Results for 'models'

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  1. Concepts of Chaos-the Analysis of Self-Similarity and the Relevance of the Ethical Dimension-a Comment on Baker, Gregory, L. A'dualistic Model of Ultimate Reality and Meaning-Self-Similarity in Chaotic Dynamics and and Swedenborg'.Sm Modell - 1994 - Ultimate Reality and Meaning 17 (4):310-315.
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  2. Reflections on DNA: The Contribution of Genetics to an Energy-Based Model of Ultimate Reality and Meaning.Stephen M. Modell - 2002 - Ultimate Reality and Meaning 25 (4):274-294.
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  3. Classification Theory Proceedings of the U.S.-Israel Workshop on Model Theory in Mathematical Logic Held in Chicago, Dec. 15-19, 1985. [REVIEW]J. T. Baldwin & U. Workshop on Model Theory in Mathematical Logic - 1987
     
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  4. Model Organisms Are Not (Theoretical) Models.Arnon Levy & Adrian Currie - 2015 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 66 (2):327-348.
    Many biological investigations are organized around a small group of species, often referred to as ‘model organisms’, such as the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. The terms ‘model’ and ‘modelling’ also occur in biology in association with mathematical and mechanistic theorizing, as in the Lotka–Volterra model of predator-prey dynamics. What is the relation between theoretical models and model organisms? Are these models in the same sense? We offer an account on which the two practices are shown to have different (...)
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  5.  26
    The Λ Model for Motor Control: More Than Meets the Eye.Mindy F. Levin & Anatol G. Feldman - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (4):786-806.
    Understanding of the λ model has greatly increased in recent years as evidenced by most of the commentaries. Some commentators underscored the potential of the model to integrate aspects of different sensorimotor systems in the production of movement. Other commentators focused on not-yet-fully-developed parts of the model. A few persisted in misunderstanding some of its basic concepts, and on these grounds they reject it. In responding to commentaries we continue to elaborate on some fundamental points of the model, especially control (...)
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  6. Chapter Six A Buddhist Model for the Informational Person.Ken Herold - 2007 - In Soraj Hongladarom (ed.), Computing and Philosophy in Asia. Cambridge Scholars Press. pp. 88.
    The paper explores a metaphysics of information enriched by a computational view of Buddhism consistent with onto-ethics. To the extent that Floridi has explained the new philosophy of information as borrowing methods from computer science to approach philosophical problems computationally, I believe an applied philosophy of information can return the fruits of these results back to grounding issues in the practices of information technology. With this process we also foster a cross-fertilization between Eastern and Western philosophies, in the larger, intercultural (...)
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  7. Communicative Model – Author, Hero, Text, Recipient in a Postmodern Novel.Natalia Levchenko, Pecherskyh Lubov, Olena Varenikova & Nataliya Torkut - 2021 - Postmodern Openings 12 (3):96-106.
    The study deals with the communicative interaction between the author, the hero, the text, the reader in a postmodern novel. A similar and ambiguous reality, on the one hand, sometimes led to the subjectivist hypertrophy, absolutizing the author’s world view, and at times minimized and devaluated the author’s identity, on the other. Therefore, from the end of the 1990s the ways of expressing author’s “Self” changed dramatically, which directly affected the means of creating a hero in the contemporary Ukrainian literature. (...)
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    Models and Fictions: Not So Similar After All?Arnon Levy - 2020 - Philosophy of Science 87 (5):819-828.
    A number of philosophers draw a close analogy between scientific modeling and fiction, often appealing to Kendall Walton’s make-believe view. I assess the models-fictions analogy from a cognitive a...
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  9. Evolutionary Models and the Normative Significance of Stability.Arnon Levy - 2018 - Biology and Philosophy 33 (5-6):33.
    Many have expected that understanding the evolution of norms should, in some way, bear on our first-order normative outlook: How norms evolve should shape which norms we accept. But recent philosophy has not done much to shore up this expectation. Most existing discussions of evolution and norms either jump headlong into the is/ought gap or else target meta-ethical issues, such as the objectivity of norms. My aim in this paper is to sketch a different way in which evolutionary considerations can (...)
