Results for 'moral duties'

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  1. Joint Moral Duties.Anne Schwenkenbecher - 2014 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 38 (1):58-74.
    There are countless circumstances under which random individuals COULD act together to prevent something morally bad from happening or to remedy a morally bad situation. But when OUGHT individuals to act together in order to bring about a morally important outcome? Building on Philip Pettit’s and David Schweikard’s account of joint action, I will put forward the notion of joint duties: duties to perform an action together that individuals in so-called random or unstructured groups can jointly hold. I (...)
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  2.  76
    The Moral Duty to Reduce the Risk of Child Sexual Abuse.Sergei Levin - 2019 - Human Affairs 29 (2):188-198.
    A paedophile is a person with a sexual attraction to children; some paedophiles commit child sex abuse offences. For such acts, they hold moral and legal responsibility, which presupposes that paedophiles are moral agents who can distinguish right from wrong and are capable of self-control. Like any other moral agents, paedophiles have moral duties. Some moral duties are universal, e.g., the duty not to steal. Whether there are any specific moral duties (...)
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  3. The Moral Duty to Buy Health Insurance.Tina Rulli, Ezekiel Emanuel & David Wendler - 2012 - Journal of the American Medical Association 308 (2):137-138.
    The 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act was designed to increase health insurance coverage in the United States. Its most controversial feature is the requirement that US residents purchase health insurance. Opponents of the mandate argue that requiring people to contribute to the collective good is inconsistent with respect for individual liberty. Rather than appeal to the collective good, this Viewpoint argues for a duty to buy health insurance based on the moral duty individuals have to reduce certain (...)
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  4.  7
    Do Moral Duties Arise From Global Trade?Andrew Walton - 2014 - Moral Philosophy and Politics 1 (2):249-268.
    This paper discusses the idea that trade – the practice of regularised exchange of goods or services between nation-states for mutual advantage under an orchestrated system of rules – can generate moral duties, duties that exist between only participants in the activity. It considers this idea across three duties often cited as duties of trade: duties not to harm; duties to provide certain basic goods; and duties to distribute benefits and burdens fairly. (...)
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  5.  86
    Moral Duties of Parents and Nontherapeutic Clinical Research Procedures Involving Children.Terrence F. Ackerman - 1980 - Journal of Medical Humanities 2 (2):94-111.
    Shared views regarding the moral respect which is owed to children in family life are used as a guide in determining the moral permissibility of nontherapeutic clinical research procedures involving children. The comparison suggests that it is not appropriate to seek assent from the preadolescent child. The analogy with interventions used in family life is similarly employed to specify the permissible limit of risk to which children may be exposed in nontherapeutic research procedures. The analysis indicates that recent (...)
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  6. The Moral Self and Moral Duties.Jim A. C. Everett, Joshua August Skorburg & Julian Savulescu - 2020 - Philosophical Psychology (7):1-22.
    Recent research has begun treating the perennial philosophical question, “what makes a person the same over time?” as an empirical question. A long tradition in philosophy holds that psychological continuity and connectedness of memories are at the heart of personal identity. More recent experimental work, following Strohminger & Nichols (2014), has suggested that persistence of moral character, more than memories, is perceived as essential for personal identity. While there is a growing body of evidence supporting these findings, a critique (...)
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  7. Moral Duty, Individual Responsibility, and Sweatshop Exploitation.C. D. Meyers - 2007 - Journal of Social Philosophy 38 (4):620–626.
  8.  68
    Scientific Research is a Moral Duty.J. Harris - 2005 - Journal of Medical Ethics 31 (4):242-248.
    Biomedical research is so important that there is a positive moral obligation to pursue it and to participate in itScience is under attack. In Europe, America, and Australasia in particular, scientists are objects of suspicion and are on the defensive.i“Frankenstein science”5–8 is a phrase never far from the lips of those who take exception to some aspect of science or indeed some supposed abuse by scientists. We should not, however, forget the powerful obligation there is to undertake, support, and (...)
