Results for 'monotonicity'

177 found
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  1.  62
    Monotonicity and Collective Quantification.Gilad Ben-avi & Yoad Winter - 2003 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 12 (2):127-151.
    This article studies the monotonicity behavior of plural determinersthat quantify over collections. Following previous work, we describe thecollective interpretation of determiners such as all, some andmost using generalized quantifiers of a higher type that areobtained systematically by applying a type shifting operator to thestandard meanings of determiners in Generalized Quantifier Theory. Twoprocesses of counting and existential quantification thatappear with plural quantifiers are unified into a single determinerfitting operator, which, unlike previous proposals, both capturesexistential quantification with plural determiners and respects (...)
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  2.  31
    Varieties of Failure of Monotonicity and Participation Under Five Voting Methods.Dan S. Felsenthal & Nicolaus Tideman - 2013 - Theory and Decision 75 (1):59-77.
    In voting theory, monotonicity is the axiom that an improvement in the ranking of a candidate by voters cannot cause a candidate who would otherwise win to lose. The participation axiom states that the sincere report of a voter’s preferences cannot cause an outcome that the voter regards as less attractive than the one that would result from the voter’s non-participation. This article identifies three binary distinctions in the types of circumstances in which failures of monotonicity or participation (...)
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  3.  27
    Monotonicity in Practical Reasoning.Kenneth G. Ferguson - 2003 - Argumentation 17 (3):335-346.
    Classic deductive logic entails that once a conclusion is sustained by a valid argument, the argument can never be invalidated, no matter how many new premises are added. This derived property of deductive reasoning is known as monotonicity. Monotonicity is thought to conflict with the defeasibility of reasoning in natural language, where the discovery of new information often leads us to reject conclusions that we once accepted. This perceived failure of monotonic reasoning to observe the defeasibility of natural-language (...)
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  4.  42
    Monotonicity of Power in Games with a Priori Unions.J. M. Alonso-Meijide, C. Bowles, M. J. Holler & S. Napel - 2009 - Theory and Decision 66 (1):17-37.
    Power indices are commonly required to assign at least as much power to a player endowed with some given voting weight as to any player of the same game with smaller weight. This local monotonicity and a related global property however are frequently and for good reasons violated when indices take account of a priori unions amongst subsets of players (reflecting, e.g., ideological proximity). This paper introduces adaptations of the conventional monotonicity notions that are suitable for voting games (...)
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  5.  24
    A New Monotonicity Condition for Tournament Solutions.İpek Özkal-Sanver & M. Remzi Sanver - 2010 - Theory and Decision 69 (3):439-452.
    We identify a new monotonicity condition (called cover monotonicity) for tournament solutions which allows a discrimination among main tournament solutions: The top-cycle, the iterated uncovered set, the minimal covering set, and the bipartisan set are cover monotonic while the uncovered set, Banks set, the Copeland rule, and the Slater rule fail to be so. As cover monotonic tournament solutions induce social choice rules which are Nash implementable in certain non-standard frameworks (such as those set by Bochet and Maniquet (...)
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  6.  24
    Monotonicity of Power and Power Measures.Manfred J. Holler & Stefan Napel - 2004 - Theory and Decision 56 (1-2):93-111.
    Monotonicity is commonly considered an essential requirement for power measures; violation of local monotonicity or related postulates supposedly disqualifies an index as a valid yardstick for measuring power. This paper questions if such claims are really warranted. In the light of features of real-world collective decision making such as coalition formation processes, ideological affinities, a priori unions, and strategic interaction, standard notions of monotonicity are too narrowly defined. A power measure should be able to indicate that power (...)
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  7.  25
    Local Logics, Non-Monotonicity and Defeasible Argumentation.Gustavo A. Bodanza & Fernando A. Tohmé - 2005 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 14 (1):1-12.