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  10.  25
    Unrealistic Models in Mathematics.William D'Alessandro - 2022 - Philosophers’ Imprint.
    Models are indispensable tools of scientific inquiry, and one of their main uses is to improve our understanding of the phenomena they represent. How do models accomplish this? And what does this tell us about the nature of understanding? While much recent work has aimed at answering these questions, philosophers' focus has been squarely on models in empirical science. I aim to show that pure mathematics also deserves a seat at the table. I begin by presenting two (...)
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    Continuous Model Theory.Chen Chung Chang - 1966 - Princeton: Princeton University Press.
    CONTINUOUS MODEL THEORY CHAPTER I TOPOLOGICAL PRELIMINARIES. Notation Throughout the monograph our mathematical notation does not differ drastically from ...
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  12. Mathematical Modelling and Contrastive Explanation.Adam Morton - 1990 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 20 (Supplement):251-270.
    Mathematical models provide explanations of limited power of specific aspects of phenomena. One way of articulating their limits here, without denying their essential powers, is in terms of contrastive explanation.
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  13. Causal Models and the Logic of Counterfactuals.Jonathan Vandenburgh - manuscript
    Causal models show promise as a foundation for the semantics of counterfactual sentences. However, current approaches face limitations compared to the alternative similarity theory: they only apply to a limited subset of counterfactuals and the connection to counterfactual logic is not straightforward. This paper addresses these difficulties using exogenous interventions, where causal interventions change the values of exogenous variables rather than structural equations. This model accommodates judgments about backtracking counterfactuals, extends to logically complex counterfactuals, and validates familiar principles of (...)
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  14.  29
    Animal Models in Neuropsychiatry: Do the Benefits Outweigh the Moral Costs?Carrie Figdor - 2022 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 32 (4):530-535.
    Animal models have long been used to investigate human mental disorders, including depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. This practice is usually justified in terms of the benefits (to humans) outweighing the costs (to the animals). I argue on utility maximization grounds that we should phase out animal models in neuropsychiatric research. Our leading theories of how human minds and behavior evolved invoke sociocultural factors whose relation to nonhuman minds, societies, and behavior has not been homologized. Thus it is not (...)
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  15. Model Definability in Relevant Logic.Guillermo Badia - 2017 - IfCoLog Journal of Logics and Their Applications 3 (4):623-646.
    It is shown that the classes of Routley-Meyer models which are axiomatizable by a theory in a propositional relevant language with fusion and the Ackermann constant can be characterized by their closure under certain model-theoretic operations involving prime filter extensions, relevant directed bisimulations and disjoint unions.
     
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  16. Models, Fictions, and Realism: Two Packages.Arnon Levy - 2012 - Philosophy of Science 79 (5):738-748.
    Some philosophers of science – the present author included – appeal to fiction as an interpretation of the practice of modeling. This raises the specter of an incompatibility with realism, since fiction-making is essentially non-truth-regulated. I argue that the prima facie conflict can be resolved in two ways, each involving a distinct notion of fiction and a corresponding formulation of realism. The main goal of the paper is to describe these two packages. Toward the end I comment on how to (...)
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  17. Automated Model Selection for Simulation Based on Relevance Reasoning.Alon Y. Levy, Yumi Iwasaki & Richard Fikes - 1997 - Artificial Intelligence 96 (2):351-394.
  18.  11
    A Model of Hypothesis Behavior in Discrimination Learning Set.Marvin Levine - 1959 - Psychological Review 66 (6):353-366.
  19.  11
    Model Answer: An Evaluation of a Complex Argument.Mark Letteri - 2003 - Informal Logic 23 (1).
  20.  10
    Model Answer: An Evaluation of a Complex Argument.Mark Letteri - 2003 - Informal Logic 23 (1).