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  9. The Subjective Moral Duty to Inform Oneself Before Acting.Holly M. Smith - 2014 - Ethics 125 (1):11-38.
    The requirement that moral theories be usable for making decisions runs afoul of the fact that decision makers often lack sufficient information about their options to derive any accurate prescriptions from the standard theories. Many theorists attempt to solve this problem by adopting subjective moral theories—ones that ground obligations on the agent’s beliefs about the features of her options, rather than on the options’ actual features. I argue that subjective deontological theories suffer a fatal flaw, since they cannot (...)
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  10.  52
    Moral Duties and Euthanasia: Why to Kill is Not Necessarily the Same as to Let Die.H. McLachlan - 2011 - Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (12):766-767.
    David Shaw's response to Hugh McLachlan's criticism of his proposed new perspective on euthanasia is ineffectual, mistaken and unfair. It is false to say that the latter does not present an argument to support his claim that there is a moral difference between killing and letting die. It is not the consequences alone of actions that constitute their moral worth. It can matter too what duties are breached or fulfilled by the particular moral agents who are (...)
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  11.  54
    Moral Duties, Institutions, and Natural Facts.Michael Stocker - 1970 - The Monist 54 (4):602-624.
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  12. A Kantian Moral Duty for the Soon-to-Be Demented to Commit Suicide.Dennis R. Cooley - 2007 - American Journal of Bioethics 7 (6):37 – 44.
    It has been argued that, on Kantian grounds, pedophiles, rapists and murderers are morally obligated to take their own lives prior to committing a violent action that will end their moral agency. That is, to avoid destroying the agent's moral life by performing a morally suicidal action, the agent, while he still is a moral agent, should end his body's life. Although the cases of dementia and the morally reprehensible are vastly different, this Kantian interpretation might be (...)
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  13.  35
    Concerning a Moral Duty to Cheat in Games.Richard Royce - 2012 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 6 (3):323-335.
    Stimulated by Hugh Upton's recent article in this journal, in which he argues that there can be a moral duty to cheat in games, I attempt to examine his claims. Much of what he writes revolves around examples from two sports, cricket and rugby, and with differing connections to those games' rules. While the example from cricket is said to involve a breach of the spirit of that game, it is contravention of the written rules of rugby on which (...)
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  14. Do We Have Moral Duties Towards Information Objects?Philip Brey - 2008 - Ethics and Information Technology 10 (2-3):109-114.
    In this paper, a critique will be developed and an alternative proposed to Luciano Floridi’s approach to Information Ethics (IE). IE is a macroethical theory that is to both serve as a foundation for computer ethics and to guide our overall moral attitude towards the world. The central claims of IE are that everything that exists can be described as an information object, and that all information objects, qua information objects, have intrinsic value and are therefore deserving of (...) respect. In my critique of IE, I will argue that Floridi has presented no convincing arguments that everything that exists has some minimal amount of intrinsic value. I will argue, however, that his theory could be salvaged in large part if it were modified from a value-based into a respect-based theory, according to which many (but not all) inanimate things in the world deserve moral respect, not because of intrinsic value, but because of their (potential) extrinsic, instrumental or emotional value for persons. (shrink)
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  15.  22
    Relative Moral Duties.Carl Wellman - 1999 - American Philosophical Quarterly 36 (3):209 - 223.
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  16.  10
    Moral Duties and Divine Commands: Is Kantian Religion Coherent?Micah Lott - 2020 - Faith and Philosophy 37 (1):57-76.
    Kant argues that morality leads to religion, and that religion consists in regarding our moral duties as divine commands. This paper explores a foundational question for Kantian religion: When you think of your duties as divine commands, what exactly are you thinking, and how is that thought consistent with Kant’s own account of the ways that morality is independent from God? I argue that if we assume the Kantian religious person acts out of obedience to God, then (...)