    In this paper we present an embedding of abstract argumentation systems into the framework of Barwise and Seligmans logic of information flow. We show that, taking P.M. Dungs characterization of argument systems, a local logic over states of a deliberation may be constructed. In this structure, the key feature of non-monotonicity of commonsense reasoning obtains as the transition from one local logic to another, due to a change in certain background conditions. Each of Dungs extensions of argument systems leads (...)
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  8.  42
    Constrained Monotonicity and the Measurement of Power.Manfred J. Holler, Rie Ono & Frank Steffen - 2001 - Theory and Decision 50 (4):383-395.
    In this paper we will discuss constraints on the number of (non-dummy) players and on the distribution of votes such that local monotonicity is satisfied for the Public Good Index. These results are compared to properties which are related to constraints on the redistribution of votes (such as implied by global monotonicity). The discussion shows that monotonicity is not a straightforward criterion of classification for power measures.
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  9.  41
    Better May Be Worse: Some Monotonicity Results and Paradoxes in Discrete Choice Under Uncertainty. [REVIEW]Jörgen W. Weibull, Lars-Göran Mattsson & Mark Voorneveld - 2007 - Theory and Decision 63 (2):121-151.
    It is not unusual in real-life that one has to choose among finitely many alternatives when the merit of each alternative is not perfectly known. Instead of observing the actual utilities of the alternatives at hand, one typically observes more or less precise signals that are positively correlated with these utilities. In addition, the decision-maker may, at some cost or disutility of effort, choose to increase the precision of these signals, for example by way of a careful study or the (...)
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  10.  39
    Is More Health Always Better for Society? Exploring Public Preferences That Violate Monotonicity.Ignacio Abásolo & Aki Tsuchiya - 2013 - Theory and Decision 74 (4):539-563.
    There has recently been some literature on the properties of a Health-Related Social Welfare Function (HRSWF). The aim of this article is to contribute to the analysis of the different properties of a HRSWF, paying particular attention to the monotonicity principle. For monotonicity to be fulfilled, any increase in individual health—other things equal—should result in an increase in social welfare. We elicit public preferences concerning trade-offs between the total level of health (concern for efficiency) and its distribution (concern (...)
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  11.  24
    Unanimity and Resource Monotonicity.Biung-Ghi Ju - 2005 - Theory and Decision 59 (1):1-17.
    In the context of indivisible public objects problems (e.g., candidate selection or qualification) with “separable” preferences, unanimity rule accepts each object if and only if the object is in everyone’s top set. We establish two axiomatizations of unanimity rule. The main axiom is resource monotonicity, saying that resource increase should affect all agents in the same direction. This axiom is considered in combination with simple Pareto (there is no Pareto improvement by addition or subtraction of a single object), independence (...)
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  12.  24
    A Note on the Monotonicity of Reducible Quantifiers.R. Zuber - 2010 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 19 (1):123-128.
    We provide necessary and sufficient conditions determining how monotonicity of some classes of reducible quantifiers depends on the monotonicity of simpler quantifiers of iterations to which they are equivalent.
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  13.  9
    Non-Monotonicity in NPI Licensing.Luka Crnič - 2014 - Natural Language Semantics 22 (2):169-217.
    The distribution of the focus particle even is constrained: if it is adjoined at surface structure to an expression that is entailed by its focus alternatives, as in even once, it must be appropriately embedded to be acceptable. This paper focuses on the context-dependent distribution of such occurrences of even in the scope of non-monotone quantifiers. We show that it is explained on the assumption that even can move at LF Syntax and semantics, 1979). The analysis is subsequently extended to (...)
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  14.  32
    An Axiomatization of the Kernel for TU Games Through Reduced Game Monotonicity and Reduced Dominance.Theo Driessen & Cheng-Cheng Hu - 2013 - Theory and Decision 74 (1):1-12.
  15.  25
    Does Learning Diminish Violations of Independence, Coalescing and Monotonicity?Steven J. Humphrey - 2006 - Theory and Decision 61 (2):93-128.