  21.  10
    Models of Alternative Theater in the Classroom.Shulamith Lev-Aladgem - 2018 - Journal of Aesthetic Education 52 (3):72.
    Educational drama or drama-in-education, also known as process drama, is intrinsically an inclusive, mosaic pedagogy that utilizes various dramatic techniques and exercises as educational tools in schools. The goal of this teaching discipline is to engender a holistic and experiential learning that creates meaning and enhances self-expression and personal growth, leading the students to a better understanding of the complexity of human behavior, while also containing the “others” and their viewpoints.1Under the umbrella of D.I.E. there exists a range of different (...)
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    The Model of Future Teachers’ Project Competence Formation in the Process of Professional Training.Levina Inna - 2016 - Science and Education: Academic Journal of Ushynsky University 10:24-29.
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    Computational Models and Virtual Reality. New Perspectives of Research in Chemistry.Klaus Mainzer - 1999 - Hyle 5 (2):135 - 144.
    Molecular models are typical topics of chemical research depending on the technical standards of observation, computation, and representation. Mathematically, molecular structures have been represented by means of graph theory, topology, differential equations, and numerical procedures. With the increasing capabilities of computer networks, computational models and computer-assisted visualization become an essential part of chemical research. Object-oriented programming languages create a virtual reality of chemical structures opening new avenues of exploration and collaboration in chemistry. From an epistemic point of view, (...)
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  24.  83
    Models.Jeffrey Koperski - 2006 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    The word “model” is highly ambiguous, and there is no uniform terminology used by either scientists or philosophers. Here, a model is considered to be a representation of some object, behavior, or system that one wants to understand. This article presents the most common type of models found in science as well as the different relations—traditionally called “analogies”—between models and between a given model and its subject. Although once considered merely heuristic devices, they are now seen as indispensable (...)
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  25.  10
    A Model-Theoretic Realist Interpretation of Science.Emma Ruttkamp - 1999 - Dissertation, University of South Africa (South Africa)
    My model-theoretic realist account of science places linguistic systems and the corresponding non-linguistic structures at different stages of the scientific process. It is shown that science and its progress cannot be analysed in terms of only one of these strata. Philosophy of science literature offers mainly two approaches; to the structure of scientific knowledge analysed in terms of theories and their models, the "statement" and the "non-statement" approaches. In opposition to the statement approach's belief that scientific knowledge is embodied (...)
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  26.  9
    Model-Based Reasoning: Science, Technology, Values.Lorenzo Magnani & Nancy J. Nersessian (eds.) - 2002 - Boston, MA, USA: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.
    There are several key ingredients common to the various forms of model-based reasoning considered in this book. The term ‘model’ comprises both internal and external representations. The models are intended as interpretations of target physical systems, processes, phenomena, or situations and are retrieved or constructed on the basis of potentially satisfying salient constraints of the target domain. The book’s contributors are researchers active in the area of creative reasoning in science and technology.
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  27.  6
    Model-Theoretic Logics.J. Barwise & S. Feferman - 1985 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book brings together several directions of work in model theory between the late 1950s and early 1980s.
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  28. P-Model Alternative to the T-Model.Mark D. Roberts - 2004 - Web Journal of Formal, Computational and Logical Linguistics 5:1-18.
    Standard linguistic analysis of syntax uses the T-model. This model requires the ordering: D-structure > S-structure > LF, where D-structure is the sentences deep structure, S-structure is its surface structure, and LF is its logical form. Between each of these representations there is movement which alters the order of the constituent words; movement is achieved using the principles and parameters of syntactic theory. Psychological analysis of sentence production is usually either serial or connectionist. Psychological serial models do not accommodate (...)
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  29.  75
    A Model-Theoretic Interpretation of Science.Emma Ruttkamp - 1997 - South African Journal of Philosophy 16 (1):31-36.
    I am arguing that it is only by concentrating on the role of models in theory construction, interpretation and change, that one can study the progress of science sensibly. I define the level at which these models operate as a level above the purely empirical (consisting of various systems in reality) but also indeed below that of the fundamental formal theories (expressed linguistically). The essentially multi-interpretability of the theory at the general, abstract linguistic level, implies that it can (...)