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  17. Can There Be a Moral Duty to Cheat in Sport?Hugh Upton - 2011 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 5 (2):161 - 174.
    Sport, Ethics and Philosophy, Volume 5, Issue 2, Page 161-174, May 2011.
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  18.  44
    Is There a Moral Duty for Doctors to Trust Patients?W. A. Rogers - 2002 - Journal of Medical Ethics 28 (2):77-80.
    In this paper I argue that it is morally important for doctors to trust patients. Doctors' trust of patients lays the foundation for medical relationships which support the exercise of patient autonomy, and which lead to an enriched understanding of patients' interests. Despite the moral and practical desirability of trust, distrust may occur for reasons relating to the nature of medicine, and the social and cultural context within which medical care is provided. Whilst it may not be possible to (...)
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  19. Euthanasia and Physicians' Moral Duties.Gary Seay - 2005 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 30 (5):517 – 533.
    Opponents of euthanasia sometimes argue that it is incompatible with the purpose of medicine, since physicians have an unconditional duty never to intentionally cause death. But it is not clear how such a duty could ever actually be unconditional, if due consideration is given to the moral weight of countervailing duties equally fundamental to medicine. Whether physicians' moral duties are understood as correlative with patients' moral rights or construed noncorrelatively, a doctor's obligation to abstain from (...)
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  20.  24
    Can a Welfarist Approach Be Used to Justify a Moral Duty to Cognitively Enhance Children?Jenny Krutzinna - 2016 - Bioethics 30 (7):528-535.
    The desire to self-improve is probably as old as humanity: most of us want to be smarter, more athletic, more beautiful, or more talented. However, in the light of an ever increasing array of possibilities to enhance our capacities, clarity about the purpose and goal of such efforts becomes crucial. This is especially true when decisions are made for children, who are exposed to their parents’ plans and desires for them under a notion of increasing wellbeing. In recent years, cognitive (...)
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  21.  61
    Is There a Moral Duty to Obey the Law?John Hasnas - 2013 - Social Philosophy and Policy 30 (1-2):450-479.
    This essay argues that there can be a duty to obey the law when it is produced by the evolutionary forces at work in the customary and common law. Human beings' inherent epistemic limitations mean that they must rely on the trial and error learning built into the common law process to discover rules that facilitate peaceful social interaction. Hence, a duty to obey the law produced by the common law process can arise from individuals' natural duty to promote social (...)
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  22.  7
    The Moral Duty to Love One’s Stakeholders.Muel Kaptein - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-15.
    Much has been written about the general moral duty to love one’s neighbors. In this article, I explore the specific application of this moral duty in the work setting. I argue from a secular perspective that individuals have the moral duty to love their stakeholders. Loving one’s stakeholders is an affective valuing of the stake-related values these stakeholders pursue and as such is the real recognition of one’s stakeholders as stakeholders and of oneself as a stakeholder of (...)
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    When Is Participation in Research a Moral Duty?Rosamond Rhodes - 2017 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 45 (3):318-326.
    In this paper I argue for recognizing the moral duty to participate in research. I base my argument on the need for biomedical research and the fact that at some point studies require human participants, what I call collaborative necessity. In presenting my position, I argue against the widely accepted views of Han Jonas and all of those who have accepted his declarations without challenge. I go on to show why it is both just and fair to invite and (...)
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    Is There a Moral Case for Fair Trade Products? On the Moral Duty for Consumers to Buy and Governments to Support Fair Trade Products.Jos Philips - 2008 - In The Impact of Fair Trade. pp. 239-250.
    Could there be a moral duty for consumers to buy fair trade products? Even more dramatically, could there be a moral duty for governments to support fair trade products? This essay argues that the answer to both questions may well be affirmative – where I am thinking of consumers and governments of (relatively) affluent countries such as Western countries. In relation to the first question, the existence of a moral duty to buy fair trade products goes against (...)