  16.  8
    Monotonicity and Reasoning with Exceptions.Frank Zenker - 2006 - Argumentation 20 (2):227-236.
    A proposal by Ferguson [2003, Argumentation 17, 335–346] for a fully monotonic argument form allowing for the expression of defeasible generalizations is critically examined and rejected as a general solution. It is argued that (i) his proposal reaches less than the default-logician’s solution allows, e.g., the monotonously derived conclusion is one-sided and itself not defeasible. (ii) when applied to a suitable example, his proposal derives the wrong conclusion. Unsuccessful remedies are discussed.
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  17.  60
    Monotonicity and Processing Load.B. Geurts - 2005 - Journal of Semantics 22 (1):97-117.
    Starting out from the assumption that monotonicity plays a central role in interpretation and inference, we derive a number of predictions about the complexity of processing quantified sentences. A quantifier may be upward entailing (i.e. license inferences from subsets to supersets) or downward entailing (i.e. license inferences from supersets to subsets). Our main predictions are the following: If the monotonicity profiles of two quantifying expressions are the same, they should be equally easy or hard to process, ceteris paribus. (...)
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  18.  37
    Collective Essence and Monotonicity.Justin Zylstra - forthcoming - Erkenntnis:1-15.
    This paper focuses on the concept of collective essence: that some truths are essential to many items taken together. For example, that it is essential to conjunction and negation that they are truth-functionally complete. The concept of collective essence is one of the main innovations of recent work on the theory of essence. In a sense, this innovation is natural, since we make all sorts of plural predications. It stands to reason that there should be a distinction between essential and (...)
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  19.  52
    Weak Vs. Strong Readings of Donkey Sentences and Monotonicity Inference in a Dynamic Setting.Makoto Kanazawa - 1994 - Linguistics and Philosophy 17 (2):109 - 158.
    In this paper, I show that the availability of what some authors have called the weak reading and the strong reading of donkey sentences with relative clauses is systematically related to monotonicity properties of the determiner. The correlation is different from what has been observed in the literature in that it concerns not only right monotonicity, but also left monotonicity (persistence/antipersistence). I claim that the reading selected by a donkey sentence with a double monotone determiner is in (...)
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  20.  13
    Epistemic Logic, Monotonicity, and the Halbach–Welch Rapprochement Strategy.Kyle Banick - forthcoming - Studia Logica:1-25.
    Predicate approaches to modality have been a topic of increased interest in recent intensional logic. Halbach and Welch :71–100, 2009) have proposed a new formal technique to reduce the necessity predicate to an operator, demonstrating that predicate and operator methods are ultimately compatible. This article concerns the question of whether Halbach and Welch’s approach can provide a uniform formal treatment for intensionality. I show that the monotonicity constraint in Halbach and Welch’s proof for necessity fails for almost all possible-worlds (...)
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  21.  19
    Monotonicity Properties of Comparative Determiners.Hans Smessaert - 1996 - Linguistics and Philosophy 19 (3):295 - 336.
    This paper presents a generalization of the standard notions of left monotonicity (on the nominal argument of a determiner) and right monotonicity (on the VP argument of a determiner). Determiners such as “more than/at least as many as” or “fewer than/at most as many as”, which occur in so-called propositional comparison, are shown to be monotone with respect to two nominal arguments and two VP-arguments. In addition, it is argued that the standard Generalized Quantifier analysis of numerical determiners (...)
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  22.  31
    Infinite Utility: Insisting on Strong Monotonicity.Luc Lauwers - 1997 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 75 (2):222 – 233.
    The note addresses the problem of how utilitarianism and other finitely additive theories of value should evaluate infinitely long utility streams. We use the axiomatic approach and show that finite anonymity does not apply in an infinite framework. A stronger anonymity demand (fixed step anonymity) is proposed and motivated. Finally, we construct an ordering criterion that combines fixed step anonymity and strong monotonicity.
