Results for 'moral standing'

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  1.  23
    Manipulators and Moral Standing.Benjamin Matheson - forthcoming - Philosophia:1-18.
    Manipulation arguments aim to show that compatibilism is false. Usually, they aim to undermine compatibilism by first eliciting the intuition that a manipulated agent is not morally responsible. Patrick Todd's (2012) Moral Standing Manipulation Argument instead aims to first elicit the intuition that a manipulator cannot blame her victim. Todd then argues that the best explanation for why a manipulator cannot blame her victim is that incompatibilism is true. In this paper, I present three lines of defence against (...)
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  2. Does God Have the Moral Standing to Blame?Patrick Todd - 2018 - Faith and Philosophy 35 (1):33-55.
    In this paper, I introduce a problem to the philosophy of religion – the problem of divine moral standing – and explain how this problem is distinct from (albeit related to) the more familiar problem of evil (with which it is often conflated). In short, the problem is this: in virtue of how God would be (or, on some given conception, is) “involved in” our actions, how is it that God has the moral standing to blame (...)
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  3. A Unified Account of the Moral Standing to Blame.Patrick Todd - forthcoming - Noûs.
    Recently, philosophers have turned their attention to the question, not when a given agent is blameworthy for what she does, but when a further agent has the moral standing to blame her for what she does. Philosophers have proposed at least four conditions on having “moral standing”: -/- 1. One’s blame would not be “hypocritical”. 2. One is not oneself “involved in” the target agent’s wrongdoing. 3. One must be warranted in believing that the target is (...)
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  4.  31
    The Moral Standing of Machines: Towards a Relational and Non-Cartesian Moral Hermeneutics.Mark Coeckelbergh - 2014 - Philosophy and Technology 27 (1):61-77.
    Should we give moral standing to machines? In this paper, I explore the implications of a relational approach to moral standing for thinking about machines, in particular autonomous, intelligent robots. I show how my version of this approach, which focuses on moral relations and on the conditions of possibility of moral status ascription, provides a way to take critical distance from what I call the “standard” approach to thinking about moral status and (...) standing, which is based on properties. It does not only overcome epistemological problems with the standard approach, but can also explain how we think about, experience, and act towards machines—including the gap that sometimes occurs between reasoning and experience. I also articulate the non-Cartesian orientation of my “relational” research program and specify the way it contributes to a different paradigm in thinking about moral standing and moral knowledge. (shrink)
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  5.  56
    Facing Animals: A Relational, Other-Oriented Approach to Moral Standing.Mark Coeckelbergh & David J. Gunkel - 2014 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 27 (5):715-733.
    In this essay we reflect critically on how animal ethics, and in particular thinking about moral standing, is currently configured. Starting from the work of two influential “analytic” thinkers in this field, Peter Singer and Tom Regan, we examine some basic assumptions shared by these positions and demonstrate their conceptual failings—ones that have, despite efforts to the contrary, the general effect of marginalizing and excluding others. Inspired by the so-called “continental” philosophical tradition , we then argue that what (...)
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  6.  73
    Contractarianism and Secondary Direct Moral Standing for Marginal Humans and Animals.Julia Tanner - 2013 - Res Publica 19 (2):1-16.
    It is commonly thought that neo-Hobbesian contractarianism cannot yield direct moral standing for marginal humans and animals. However, it has been argued that marginal humans and animals can have a form of direct moral standing under neo-Hobbesian contractarianism: secondary moral standing. I will argue that, even if such standing is direct, this account is unsatisfactory because it is counterintuitive and fragile.
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  7. Torture. How Denying Moral Standing Violates Human Dignity.Andreas Maier - forthcoming - In Webster Elaine & Kaufmann Paulus (eds.), Violations of Human Dignity. Springer.