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  30. Models in the Geosciences.Alisa Bokulich & Naomi Oreskes - 2017 - In Lorenzo Magnani & Tommaso Wayne Bertolotti (eds.), Springer Handbook of Model-Based Science. Springer. pp. 891-911.
    The geosciences include a wide spectrum of disciplines ranging from paleontology to climate science, and involve studies of a vast range of spatial and temporal scales, from the deep-time history of microbial life to the future of a system no less immense and complex than the entire Earth. Modeling is thus a central and indispensable tool across the geosciences. Here, we review both the history and current state of model-based inquiry in the geosciences. Research in these fields makes use of (...)
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  31. Models and Explanation.Alisa Bokulich - 2017 - In Lorenzo Magnani & Tommaso Wayne Bertolotti (eds.), Springer Handbook of Model-Based Science. Springer. pp. 103-118.
    Detailed examinations of scientific practice have revealed that the use of idealized models in the sciences is pervasive. These models play a central role in not only the investigation and prediction of phenomena, but in their received scientific explanations as well. This has led philosophers of science to begin revising the traditional philosophical accounts of scientific explanation in order to make sense of this practice. These new model-based accounts of scientific explanation, however, raise a number of key questions: (...)
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  32.  41
    Explanatory Models Versus Predictive Models: Reduced Complexity Modeling in Geomorphology.Alisa Bokulich - 2013 - In Vassilios Karakostas & Dennis Dieks (eds.), Epsa11 Perspectives and Foundational Problems in Philosophy of Science. Springer. pp. 115--128.
    Although predictive power and explanatory insight are both desiderata of scientific models, these features are often in tension with each other and cannot be simultaneously maximized. In such situations, scientists may adopt what I term a ‘division of cognitive labor’ among models, using different models for the purposes of explanation and prediction, respectively, even for the exact same phenomenon being investigated. Adopting this strategy raises a number of issues, however, which have received inadequate philosophical attention. More specifically, (...)
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  33.  94
    Fictional Models in Science.Chuang Liu - 2013
    In this paper, I begin with a discussion of Giere’s recent work arguing against taking models as works of fiction. I then move on to explore a spectrum of scientific models that goes from the obviously fictional to the not so obviously fictional. And then I discuss the modeling of the unobservable and make a case for the idea that despite difficulties of defining them, unobservable systems are modeled in a fundamentally different way than the observable systems. While (...)
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  34.  26
    Du Modèle à la Simulation Informatique.Franck Varenne - 2007 - Vrin.
    Avec l’évolution récente des modèles mathématiques vers des simulations informatiques, les formalisations du vivant sont de plus en plus intégratives, mixtes et, en un sens, réalistes. Plus généralement, les formalisations d’objets complexes deviennent assises sur et non plus seulement traitées par l’infrastructure informatique.Quelle est la véritable portée épistémologique de cette empirie simulée? Comment la distinguer de la créativité proprement interne aux mathématiques dont la philosophie des sciences a déjà su rendre compte?En se penchant sur les modèles de plantes, cette enquête (...)
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  35. Model Anarchism.Walter Veit - 2020
    This paper constitutes a radical departure from the existing philosophical literature on models, modeling-practices, and model-based science. I argue that the various entities and practices called 'models' and 'modeling-practices' are too diverse, too context-sensitive, and serve too many scientific purposes and roles, as to allow for a general philosophical analysis. From this recognition an alternative view emerges that I shall dub model anarchism.
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  36. Models in Engineering and Design: Modeling Relations and Directions of Fit.Michael Poznic - 2021 - In Diane Michelfelder & Neelke Doorn (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy of Engineering. Routledge. pp. 383-393.
