Results for 'moral value'

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  1.  47
    The Moral Value of Informational Privacy in Cyberspace.Diane P. Michelfelder - 2001 - Ethics and Information Technology 3 (2):129-135.
    Solutions to the problem ofprotecting informational privacy in cyberspacetend to fall into one of three categories:technological solutions, self-regulatorysolutions, and legislative solutions. In thispaper, I suggest that the legal protection ofthe right to online privacy within the USshould be strengthened. Traditionally, inidentifying where support can be found in theUS Constitution for a right to informationalprivacy, the point of focus has been on theFourth Amendment; protection in this contextfinds its moral basis in personal liberty,personal dignity, self-esteem, and othervalues. On the other (...)
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  2.  39
    There's Something About Mary: The Moral Value of Things Qua Information Objects. [REVIEW]Kenneth Einar Himma - 2004 - Ethics and Information Technology 6 (3):145-159.
    . Luciano Floridi argues that every existing entity is deserving of at least minimal moral respect in virtue of having intrinsic value qua information object. In this essay, I attempt a comprehensive assessment of this important view as well as the arguments Floridi offers in support of it. I conclude both that the arguments are insufficient and that the thesis itself is substantively implausible from the standpoint of ordinary intuitions.
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  3. On Locating Value in Making Moral Progress.Toni Rønnow-Rasmussen - forthcoming - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-16.
    The endeavour to locate value in moral progress faces various substantive as well as more formal challenges. This paper focuses on challenges of the latter kind. After some preliminaries, Section 3 introduces two general kinds of “evaluative moral progress-claims”, and outlines a possible novel analysis of a descriptive notion of moral progress. While Section 4 discusses certain logical features of betterness in light of recent work in value theory which are pertinent to the notion of (...)
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  4. Locating Value in Moral Progress.Toni Rønnow-Rasmussen - 2017 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 20 (1):137-52.
    The endeavour to locate value in moral progress faces various substantive as well as more formal challenges. This paper focuses on challenges of the latter kind. After some preliminaries, Section 3 introduces two general kinds of “evaluative moral progress-claims”, and outlines a possible novel analysis of a descriptive notion of moral progress. While Section 4 discusses certain logical features of betterness in light of recent work in value theory which are pertinent to the notion of (...)
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  5.  58
    Moral Compromises, Moral Integrity and the Indeterminacy of Value Rankings.Theo van Willigenburg - 2000 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 3 (4):385-404.
    Though the art of compromise, i.e. of settling differences by mutual concessions, is part of communal living on any level, we often think that there is something wrong in compromise, especially in cases where moral convictions are involved. A first reason for distrusting compromises on moral matters refers to the idea of integrity, understood in the basic sense of 'standing for something', especially standing for the values and causes that to some extent confer identity. The second reason points (...)
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  6.  28
    Explanatory Judgment, Moral Offense and Value-Free Science.Matteo Colombo, Leandra Bucher & Yoel Inbar - 2016 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 7 (4):743-763.
    A popular view in philosophy of science contends that scientific reasoning is objective to the extent that the appraisal of scientific hypotheses is not influenced by moral, political, economic, or social values, but only by the available evidence. A large body of results in the psychology of motivated-reasoning has put pressure on the empirical adequacy of this view. The present study extends this body of results by providing direct evidence that the moral offensiveness of a scientific hypothesis biases (...)
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  7.  72
    Moral Status, Final Value, and Extrinsic Properties.Nicolas Delon - 2014 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 114 (3pt3):371-379.
    Starting from a distinction between intrinsic and final value, I explore the implications of the supervenience of final value on extrinsic properties regarding moral status. I make a case for ‘extrinsic moral status’ based on ‘extrinsic final value’. I show that the assumption of ‘moral individualism’, that moral status supervenes merely on intrinsic properties, is misguided, and results from a conflation of intrinsic with final value. I argue that at least one extrinsic (...)
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  8. Foreign Aid and the Moral Value of Freedom.Martin Peterson - 2004 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 7 (3):293-307.
    Peter Singer has famously argued that people living in affluent western countries are morally obligated to donate money to famine relief. The central premise in his argument is that, If it is in our power to prevent something bad from happening, without thereby sacrificing anything of comparable moral importance, we ought, morally, to do so. The present paper offers an argument to the effect that affluent people ought to support foreign aid projects based on a much weaker ethical premise. (...)
