.  18
    The Modal Logic of Agreement and Noncontingency.Lloyd Humberstone - 2002 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 43 (2):95-127.
    The formula A (it is noncontingent whether A) is true at a point in a Kripke model just in case all points accessible to that point agree on the truth-value of A. We can think of -based modal logic as a special case of what we call the general modal logic of agreement, interpreted with the aid of models supporting a ternary relation, S, say, with OA (which we write instead of A to emphasize the generalization (...)
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  27.  14
    Scattered and Hereditarily Irresolvable Spaces in Modal Logic.Guram Bezhanishvili & Patrick J. Morandi - 2010 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 49 (3):343-365.
    When we interpret modal ◊ as the limit point operator of a topological space, the Gödel-Löb modal system GL defines the class Scat of scattered spaces. We give a partition of Scat into α-slices S α , where α ranges over all ordinals. This provides topological completeness and definability results for extensions of GL. In particular, we axiomatize the modal logic of each ordinal α, thus obtaining a simple proof of the Abashidze–Blass theorem. On the other (...)
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  28.  48
    First-Order Modal Logic with an 'Actually' Operator.Yannis Stephanou - 2005 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 46 (4):381-405.
    In this paper the language of first-order modal logic is enriched with an operator @ ('actually') such that, in any model, the evaluation of a formula @A at a possible world depends on the evaluation of A at the actual world. The models have world-variable domains. All the logics that are discussed extend the classical predicate calculus, with or without identity, and conform to the philosophical principle known as serious actualism. The basic logic relies on the system (...)
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  29. Proofnets for S5: Sequents and Circuits for Modal Logic.Greg Restall - 2007 - In C. Dimitracopoulos, L. Newelski & D. Normann (eds.), Logic Colloquium 2005. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 151-172.
    In this paper I introduce a sequent system for the propositional modal logic S5. Derivations of valid sequents in the system are shown to correspond to proofs in a novel natural deduction system of circuit proofs (reminiscient of proofnets in linear logic, or multiple-conclusion calculi for classical logic). -/- The sequent derivations and proofnets are both simple extensions of sequents and proofnets for classical propositional logic, in which the new machinery—to take account of the (...) vocabulary—is directly motivated in terms of the simple, universal Kripke semantics for S5. The sequent system is cut-free and the circuit proofs are normalising. (shrink)
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  30.  75
    Expressivity of Second Order Propositional Modal Logic.Balder Ten Cate - 2006 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 35 (2):209-223.
    We consider second-order propositional modal logic (SOPML), an extension of the basic modal language with propositional quantifiers introduced by Kit Fine in 1970. We determine the precise expressive power of SOPML by giving analogues of the Van Benthem–Rosen theorem and the Goldblatt Thomason theorem. Furthermore, we show that the basic modal language is the bisimulation invariant fragment of SOPML, and we characterize the bounded fragment of first-order logic as being the intersection of first-order logic (...)
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  31.  28
    An Abstract Algebraic Logic Approach to Tetravalent Modal Logics.Josep Maria Font & Miquel Rius - 2000 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 65 (2):481-518.
    This paper contains a joint study of two sentential logics that combine a many-valued character, namely tetravalence, with a modal character; one of them is normal and the other one quasinormal. The method is to study their algebraic counterparts and their abstract models with the tools of Abstract Algebraic Logic, and particularly with those of Brown and Suszko's theory of abstract logics as recently developed by Font and Jansana in their "A General Algebraic Semantics for Sentential Logics". The (...)
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  32.  88
    Higher Order Modal Logic.Reinhard Muskens - 2006 - In Patrick Blackburn, Johan Van Benthem & Frank Wolter (eds.), Handbook of Modal Logic. Elsevier. pp. 621-653.
    A logic is called higher order if it allows for quantification over higher order objects, such as functions of individuals, relations between individuals, functions of functions, relations between functions, etc. Higher order logic began with Frege, was formalized in Russell [46] and Whitehead and Russell [52] early in the previous century, and received its canonical formulation in Church [14].1 While classical type theory has since long been overshadowed by set theory as a foundation of mathematics, recent decades have (...)
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  33.  96
    Modal Logic S4 as a Paraconsistent Logic with a Topological Semantics.Marcelo E. Coniglio & Leonardo Prieto-Sanabria - 2017 - In Carlos Caleiro, Francisco Dionisio, Paula Gouveia, Paulo Mateus & João Rasga (eds.), Logic and Computation: Essays in Honour of Amilcar Sernadas. London, UK: College Publications. pp. 171-196.