    This chapter distinguishes two different modeling relations between vehicles and targets: design relation and representation relation. The relations are characterized by their different directions of fit. Three examples of modeling enterprises are discussed: a bioengineering model, called the “lung chip,” an architectural model, called the “weekend cottage,” and an engineering design model, called the “jet engine.” The two modeling relations with different directions of fit are analyzed in the three examples. The lung chip is standing in a representation relation to (...)
     
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  37. Which Models of Scientific Explanation Are (In)Compatible with IBE?Yunus Prasetya - forthcoming - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
    In this article, I explore the compatibility of inference to the best explanation (IBE) with several influential models and accounts of scientific explanation. First, I explore the different conceptions of IBE and limit my discussion to two: the heuristic conception and the objective Bayesian conception. Next, I discuss five models of scientific explanation with regard to each model’s compatibility with IBE. I argue that Philip Kitcher’s unificationist account supports IBE; Peter Railton’s deductive-nomological-probabilistic model, Wesley Salmon’s statistical-relevance Model, and (...)
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  38.  29
    Modelling Metaphysics: The Metaphysics of a Model.Uwe Meixner - 2010 - Ontos.
    This book models and simulates metaphysics by presenting the metaphysics of a model.
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  39. Models, Metaphors, Narrative, and Rhetoric: Philosophical Aspects.Uskali Mäki - 2001 - In N. J. Smelser & B. Baltes (eds.), International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences. pp. 15--9931.
    Contemporary philosophers of science argue that models are a major vehicle of scientific knowledge. This applies to highly theoretical inquiry as well as to experimental or otherwise observational research, in both the natural and the social sciences. Making this claim is not yet very illuminating, given that there is a large variety of different kinds of model, and a number of ways in which they function in the service of science. The ambiguity of the term ‘model’ and the multiplicity (...)
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  40. Models and Truth.Uskali Mäki - 2010 - In M. Dorato M. Suàrez (ed.), Epsa Epistemology and Methodology of Science. Springer. pp. 177--187.
    In what follows, I will give examples of the sorts of step that can be taken towards spelling out the intuition that, after all, good models might be true. Along the way, I provide an outline of my account of models as ontologically and pragmatically constrained representations. And I emphasize the importance of examining models as functionally composed systems in which different components play different roles and only some components serve as relevant truth bearers. This disputes the (...)
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  41. Models of Moral Cognition.Jeffrey White - 2013 - In Lorenzo Magnani (ed.), Model-Based Reasoning in Science and Technology, 1. springer. pp. last 20.
    3 Abstract This paper is about modeling morality, with a proposal as to the best 4 way to do it. There is the small problem, however, in continuing disagreements 5 over what morality actually is, and so what is worth modeling. This paper resolves 6 this problem around an understanding of the purpose of a moral model, and from 7 this purpose approaches the best way to model morality.
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  42.  2
    Modelling with Words: Learning, Fusion, and Reasoning Within a Formal Linguistic Representation Framework.Jonathan Lawry - 2003 - Springer Verlag.
    Modelling with Words is an emerging modelling methodology closely related to the paradigm of Computing with Words introduced by Lotfi Zadeh. This book is an authoritative collection of key contributions to the new concept of Modelling with Words. A wide range of issues in systems modelling and analysis is presented, extending from conceptual graphs and fuzzy quantifiers to humanist computing and self-organizing maps. Among the core issues investigated are - balancing predictive accuracy and high level transparency in learning - scaling (...)
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    The Models of Skill Acquisition and Expertise Development: A Quick Reference of Summaries.Raman K. Attri - 2018 - Singapore: Speed To Proficiency Research: S2Pro©.
    The book offers condensed summaries of twenty-three major models of skill acquisition and expertise development presented by leading researchers during the last half a century of classic and new research. This book presents new researchers in learning, training, cognitive sciences or education disciplines with a big picture starting point for their literature review journey. The book presents an easy to understand taxonomy of twenty-three models which can give new researchers a good bird’s eye view of existing models (...)