    In this article I try to elucidate the concept of human dignity by taking a closer look at the features of a paradigmatic torture situation. After identifying the salient aspects of torture, I discuss various accounts for the moral wrongness of such acts and argue that what makes torture a violation of human dignity is the perverted moral relationship between torturer and victim. This idea is subsequently being substantiated and defended against important objections. In the final part of (...)
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  8.  16
    Who Can Blame Whom? Moral Standing to Blame and Punish Deprived Citizens.Gustavo A. Beade - forthcoming - Criminal Law and Philosophy:1-11.
    There are communities in which disadvantaged groups experience severe inequality. For instance, poor and indigent families face many difficulties accessing their social rights. Their condition is largely the consequence of the wrong choices of those in power, either historical or more recent choices. The lack of opportunities of these deprived citizens is due to state omissions. In such communities, it is not unusual for homeless members of these particular groups to occupy abandoned lands and build their shelters there. However, almost (...)
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  9.  12
    Hypocrisy, Inconsistency, and the Moral Standing of the State.Kyle G. Fritz - forthcoming - Criminal Law and Philosophy:1-19.
    Several writers have argued that the state lacks the moral standing to hold socially deprived offenders responsible for their crimes because the state would be hypocritical in doing so. Yet the state is not disposed to make an unfair exception of itself for committing the same sorts of crimes as socially deprived offenders, so it is unclear that the state is truly hypocritical. Nevertheless, the state is disposed to inconsistently hold its citizens responsible, blaming or punishing socially deprived (...)
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  10.  22
    Resisting Todd’s Moral-Standing Zygote Argument.Michael McKenna - 2018 - Philosophical Quarterly 68 (273):657-678.
    Patrick Todd has recently fashioned a novel argument for incompatibilism, the Moral-Standing Zygote Argument. Todd considers much-discussed cases in which a manipulator causes an agent in a deterministic scenario to act morally wrongly from compatibilist-friendly conditions for freedom and moral responsibility. The manipulator, Todd contends, does not have the standing to blame the manipulated agent, and the best explanation for this is that incompatibilism is true. This is why the manipulated agent is not blameworthy. In this (...)
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  11.  81
    The Two Sources of Moral Standing.Justin Sytsma & Edouard Machery - 2012 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 3 (3):303-324.
    There are two primary traditions in philosophical theorizing about moral standing—one emphasizing Experience (the capacity to feel pain and pleasure) and one emphasizing Agency (complexity of cognition and lifestyle). In this article we offer an explanation for this divide: Lay judgments about moral standing depend importantly on two independent cues (Experience and Agency), and the two philosophical traditions reflect this aspect of folk moral cognition. In support of this two-source hypothesis, we present the results of (...)
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  12. Manipulation and Moral Standing: An Argument for Incompatibilism.Patrick Todd - 2012 - Philosophers' Imprint 12.
    A prominent recent strategy for advancing the thesis that moral responsibility is incompatible with causal determinism has been to argue that agents who meet compatibilist conditions for responsibility could nevertheless be subject to certain sorts of deterministic manipulation, so that an agent could meet the compatibilist’s conditions for responsibility, but also be living a life the precise details of which someone else determined that she should live. According to the incompatibilist, however, once we became aware that agents had been (...)
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  13. The Moral Standing of States Revisited.Charles R. Beitz - 2009 - Ethics and International Affairs 23 (4):325-347.
    "The Moral Standing of States" is the title of an essay Michael Walzer wrote in response to four critics of the theory of nonintervention defended in Just and Unjust Wars . It states a theme to which he has returned in subsequent work. I offer four sets of comments. First, by way of introduction, I describe the controversy between Walzer and his critics and try to identify the central point of contention. Second, I make some observations about the (...)
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  14. The Moral Standing of the Market.Amartya Sen - 1985 - Social Philosophy and Policy 2 (2):1.
    How valuable is the market mechanism for practical morality? What is its moral standing? We can scarcely doubt that as individuals we do value tremendously the opportunity of using markets. Indeed, without access to markets most of us would perish, since we don't typically produce the things that we need to survive. If we could somehow survive without using markets at all, our quality of life would be rather abysmal. It is natural to feel that an institution that (...)