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  25.  18
    Participation in Biomedical Research is an Imperfect Moral Duty: A Response to John Harris.S. Shapshay & K. D. Pimple - 2007 - Journal of Medical Ethics 33 (7):414-417.
    In his paper “Scientific research is a moral duty”, John Harris argues that individuals have a moral duty to participate in biomedical research by volunteering as research subjects. He supports his claim with reference to what he calls the principle of beneficence as embodied in the “rule of rescue” , and the principle of fairness embodied in the prohibition on “free riding” . His view that biomedical research is an important social good is agreed upon, but it is (...)
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  26. Joint Duties and Global Moral Obligations.Anne Schwenkenbecher - 2013 - Ratio 26 (3):310-328.
    In recent decades, concepts of group agency and the morality of groups have increasingly been discussed by philosophers. Notions of collective or joint duties have been invoked especially in the debates on global justice, world poverty and climate change. This paper enquires into the possibility and potential nature of moral duties individuals in unstructured groups may hold together. It distinguishes between group agents and groups of people which – while not constituting a collective agent – are nonetheless (...)
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  27. Moral Duties of Investigators Toward Sick Children.Terrence F. Ackerman - 1981 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 3 (6):1.
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  28.  7
    Is Human Enhancement in Space a Moral Duty? Missions to Mars, Advanced AI and Genome Editing in Space.Konrad Szocik - 2020 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 29 (1):122-130.
    :Any space program involving long-term human missions will have to cope with serious risks to human health and life. Because currently available countermeasures are insufficient in the long term, there is a need for new, more radical solutions. One possibility is a program of human enhancement for future deep space mission astronauts. This paper discusses the challenges for long-term human missions of a space environment, opening the possibility of serious consideration of human enhancement and a fully automated space exploration, based (...)
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  29.  27
    Moral Duties in Business and Their Societal Impacts: The Case of the Subprime Lending Mess.Joseph Gilbert - 2011 - Business and Society Review 116 (1):87-107.
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    Moral Duty in the Use of Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis.Heidi Malm - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics 12 (4):19-21.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 12, Issue 4, Page 19-21, April 2012.
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  31. Moral Duties, Institutions, and Natural Facts.Micahel Stocker - 1970 - The Monist 54 (4):602-624.
    Because there are governments, societies, and laws we have various obligations we otherwise would not have. This is at best trivial. But what is not trivial is how it is that we have these obligations. In this paper, I shall sketch an answer to this question.
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  32.  67
    Paternal-Fetal Harm and Men’s Moral Duty to Use Contraception: Applying the Principles of Nonmaleficence and Beneficence to Men’s Reproductive Responsibility.Lisa Campo-Engelstein - 2014 - Medicine Studies 4 (1):1-13.
    Discussions of reproductive responsibility generally draw heavily upon the principles of nonmaleficence and beneficence. However, these principles are typically only applied to women due to the incorrect belief that only women can cause fetal harm. The cultural perception that women are likely to cause fetal and child harm is reflected in numerous social norms, policies, and laws. Conversely, there is little public discussion of men and fetal and child harm, which implies that men do not cause such harm. My goal (...)
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  33. Moral Duty and the Question of the Successful Life. Considerations of Kant's Concept of Happiness.K. Haucke - 2002 - Kant-Studien 93 (2):177-199.
     
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  34.  46
    Military Intervention as a Moral Duty.Kok-Chor Tan - 1995 - Public Affairs Quarterly 9 (1):29-46.
  35.  1
    Choosing Moral Duty Over Self Preservation.Ray Jones - 1996 - Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 7:145-154.
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  36.  16
    Legal Consequences of the Moral Duty to Report Errors.Jacqulyn Kay Hall - 2003 - Jona's Healthcare Law, Ethics, and Regulation 5 (3):60-64.
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  37.  17
    Human Rights, Personal Responsibility, and Human Dignity: What Are Our Moral Duties to Promote the Universal Realization of Human Rights?Julio Montero - 2017 - Human Rights Review 18 (1):67-85.