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  23.  28
    Comments on Ede Zimmermann's "Monotonicity in Opaque Verbs".Paul Egré - unknown
    This is the handout of my comments on E. Zimmermann's paper "Monotonicity in Opaque Verbs", which I prepared for the workshop on Intensional Verbs and Non-Referential Terms held at IHPST on January 14, 2006.
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  24.  93
    Belief-Revision, the Ramsey Test, Monotonicity, and the so-Called Impossibility Results.Neil Tennant - 2008 - Review of Symbolic Logic 1 (4):402-423.
    Peter G¨ ardenfors proved a theorem purporting to show that it is impossible to adjoin to the AGM -postulates for belief-revision a principle of monotonicity for revisions. The principle of monotonicity in question is implied by the Ramsey test for conditionals. So G¨.
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  25.  36
    Syllogistics = Monotonicity + Symmetry + Existential Import.Jan van Eijck - unknown
    Syllogistics reduces to only two rules of inference: monotonicity and symmetry, plus a third if one wants to take existential import into account. We give an implementation that uses only the monotonicity and symmetry rules, with an addendum for the treatment of existential import. Soundness follows from the monotonicity properties and symmetry properties of the Aristotelean quantifiers, while completeness for syllogistic theory is proved by direct inspection of the valid syllogisms. Next, the valid syllogisms are decomposed in (...)
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  26.  21
    Partial Monotonicity and a New Version of the Ramsey Test.John Pais & Peter Jackson - 1992 - Studia Logica 51 (1):21-47.
    We introduce two new belief revision axioms: partial monotonicity and consequence correctness. We show that partial monotonicity is consistent with but independent of the full set of axioms for a Gärdenfors belief revision sytem. In contrast to the Gärdenfors inconsistency results for certain monotonicity principles, we use partial monotonicity to inform a consistent formalization of the Ramsey test within a belief revision system extended by a conditional operator. We take this to be a technical dissolution of (...)
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  27.  17
    Theory Matrices (for Modal Logics) Using Alphabetical Monotonicity.Ian P. Gent - 1993 - Studia Logica 52 (2):233 - 257.
    In this paper I give conditions under which a matrix characterisation of validity is correct for first order logics where quantifications are restricted by statements from a theory. Unfortunately the usual definition of path closure in a matrix is unsuitable and a less pleasant definition must be used. I derive the matrix theorem from syntactic analysis of a suitable tableau system, but by choosing a tableau system for restricted quantification I generalise Wallen's earlier work on modal logics. The tableau system (...)
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  28.  26
    Probabilistic Single Function Dual Process Theory and Logic Programming as Approaches to Non-Monotonicity in Human Vs. Artificial Reasoning.Mike Oaksford & Nick Chater - 2014 - Thinking and Reasoning 20 (2):269-295.
  29.  51
    Monotonicity in Opaque Verbs.Thomas Ede Zimmermann - 2006 - Linguistics and Philosophy 29 (6):715 - 761.
    The paper is about the interpretation of opaque verbs like “seek”, “owe”, and “resemble” which allow for unspecific readings of their (indefinite) objects. It is shown that the following two observations create a problem for semantic analysis: (a) The opaque position is upward monotone: “John seeks a unicorn” implies “John seeks an animal”, given that “unicorn” is more specific than “animal”. (b) Indefinite objects of opaque verbs allow for higher-order, or “underspecific”, readings: “Jones is looking for something Smith is looking (...)
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  30.  8
    Monotonicity and Processing Load.Bart Geurts & Frans van der Slik - 2005 - Journal of Semantics 22 (1):97-117.
  31.  11
    A Monotonicity Theorem for Dp-Minimal Densely Ordered Groups.John Goodrick - 2010 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 75 (1):221-238.