    In this paper the propositional logic LTop is introduced, as an extension of classical propositional logic by adding a paraconsistent negation. This logic has a very natural interpretation in terms of topological models. The logic LTop is nothing more than an alternative presentation of modal logic S4, but in the language of a paraconsistent logic. Moreover, LTop is a logic of formal inconsistency in which the consistency and inconsistency operators have a nice (...)
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  34.  19
    On Axiomatization of Łukasiewicz's Four-Valued Modal Logic.Marcin Tkaczyk - 2011 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 20 (3):215-232.
    Formal aspects of various ways of description of Jan Łukasiewicz’s four-valued modal logic £ are discussed. The original Łukasiewicz’s description by means of the accepted and rejected theorems, together with the four-valued matrix, is presented. Then the improved E.J. Lemmon’s description based upon three specific axioms, together with the relational semantics, is presented as well. It is proved that Lemmon’s axiomatic is not independent: one axiom is derivable on the base of the remanent two. Several axiomatizations, based on (...)
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  35.  27
    Natural Deduction for Modal Logic of Judgment Aggregation.Tin Perkov - 2016 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 25 (3-4):335-354.
    We can formalize judgments as logical formulas. Judgment aggregation deals with judgments of several agents, which need to be aggregated to a collective judgment. There are several logical formalizations of judgment aggregation. This paper focuses on a modal formalization which nicely expresses classical properties of judgment aggregation rules and famous results of social choice theory, like Arrow’s impossibility theorem. A natural deduction system for modal logic of judgment aggregation is presented in this paper. The system is sound (...)
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  36.  27
    Modal Logic Over Finite Structures.Eric Rosen - 1997 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 6 (4):427-439.
    We investigate properties of propositional modal logic over the classof finite structures. In particular, we show that certain knownpreservation theorems remain true over this class. We prove that aclass of finite models is defined by a first-order sentence and closedunder bisimulations if and only if it is definable by a modal formula.We also prove that a class of finite models defined by a modal formulais closed under extensions if and only if it is defined by a (...)
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  37.  95
    Modal Logic, Truth, and the Master Modality.Torben Braüner - 2002 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 31 (4):359-386.
    In the paper (Braüner, 2001) we gave a minimal condition for the existence of a homophonic theory of truth for a modal or tense logic. In the present paper we generalise this result to arbitrary modal logics and we also show that a modal logic permits the existence of a homophonic theory of truth if and only if it permits the definition of a socalled master modality. Moreover, we explore a connection between the master modality (...)
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  38.  21
    Displaying the Modal Logic of Consistency.Heinrich Wansing - 1999 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 64 (4):1573-1590.
    It is shown that the constructive four-valued logic N4 can be faithfully embedded into the modal logic S4. This embedding is used to obtain complete, cut-free display sequent calculi for N4 and C4, the modal logic of consistency over N4. C4 is a natural monotonic base system for semantics-based non-monotonic reasoning.
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  39.  66
    Generalized Quantifiers and Modal Logic.Wiebe Van Der Hoek & Maarten De Rijke - 1993 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 2 (1):19-58.
    We study several modal languages in which some (sets of) generalized quantifiers can be represented; the main language we consider is suitable for defining any first order definable quantifier, but we also consider a sublanguage thereof, as well as a language for dealing with the modal counterparts of some higher order quantifiers. These languages are studied both from a modal logic perspective and from a quantifier perspective. Thus the issues addressed include normal forms, expressive power, completeness (...)
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  40.  41
    Naming Worlds in Modal and Temporal Logic.D. M. Gabbay & G. Malod - 2002 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 11 (1):29-65.
    In this paper we suggest adding to predicate modal and temporal logic a locality predicate W which gives names to worlds (or time points). We also study an equal time predicate D(x, y)which states that two time points are at the same distance from the root. We provide the systems studied with complete axiomatizations and illustrate the expressive power gained for modal logic by simulating other logics. The completeness proofs rely on the fairly intuitive notion of (...)
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  41.  13
    Normal Derivability in Modal Logic.Jan von Plato - 2005 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 51 (6):632-638.
    The standard rule of necessitation in systems of natural deduction for the modal logic S4 concludes □A from A whenever all assumptions A depends on are modal formulas. This condition prevents the composability and normalization of derivations, and therefore modifications of the rule have been suggested. It is shown that both properties hold if, instead of changing the rule of necessitation, all elimination rules are formulated in the manner of disjunction elimination, i.e. with an arbitrary consequence.