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  9.  30
    The Moral Value of Envy.Krista K. Thomason - 2015 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 53 (1):36-53.
    It is common to think that we would be morally better people if we never felt envy. Recently, some philosophers have rejected this conclusion by arguing that envy can often be directed toward unfairness or inequality. As such, they conclude that we should not suppress our feelings of envy. I argue, however, that these defenses only show that envy is sometimes morally permissible. In order to show that we would not be better off without envy, we must show how envy (...)
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  10.  36
    Every Vote Counts: Equality, Autonomy, and the Moral Value of Democratic Decision-Making.Daniel Jacob - 2015 - Res Publica 21 (1):61-75.
    What is the moral value of formal democratic decision-making? Egalitarian accounts of democracy provide a powerful answer to this question. They present formal democratic procedures as a way for a society of equals to arrive at collective decisions in a transparent and mutually acceptable manner. More specifically, such procedures ensure and publicly affirm that all members of a political community, in their capacity as autonomous actors, are treated as equals who are able and have a right to participate (...)
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  11.  21
    Keeping the Shutters Closed: The Moral Value of Reserve.Karen Stohr - 2014 - Philosophers' Imprint 14.
    In this paper I defend a little noted claim of Kant’s — that we should “keep the shutters closed” on our flaws and failings. Kant’s own arguments for this claim aren’t fully satisfactorily, and they rest primarily on pragmatic considerations. My aim in this paper is to provide a more robust Kantian-inspired argument for the moral value of reserve. I argue that collaborating with others to keep the shutters closed on our individual and collective flaws aids in the (...)
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  12. Lon Fuller and the Moral Value of the Rule of Law.Colleen Murphy - 2004 - Law and Philosophy 24 (3):239-262.
    It is often argued that the rule of law is only instrumentally morally valuable, valuable when and to the extent that a legal system is used to purse morally valuable ends. In this paper, I defend Lon Fuller’s view that the rule of law has conditional non-instrumental as well as instrumental moral value. I argue, along Fullerian lines, that the rule of law is conditionally non-instrumentally valuable in virtue of the way a legal system structures political relationships. The (...)
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  13.  65
    Relationality, Relativism, and Realism About Moral Value.Justin D’Arms - 2005 - Philosophical Studies 126 (3):433-448.
    Among the many virtues of Facts, Values and Norms, is the articulation of an especially subtle and detailed form of naturalistic value realism. The theory aspires to vindicate the objective purport of value discourse while granting, indeed insisting, that value is subjective in important respects. Evaluative thought and inquiry are understood to be continuous with empirical inquiry in the human sciences, so that ethical and evaluative conclusions can ultimately be defended on a posteriori grounds. Railton argues that (...)
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  14.  71
    Hart and Raz on the Non-Instrumental Moral Value of the Rule of Law: A Reconsideration. [REVIEW]Mark J. Bennett - 2011 - Law and Philosophy 30 (5):603-635.
    HLA Hart and Joseph Raz are usually interpreted as being fundamentally opposed to Lon Fuller’s argument in The Morality of Law that the principles of the rule of law are of moral value. Hart and Raz are thought to make the ‘instrumental objection’, which says that these principles are of no moral value because they are actually principles derived from reflection on how to best allow the law to guide behaviour. Recently, many theorists have come to (...)
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  15. Ascribing Moral Value and the Embodied Turing Test.Anthony Chemero - unknown
    What would it take for an artificial agent to be treated as having moral value? As a first step toward answering this question, we ask what it would take for an artificial agent to be capable of the sort of autonomous, adaptive social behavior that is characteristic of the animals that humans interact with. We propose that this sort of capacity is best measured by what we call the Embodied Turing Test. The Embodied Turing test is a test (...)
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  16.  20
    Alfred Schutz: Transcendence, Symbolic Intersubjectivity, and Moral Value[REVIEW]Michael Jay Stoltzfus - 2003 - Human Studies 26 (2):183-201.
    This article uses the writings of Alfred Schutz as catalysts to analyze three distinctive modes of transcendences operative in human experience. Particular attention is given to the role symbolic awareness plays in the formation and embodiment of moral value. I argue that Schutz''s theory of symbols is helpful in illuminating the way shared horizons of value meaning and collective moral purpose can occur in relation to cultural and geographical anonymity. I then draw upon the moral (...)