    According to the orthodox or humanist conception of human rights, individuals have a moral duty to promote the universal realization of human rights. However, advocates of this account express the implications of this duty in extremely vague terms. What does it mean when we say that we must promote human rights satisfaction? Does it mean that we must devote a considerable amount of our time and resources to this task? Does it mean, instead, that we must make occasional donations (...)
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  38.  12
    Do Universities Have Moral Duties with Regard to a Human Right to Health? In Defense of Some Proposals by UAEM 1.Jos Philips - 2018 - Ethics and Economics 15 (1).
    This article argues that universities have duties to negotiate contracts with the pharmaceutical industry that are favourable to the world’s poor, and to do more research into diseases which disproportionately strike the global poor. It is argued that these duties are related to human rights (in particular to a human right to health) and that they are therefore very weighty. Furthermore, these duties are in line with some of the most important things that Universities Allied for Essential (...)
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  39. Do Black Men Have a Moral Duty to Marry Black Women?Charles W. Mills - 1994 - Journal of Social Philosophy 25 (s1):131-153.
  40.  2
    Paternal-Fetal Harm and Men’s Moral Duty to Use Contraception: Applying the Principles of Nonmaleficence and Beneficence to Men’s Reproductive Responsibility.Lisa Campo-Engelstein - 2014 - Medicine Studies 4 (1):1-13.
    Discussions of reproductive responsibility generally draw heavily upon the principles of nonmaleficence and beneficence. However, these principles are typically only applied to women due to the incorrect belief that only women can cause fetal harm. The cultural perception that women are likely to cause fetal and child harm is reflected in numerous social norms, policies, and laws. Conversely, there is little public discussion of men and fetal and child harm, which implies that men do not cause such harm. My goal (...)
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  41.  47
    Is There a Moral Duty to Die?J. Angelo Corlett - 2001 - Health Care Analysis 9 (1):41-63.
    In recent years, there has been a great deal of philosophical discussion about the alleged moral right to die. If there is such a moral right, then it would seem to imply a moral duty on others to not interfere with the exercise of the right. And this might have important implications for public policy insofar as public policy ought to track what is morally right.
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    Ignorance is Bliss? HIV and Moral Duties and Legal Duties to Forewarn.R. Bennett - 2000 - Journal of Medical Ethics 26 (1):9-15.
    In 1997, a court in Cyprus jailed Pavlos Georgiou for fifteen months for knowingly infecting a British woman, Janet Pink, with HIV-1 through unprotected sexual intercourse. Pink met Georgiou in January 1994 whilst on holiday. She discovered that she had contracted the virus from him in October 1994 but continued the relationship until July 1996 when she developed AIDS. She returned to the UK for treatment and reported Georgiou to the Cypriot authorities.1There have been a number of legal cases involving (...)
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  43.  90
    Moral Status and the Direction of Duties.Simon Căbulea May - 2012 - Ethics 123 (1):113-128.
    Gopal Sreenivasan’s “hybrid theory” states that a moral duty is directed toward an individual because her interests justify the assignment of control over the duty. An alternative “plain theory” states that the individual’s interests justify the duty itself. I argue that a strong moral status constraint explains Sreenivasan’s instrumentalization objection to a Razian plain theory but that his own model violates this constraint. I suggest how both approaches can be reformulated to satisfy the constraint, and I argue that (...)
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  44.  14
    Confucianism and Organ Donation: Moral Duties From Xiao (Filial Piety) to Ren.Jing-Bao Nie & D. Gareth Jones - 2019 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 22 (4):583-591.
    There exists a serious shortage of organs for transplantation in China, more so than in most Western countries. Confucianism has been commonly used as the cultural and ethical reason to explain the reluctance of Chinese and other East-Asian people to donate organs for medical purposes. It is asserted that the Confucian emphasis on xiao requires individuals to ensure body intactness at death. However, based on the original texts of classical Confucianism and other primary materials, we refute this popular view. We (...)