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  42.  23
    Algorithmic Correspondence and Completeness in Modal Logic. V. Recursive Extensions of SQEMA.Willem Conradie, Valentin Goranko & Dimitar Vakarelov - 2010 - Journal of Applied Logic 8 (4):319-333.
    The previously introduced algorithm \sqema\ computes first-order frame equivalents for modal formulae and also proves their canonicity. Here we extend \sqema\ with an additional rule based on a recursive version of Ackermann's lemma, which enables the algorithm to compute local frame equivalents of modal formulae in the extension of first-order logic with monadic least fixed-points \mffo. This computation operates by transforming input formulae into locally frame equivalent ones in the pure fragment of the hybrid mu-calculus. In particular, (...)
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  43.  35
    Partial Confirmation of a Conjecture on the Boxdot Translation in Modal Logic.Rohan French & Lloyd Humberstone - 2009 - Australasian Journal of Logic 7:56-61.
    The purpose of the present note is to advertise an interesting conjecture concerning a well-known translation in modal logic, by confirming a (highly restricted) special case of the conjecture.
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  44.  33
    Actualism, Serious Actualism, and Quantified Modal Logic.William H. Hanson - 2018 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 59 (2):233-284.
    This article studies seriously actualistic quantified modal logics. A key component of the language is an abstraction operator by means of which predicates can be created out of complex formulas. This facilitates proof of a uniform substitution theorem: if a sentence is logically true, then any sentence that results from substituting a predicate abstract for each occurrence of a simple predicate abstract is also logically true. This solves a problem identified by Kripke early in the modern semantic study of (...)
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  45.  12
    Full Models for Positive Modal Logic.Ramon Jansana - 2002 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 48 (3):427-445.
    The positive fragment of the local modal consequence relation defined by the class of all Kripke frames is studied in the context ofAlgebraic Logic. It is shown that this fragment is non-protoalgebraic and that its class of canonically associated algebras according to the criteria set up in [7] is the class of positive modal algebras. Moreover its full models are characterized as the models of the Gentzen calculus introduced in [3].
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  46.  99
    Natural Deduction for Modal Logic with a Backtracking Operator.Jonathan Payne - 2015 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 44 (3):237-258.
    Harold Hodes in [1] introduces an extension of first-order modal logic featuring a backtracking operator, and provides a possible worlds semantics, according to which the operator is a kind of device for ‘world travel’; he does not provide a proof theory. In this paper, I provide a natural deduction system for modal logic featuring this operator, and argue that the system can be motivated in terms of a reading of the backtracking operator whereby it serves to (...)
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  47.  30
    A New Deduction System for Deciding Validity in Modal Logic K.Joanna Golinska-Pilarek, Emilio Munoz Velasco & Angel Mora - 2011 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 19 (2): 425-434.
    A new deduction system for deciding validity for the minimal decidable normal modal logic K is presented in this article. Modal logics could be very helpful in modelling dynamic and reactive systems such as bio-inspired systems and process algebras. In fact, recently the Connectionist Modal Logics has been presented, which combines the strengths of modal logics and neural networks. Thus, modal logic K is the basis for these approaches. Soundness, completeness and the fact (...)
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  48.  54
    Modal Logic as Metalogic.Kosta Došen - 1992 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 1 (3):173-201.
    The goal of this paper is to show how modal logic may be conceived as recording the derived rules of a logical system in the system itself. This conception of modal logic was propounded by Dana Scott in the early seventies. Here, similar ideas are pursued in a context less classical than Scott's.First a family of propositional logical systems is considered, which is obtained by gradually adding structural rules to a variant of the nonassociative Lambek calculus. (...)
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  49.  17
    Quantified Modal Logic with Neighborhood Semantics.Geir Waagbø & G. Waagbø - 1992 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 38 (1):491-499.
    The paper presents a semantics for quantified modal logic which has a weaker axiomatization than the usual Kripke semantics. In particular, the Barcan Formula and its converse are not valid with the proposed semantics. Subclasses of models which validate BF and other interesting formulas are presented. A completeness theorem is proved, and the relation between this result and completeness with respect to Kripke models is investigated.
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  50.  42
    Remarks on the Modal Logic of Henry Bradford Smith.Mary C. MacLeod & Peter K. Schotch - 2000 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 29 (6):603-615.
    H. B. Smith, Professor of Philosophy at the influential 'Pennsylvania School' was (roughly) a contemporary of C. I. Lewis who was similarly interested in a proper account of 'implication'. His research also led him into the study of modal logic but in a different direction than Lewis was led. His account of modal logic does not lend itself as readily as Lewis' to the received 'possible worlds' semantics, so that the Smith approach was a casualty rather (...)
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