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  44. Models as Make-Believe: Imagination, Fiction and Scientific Representation.Adam Toon - 2012 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
    Models as Make-Believe offers a new approach to scientific modelling by looking to an unlikely source of inspiration: the dolls and toy trucks of children's games of make-believe.
  45.  82
    Models in Science and in Learning Science: Focusing Scientific Practice on Sense-Making.Cynthia Passmore, Julia Svoboda Gouvea & Ronald Giere - 2014 - In Michael R. Matthews (ed.), International Handbook of Research in History, Philosophy and Science Teaching. Springer. pp. 1171-1202.
    The central aim of science is to make sense of the world. To move forward as a community endeavor, sense-making must be systematic and focused. The question then is how do scientists actually experience the sense-making process? In this chapter we examine the “practice turn” in science studies and in particular how as a result of this turn scholars have come to realize that models are the “functional unit” of scientific thought and form the center of the reasoning/sense-making process. (...)
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  46.  7
    Modelling Efficient Team Structures in Biology.Vlasta Sikimić & Ole Herud-Sikimić - 2022 - Journal of Logic and Computation.
    We used agent-based modelling to highlight the advantages and disadvantages of several management styles in biology, ranging from centralized to egalitarian ones. In egalitarian groups, all team members are connected with each other, while in centralized ones, they are only connected with the principal investigator. Our model incorporated time constraints, which negatively influenced weakly connected groups such as centralized ones. Moreover, our results show that egalitarian groups outperform others if the questions addressed are relatively simple or when the communication among (...)
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  47. Models as Make-Believe.Adam Toon - 2010 - In Roman Frigg & Matthew Hunter (eds.), Beyond Mimesis and Convention: Representation in Art and Science. Boston Studies in Philosophy of Science.
    In this paper I propose an account of representation for scientific models based on Kendall Walton’s ‘make-believe’ theory of representation in art. I first set out the problem of scientific representation and respond to a recent argument due to Craig Callender and Jonathan Cohen, which aims to show that the problem may be easily dismissed. I then introduce my account of models as props in games of make-believe and show how it offers a solution to the problem. Finally, (...)
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  48. The Model-Theoretic Argument: From Skepticism to a New Understanding.Gila Sher - 2016 - In Sanford Goldberg (ed.), The Brain in a Vat. Cambridge, Britain: Cambridge University Press. pp. 208-225.
    In this paper I investigate Putnam’s model-theoretic argument from a transcendent standpoint, in spite of Putnam’s well-known objections to such a standpoint. This transcendence, however, requires ascent to something more like a Tarskian meta-level than what Putnam regards as a “God’s eye view”. Still, it is methodologically quite powerful, leading to a significant increase in our investigative tools. The result is a shift from Putnam’s skeptical conclusion to a new understanding of realism, truth, correspondence, knowledge, and theories, or certain aspects (...)
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  49. Laws, Models, and Theories in Biology: A Unifying Interpretation.Pablo Lorenzano - 2020 - In Lorenzo Baravalle & Luciana Zaterka (eds.), Life and Evolution, History, Philosophy and Theory of the Life Sciences. pp. 163-207.
    Three metascientific concepts that have been object of philosophical analysis are the concepts oflaw, model and theory. The aim ofthis article is to present the explication of these concepts, and of their relationships, made within the framework of Sneedean or Metatheoretical Structuralism (Balzer et al. 1987), and of their application to a case from the realm of biology: Population Dynamics. The analysis carried out will make it possible to support, contrary to what some philosophers of science in general and of (...)
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  50. Models and Inferences in Science.Emiliano Ippoliti, Fabio Sterpetti & Thomas Nickles (eds.) - 2016 - Cham: Springer.
    The book answers long-standing questions on scientific modeling and inference across multiple perspectives and disciplines, including logic, mathematics, physics and medicine. The different chapters cover a variety of issues, such as the role models play in scientific practice; the way science shapes our concept of models; ways of modeling the pursuit of scientific knowledge; the relationship between our concept of models and our concept of science. The book also discusses models and scientific explanations; models in (...)
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