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  15.  45
    Twinning and Fusion as Arguments Against the Moral Standing of the Early Human Embryo.Marc Ramsay - 2011 - Utilitas 23 (2):183-205.
    Some philosophers argue that, because it is subject to twinning and fusion, the early human embryo cannot hold strong moral standing. Supposedly, the fact that an early human embryo can twin or fuse with another embryo entails that it is not a distinct individual, thus precluding it from holding any level of moral standing. I argue that appeals to twinning and fusion fail to show that the early human embryo is not a distinct individual and that (...)
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  16. Intrinsic Value, Moral Standing, and Species.Rick O'Neil - 1997 - Environmental Ethics 19 (1):45-52.
    Environmental philosophers often conflate the concepts of intrinsic value and moral standing. As a result, individualists needlessly deny intrinsic value to species, while holists falsely attribute moral standing to species. Conceived either as classes or as historical individuals, at least some species possess intrinsic value. Nevertheless, even if a species has interests or a good of its own, it cannot have moral standing because species lack sentience. Although there is a basis for duties toward (...)
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  17.  15
    Animals and Their Moral Standing.Stephen R. L. Clark - 1997 - Routledge.
    Twenty years ago, people thought only cranks or sentimentalists could be seriously concerned about the treatment of non-human animals. However, since then philosophers, scientists and welfarists have raised public awareness of the issue; and they have begun to lay the foundations for an enormous change in human practice. This book is a record of the development of 'animal rights' through the eyes of one highly-respected and well-known thinker. This book brings together for the first time Stephen R.L. Clark's major essays (...)
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  18.  2
    Why Care About Robots? Empathy, Moral Standing, and the Language of Suffering.Mark Coeckelbergh - 2018 - Kairos 20 (1):141-158.
    This paper tries to understand the phenomenon that humans are able to empathize with robots and the intuition that there might be something wrong with “abusing” robots by discussing the question regarding the moral standing of robots. After a review of some relevant work in empirical psychology and a discussion of the ethics of empathizing with robots, a philosophical argument concerning the moral standing of robots is made that questions distant and uncritical moral reasoning about (...)
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  19. The Moral Standing of States Revisited.Charles Beitz - 2009 - Ethics and International Affairs 23 (4).
    "The Moral Standing of States" is the title of an essay Michael Walzer wrote in response to four critics of the theory of nonintervention defended in "Just and Unjust Wars." It states a theme to which he has returned in subsequent work. Beitz offers four sets of comments.
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  20.  21
    The Moral Standing of Modus Vivendi Arrangements.Fabian Wendt - 2016 - Public Affairs Quarterly 30 (4):351-370.
    While John Rawls made the notion of a “modus vivendi” prominent in political philosophy, he treats modus vivendi arrangements rather short and dismissively. On the other hand, some political theorists like John Gray praise modus vivendi as the only available and legitimate goal of politics. In the article I sketch the outlines of a different, more nuanced approach to modus vivendi arrangements. I argue that the moral standing of modus vivendi arrangements varies, and I try to spell out (...)
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  21.  37
    Minds That Matter: Seven Degrees of Moral Standing.Julian Friedland - 2004 - Between the Species 13 (4).
    Prominent non-speciesist attempts to determine the amount of moral standing properly attributable to conscious beings argue that certain non-human animals should be granted the highest consideration as self-conscious persons. Most of these theories also include a lesser moral standing for the sentient, or merely conscious, non-person. Thus, the standard approach has been to advocate a two-tiered theory—'sentience' or 'consciousness' and 'self-consciousness' or 'personhood'. While the first level seems to present little interpretative difficulty, the second has recently (...)
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  22.  68
    Dependent Relationships and the Moral Standing of Nonhuman Animals.Andrew I. Cohen - 2008 - Ethics and the Environment 13 (2):pp. 1-21.