    Dp-minimality is a common generalization of weak minimality and weak o-minimality. If T is a weakly o-minimal theory then it is dp-minimal (Fact 2.2), but there are dp-minimal densely ordered groups that are not weakly o-minimal. We introduce the even more general notion of inp-minimality and prove that in an inp-minimal densely ordered group, every definable unary function is a union of finitely many continuous locally monotonic functions (Theorem 3.2).
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  32.  27
    'Only' Noun Phrases, Pseudo-Negative Generalized Quantifiers, Negative Polarity Items, and Monotonicity.J. Atlas - 1996 - Journal of Semantics 13 (4):265-328.
    The theory of Generalized Quantifiers has facilitated progress in the study of negation in natural language. In particular it has permitted the formulation of a DeMorgan taxonomy of logical strength of negative Noun Phrases (Zwarts 1996a,b). It has permitted the formulation of broad semantical generalizations to explain grammatical phenomena, e.g. the distribution of Negative Polarity Items (Ladusaw 1980; Linebarger 1981, 1987, 1991; Hoeksema 1986, 1995; Zwarts 1996a,b; Horn 1992, 1996b). In the midst of this theorizing Jaap Hoepelman invited me to (...)
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  33.  6
    A Logical Calculus for Controlled Monotonicity.Marcello D'Agostino, Mario Piazza & Gabriele Pulcini - 2014 - Journal of Applied Logic 12 (4):558-569.
  34.  25
    The Monotonicity of 'No' and the No-Proposition View.Bradley Armour-Garb - 2012 - American Philosophical Quarterly 49 (1):1-14.
    This article reveals a tension between a fairly standard response to "liar sentences," of which -/- (L) Sentence (L) -/- is not true is an instance, and some features of our natural language determiners (e.g., 'every,' 'some,' 'no,' etc.) that have been established by formal linguists. The fairly standard response to liar sentences, which has been voiced by a number of philosophers who work directly on the Liar paradox (e.g., Parsons [1974], Kripke [1975], Burge [1979], Goldstein [1985, 2009], Gaifman [1992, (...)
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  35.  10
    Monotonicity and Syllogistic Inference: A Reply to Newstead.Bart Geurts - 2003 - Cognition 90 (2):201-204.
  36.  19
    Non-Monotonicity and Informal Reasoning: Comment on Ferguson (2003).Mike Oaksford & Ulrike Hahn - 2006 - Argumentation 20 (2):245-251.
    In this paper, it is argued that Ferguson’s (2003, Argumentation 17, 335–346) recent proposal to reconcile monotonic logic with defeasibility has three counterintuitive consequences. First, the conclusions that can be derived from his new rule of inference are vacuous, a point that as already made against default logics when there are conflicting defaults. Second, his proposal requires a procedural “hack” to the break the symmetry between the disjuncts of the tautological conclusions to which his proposal leads. Third, Ferguson’s proposal amounts (...)
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  37.  54
    Symmetry And Monotonicity Properties For Positive Solutions Of Semi-Linear Elliptic PDE'S: Symmetry And Monotonicity Properties.Jean Dolbeault & Patricio Felmer - 2000 - History and Philosophy of Logic 25 (5-6):1153-1169.
  38.  36
    Biung-Ghi Ju/Unanimity and Resource Monotonicity 1–17 Young-Ran Roh/Is the Disposition of Constrained Maximization Chosen Rationally? 19–41 Eric Langlais/Willingness to Pay for Risk Reduction and Risk Aversion Without the Expected Utility As. [REVIEW]Carlo Alberto Magni, Anna Maffioletti, Michele Santoni & Do Trade - 2005 - Theory and Decision 59:345-346.
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  39.  17
    Monotonicity of Drive Effects in the Instrumental Conditioning of Attitudes.Robert Frank Weiss, Vickie L. Wenninger, Susan Siclari Balling & Franklin G. Miller - 1980 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 16 (5):381-382.