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    The Duty to Be Morally Enhanced.Ingmar Persson & Julian Savulescu - 2019 - Topoi 38 (1):7-14.
    We have a duty to try to develop and apply safe and cost-effective means to increase the probability that we shall do what we morally ought to do. It is here argued that this includes biomedical means of moral enhancement, that is, pharmaceutical, neurological or genetic means of strengthening the central moral drives of altruism and a sense of justice. Such a strengthening of moral motivation is likely to be necessary today because common-sense morality having its evolutionary (...)
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  46.  18
    Covering and the Moral Duty to Resist Oppression.Peter Higgins - 2019 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy:1-8.
    Do LGBT+ persons have a moral duty of some form to resist heterosexist oppression by refusing to “cover” (i.e., “to ‘disattend,’ or tone down, their (despised) sexuality in an effort to fit into and be accepted by the mainstream” (Ghosh 2018, 273))? Writing in response to Kenji Yoshino (Yoshino 2002 and 2006), Cyril Ghosh argues that such a duty would itself be oppressive. In this reply to Ghosh’s new book, I wish to argue that while Ghosh demonstrates that Yoshino’s (...)
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  47.  16
    Why Participating in Scientific Research is a Moral Duty.Joanna Forsberg, Mats Hansson & Stefan Eriksson - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (5):325-328.
    Our starting point in this article is the debate between John Harris and Iain Brassington on whether or not there is a duty to take part in scientific research. We consider the arguments that have been put forward based on fairness and a duty to rescue, and suggest an alternative justification grounded in a hypothetical agreement: that is, because effective healthcare cannot be taken for granted, but requires continuous medical research, and nobody knows what kind of healthcare they will need, (...)
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  48. Kant, Duty and Moral Worth.Philip Stratton-Lake - 2000 - Routledge.
    _Kant, Duty and Moral Worth _is a fascinating and original examination of Kant's account of moral worth. The complex debate at the heart of Kant's philosophy is over whether Kant said moral actions have worth only if they are carried out from duty, or whether actions carried out from mixed motives can be good. Philip Stratton-Lake offers a unique account of acting from duty, which utilizes the distinction between primary and secondary motives. He maintains that the (...) law should not be understood as a normative moral reason but as playing a transcendental role. Thus a Kantian account of moral worth is one where the virtuous agent may be responsive to concrete particular considerations, whilst preserving an essential role for universal moral principles. _Kant, Duty and Moral Worth _is a lucid examination of Kant's moral thought that will appeal to Kant scholars and anyone interested in moral theory. (shrink)
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  49. From Duty and for the Sake of the Noble: Kant and Aristotle on Morally Good Action.Christine M. Korsgaard - 1996 - In Stephen Engstrom & Jennifer Whiting (eds.), Aristotle, Kant, and the Stoics: Rethinking Happiness and Duty. Cambridge University Press.
    Aristotle believes that an agent lacks virtue unless she enjoys the performance of virtuous actions, while Kant claims that the person who does her duty despite contrary inclinations exhibits a moral worth that the person who acts from inclination lacks. Despite these differences, this chapter argues that Aristotle and Kant share a distinctive view of the object of human choice and locus of moral value: that what we choose, and what has moral value, are not mere acts, (...)
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  50. Does Morality Demand Our Very Best? On Moral Prescriptions and the Line of Duty.Michael Ferry - 2013 - Philosophical Studies 165 (2):573-589.
    It is widely accepted that morality does not demand that we do our very best, but our most significant moral traditions do not easily accommodate this intuition. I will argue that the underlying problem is not specific to any particular tradition. Rather, it will be difficult for any moral theory to account for binary moral concepts like permissible/impermissible while also accounting for scalar moral concepts like better/worse. If only the best is considered permissible, morality will seem (...)
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