    This essay explores whether dependent relationships might justify extending direct moral consideration to nonhuman animals. After setting out a formal conception of moral standing as relational, scalar, and unilateral, I consider whether and how an appeal to dependencies might be the basis for an animal’s moral standing. If dependencies generate reasons for extending direct moral consideration, such reasons will admit of significant variations in scope and stringency.
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  23.  24
    We Must Not Create Beings with Moral Standing Superior to Our Own.Nicholas Agar - 2013 - Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (11):709-709.
    Ingmar Persson challenges1 an argument in my book Humanity's End: Why We Should Reject Radical Enhancement2 that harms predictably suffered by unenhanced humans justify banning radical enhancement. Here I understand radical enhancement as producing beings with mental and physical capacities that greatly exceed those of the most capable current human. I called these results of radical enhancement posthumans, though I think that Persson may be right that this is not the most felicitous name for them.The focus of my argument was (...)
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  24.  15
    Experimental Approaches to Moral Standing.Geoffrey P. Goodwin - 2015 - Philosophy Compass 10 (12):914-926.
    Moral patients deserve moral consideration and concern – they have moral standing. What factors drive attributions of moral standing? Understanding these factors is important because it indicates how broadly individuals conceptualize the moral world, and suggests how they will treat various entities, both human and non-human. This understanding has recently been advanced by a series of studies conducted by both psychologists and philosophers, which have revealed three main drivers of moral standing: (...)
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  25. Blame, Moral Standing and the Legitimacy of the Criminal Trial.R. A. Duff - 2010 - Ratio 23 (2):123-140.
    I begin by discussing the ways in which a would-be blamer's own prior conduct towards the person he seeks to blame can undermine his standing to blame her. This provides the basis for an examination of a particular kind of 'bar to trial' in the criminal law – of ways in which a state or a polity's right to put a defendant on trial can be undermined by the prior misconduct of the state or its officials. The examination of (...)
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  26.  95
    The Moral Standing of Natural Objects.Andrew Brennan - 1984 - Environmental Ethics 6 (1):35-56.
    Human beings are, as far as we know, the only animals to have moral concerns and to adopt moralities, but it would be a mistake to be misled by this fact into thinking that humans are also the only proper objects of moral consideration. I argue that we ought to allow even nonliving things a significant moral status, thus denying the condusion of much contemporary moral thinking. First, I consider the possibilityof giving moral consideration to (...)
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  27.  14
    Caring and Full Moral Standing Redux.Agnieszka Jaworska - 2010 - In Eva Feder Kittay & Licia Carlson (eds.), Cognitive Disability and its Challenge to Moral Philosophy. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 369--392.
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  28.  4
    The Moral Standing of Natural Objects.Andrew Brennan - 1984 - Environmental Ethics 6 (1):35-56.
    Human beings are, as far as we know, the only animals to have moral concerns and to adopt moralities, but it would be a mistake to be misled by this fact into thinking that humans are also the only proper objects of moral consideration. I argue that we ought to allow even nonliving things a significant moral status, thus denying the condusion of much contemporary moral thinking. First, I consider the possibilityof giving moral consideration to (...)
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  29. Caring and Full Moral Standing.Agnieszka Jaworska - 2007 - Ethics 117 (3):460-497.
  30. The Moral Standing of States: A Response to Four Critics.Michael Walzer - 1980 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 9 (3):209-229.
  31.  21
    Cruel Nature: Harmfulness as an Important, Overlooked Dimension in Judgments of Moral Standing.Jared Piazza, Justin F. Landy & Geoffrey P. Goodwin - 2014 - Cognition 131 (1):108-124.
  32.  12
    We Must Create Beings with Moral Standing Superior to Our Own.Vojin Rakić - 2015 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 24 (1):58-65.