  40. Evidential Probability, Objective Bayesianism, Non-Monotonicity and System P.Jon Williamson - manuscript
    This paper is a comparison of how first-order Kyburgian Evidential Probability (EP), second-order EP, and objective Bayesian epistemology compare as to the KLM system-P rules for consequence relations and the monotonic / non-monotonic divide.
     
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  41.  16
    Litotes and Downward Monotonicity.Ton Van der Wouden - 1996 - In H. Wansing (ed.), Negation: A Notion in Focus. W. De Gruyter. pp. 145.
  42. Monotonicity Properties of Gittins Indices.J. Robin & T. Magnac - 1999 - Theory and Decision 47 (3):267-329.
     
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  43.  11
    Differentiation in P-Minimal Structures and a P-Adic Local Monotonicity Theorem.Tristan Kuijpers & Eva Leenknegt - 2014 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 79 (4):1133-1147.
  44.  4
    Diagrams and Non-Monotonicity in Puzzles.Benedek Nagy & Gerard Allwein - 2004 - In A. Blackwell, K. Marriott & A. Shimojima (eds.), Diagrammatic Representation and Inference. Springer. pp. 82--96.
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  45.  2
    Monotonicity and the Expressibility of NP Operators.Iain A. Stewart - 1994 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 40 (1):132-140.
    We investigate why similar extensions of first-order logic using operators corresponding to NP-complete decision problems apparently differ in expressibility: the logics capture either NP or LNP. It had been conjectured that the complexity class captured is NP if and only if the operator is monotone. We show that this conjecture is false. However, we provide evidence supporting a revised conjecture involving finite variations of monotone problems.
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  46. Monotonicity and Collective Quantification.Gilad B. Avi & Yoad Winter - 2003 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 12 (2):127--151.
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  47. Special Issue, Uncertainty, Conditionals and Non-Monotonicity.P. Smets & M. R. B. Clarke - 1991 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 1 (2).
  48.  7
    Learnability and Semantic Universals.Shane Steinert-Threlkeld & Jakub Szymanik - forthcoming - Semantics and Pragmatics.
    One of the great successes of the application of generalized quantifiers to natural language has been the ability to formulate robust semantic universals. When such a universal is attested, the question arises as to the source of the universal. In this paper, we explore the hypothesis that many semantic universals arise because expressions satisfying the universal are easier to learn than those that do not. While the idea that learnability explains universals is not new, explicit accounts of learning that can (...)
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  49.  83
    Reasoning with Quantifiers.Bart Geurts - 2003 - Cognition 86 (3):223--251.
    In the semantics of natural language, quantification may have received more attention than any other subject, and one of the main topics in psychological studies on deductive reasoning is syllogistic inference, which is just a restricted form of reasoning with quantifiers. But thus far the semantical and psychological enterprises have remained disconnected. This paper aims to show how our understanding of syllogistic reasoning may benefit from semantical research on quantification. I present a very simple logic that pivots on the (...) properties of quantified statements - properties that are known to be crucial not only to quantification but to a much wider range of semantical phenomena. This logic is shown to account for the experimental evidence available in the literature as well as for the data from a new experiment with cardinal quantifiers ("at least n" and "at most n"), which cannot be explained by any other theory of syllogistic reasoning. (shrink)
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  50.  82
    Modularity and Intuitions in Formal Semantics: The Case of Polarity Items.Emmanuel Chemla, Vincent Homer & Daniel Rothschild - 2011 - Linguistics and Philosophy 34 (6):537-570.
    Linguists often sharply distinguish the different modules that support linguistics competence, e.g., syntax, semantics, pragmatics. However, recent work has identified phenomena in syntax (polarity sensitivity) and pragmatics (implicatures), which seem to rely on semantic properties (monotonicity). We propose to investigate these phenomena and their connections as a window into the modularity of our linguistic knowledge. We conducted a series of experiments to gather the relevant syntactic, semantic and pragmatic judgments within a single paradigm. The comparison between these quantitative data (...)
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