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  33.  46
    Contractarianism, Other-Regarding Attitudes, and the Moral Standing of Nonhuman Animals.Andrew I. Cohen - 2007 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 24 (2):188–201.
  34.  59
    Punishment and Loss of Moral Standing.Christopher W. Morris - 1991 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 21 (1):53 - 79.
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  35.  61
    Moral Standing, the Value of Lives, and Speciesism.Raymond G. Frey - 1988 - Between the Species 4 (3):10.
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  36. Do Possible People Have Moral Standing?Jesper Ryberg - 1995 - Danish Yearbook of Philosophy 30:96-118.
     
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  37.  46
    (2015). "We Must Create Beings with Moral Standing Superior to Our Own". Cambridge Quarterly of Health Care Ethics 24(1):58-65.Vojin Rakic - unknown2015 - Cambridge Quarterly of Health Care Ethics 24 (1).
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  38.  43
    Who or What Has Moral Standing?Martin Schönfeld - 1992 - American Philosophical Quarterly 29 (4):353 - 362.
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  39.  24
    Biodefense Research and the U.S. Regulatory Structure Whither Nonhuman Primate Moral Standing?L. Walker Rebecca & M. P. King Nancy - 2011 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 21 (3):277-310.
    Biodefense and emerging infectious disease animal research aims to avoid or ameliorate human disease, suffering, and death arising, or potentially arising, from natural outbreaks or intentional deployment of some of the world’s most dreaded pathogens. Top priority research goals include finding vaccines to prevent, diagnostic tools to detect, and medicines for smallpox, plague, ebola, anthrax, tularemia, and viral hemorrhagic fevers, among many other pathogens (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases [NIAID] priority pathogens). To this end, increased funding for conducting (...)
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  40.  19
    Blame, Moral Standing and the Legitimacy of the Criminal Trial.Antony Duff - 2010 - Ratio 23 (2):123-140.
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  41.  48
    Biocentrism, Moral Standing and Moral Significance.Robin Attfield - 1987 - Philosophica 39.
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  42. Justice, Reasons, and Moral Standing.”.Christopher Morris - 1998 - In Jules L. Coleman, Christopher W. Morris & Gregory S. Kavka (eds.), Rational Commitment and Social Justice: Essays for Gregory Kavka. Cambridge University Press. pp. 186--207.
     
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  43.  65
    Moral Authority, Moral Standing, and Moral Controversy.Kevin Wm Wildes - 1993 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 18 (4):347-350.
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  44.  49
    The Moral Standing of Animals in Medical Research.Tom L. Beauchamp - 1992 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 20 (1-2):7-16.
  45.  49
    Sumner on Abortion: Moral Theory and Moral Standing: A Reply to Woods and Soles.L. W. Sumner - 1985 - Dialogue 24 (4):691-.
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  46.  16
    Sentience and Moral Standing.Louis-Jacques van Bogaert - 2004 - South African Journal of Philosophy 23 (3):292-301.
    This article deals with the concept of sentience, and more specifically with the argument from sentience as it is used by utilitarians in the abortion debate and in the advocacy of animal rights. It is argued that sentience is more than feeling pleasure and pain (with empha sis on pain), and that pain is an inborn protection required to fit into the world rather than the substance of evil. S. Afr. J. Philos. Vol.23(3) 2004: 292-301.
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  47.  12
    Subjectivity and Moral Standing.L. W. Sumner - 1986 - Bowling Green Studies in Applied Philosophy 8:1-15.
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  48.  12
    Value Subjectivism, Individualism, and Moral Standing.Christopher W. Morris - 1986 - Bowling Green Studies in Applied Philosophy 8:16-21.
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  49.  10
    Moral Standing, Saving the Planet and Meaningful Life.Robin Attfield - unknown
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  50.  8
    On Responsible Knowledge Making and the Moral Standing of Animals: Questioning What Matters and Why About Animal Minds.Lesley McLean - 2007 - Between the Species 13 (7):5.
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