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  17. Eating Animals and the Moral Value of Non-Human Suffering.Salim Hirèche & Sandra Villata - 2013 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 88 (1):247-256.
    The purpose of this article, which takes the form of a dialogue between a vegetarian and a meat eater, is twofold. On the one hand, we argue for a general characterisation of moral value in terms of well-being and suffering. On the other hand, on the basis of this characterisation, we argue that, in most cases, the moral value attached to the choice of eating meat is negative; in particular, we defend this claim against a number (...)
     
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  18.  54
    On Judging the Moral Value of Narrative Artworks.James Harold - 2006 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 64 (2):259–270.
    In this paper, I argue that in at least some interesting cases, the moral value of a narrative work depends on the aesthetic properties of that artwork. It does not follow that a work that is aesthetically bad will be morally bad (or that it will be morally good). The argument comprises four stages. First I describe several different features of imaginative engagement with narrative artworks. Then I show that these features depend on some of the aesthetic properties (...)
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  19.  28
    Contested Moralities: Animals and Moral Value in the Dear/Symanski Debate.William S. Lynn - 1998 - Philosophy and Geography 1 (2):223 – 242.
    Geography is experiencing a 'moral turn' in its research interests and practices. There is also a flourishing interest in animal geographies that intersects this turn, and is concurrent with wider scholarly efforts to reincorporate animals and nature” into our ethical and social theories. This article intervenes in a dispute between Michael Dear and Richard Symanski. The dispute is over the culling of wild horses in Australia, and I intervene to explore how geography deepens our moral understanding of the (...)
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  20.  15
    The Moral Value of Philosophy.Debra B. Bergoffen - 1980 - Journal of Moral Education 9 (2):122-129.
    Abstract Students arrive at their Introduction to Philosophy classes unsure of the nature of Philosophy and sceptical of its value. They usually assume that philosophy is some abstract thing which, whatever it is, is irrelevant to everyday life. This essay explores the ways in which the figures, philosophies and lives of Socrates and Bertrand Russell serve as models of the philosophic perspective. It develops the thesis that we can, by appealing to Socrates and Russell as role models, counter the (...)
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  21.  6
    Reverence for Life: A Moral Value or the Moral Value?Predrag Cicovacki - 2007 - Lyceum 9:61-67.
    Albert Schweitzer became well-known for his ethics of reverence for life. While Schweitzer’s life and his ethics have had an enormous appeal to wide audiences all over the world, philosophers have generally ignored his contribution. This may be a loss for philosophy, for, despite some internal problems and inconsistencies, Schweitzer’s ethics of reverence for life promises a viable alternative to utilitarianism, Kantianism, and virtue ethics. The task of my paper is the following. Schweitzer argues that reverence for life is the (...)
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  22. Continuing Questions About Friendship as a Central Moral Value.Ruth Abbey - 2018 - Dialogue and Universalism 28 (2):65-80.
    This article engages Friendship: A Central Moral Value by Michael H. Mitias. It questions Mitias’ distinction between friendship as a moral and theoretical concern as opposed to a practical one. It distinguishes the narrow from the wide meanings of philia in Aristotle’s approach. It looks at the resonances of classical approaches in later theories of friendship, while also attending to the innovations of later thinkers. It suggests that the moral paradigms Mitias delineates might not be as (...)
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  23. Friendship: A Central Moral Value.Michael H. Mitias (ed.) - 2012 - Editions Rodopi.
    Friendship was recognized as a central moral value in the classical period, but it was dismissed from medieval, modern, and twentieth century moral theories. This book argues that this dismissal is unjustifiable. The validity of this claim is established in four steps. First, it proposes the concept of moral paradigm. This concept enables us to explore the source of moral value and to provide a criterion for the evaluation of the adequacy of moral (...)
     
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  24.  20
    Moral Choice and the Declining Influence of Traditional Value Orientations Within the Financial Sector of a Rapidly Developing Region of the People's Republic of China.Gordon Francis Woodbine - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 55 (1):43 - 60.
    This paper describes the results of a field experiment involving 400 employees from ten financial institutions operating within the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone of the Peoples Republic of China. It was found that, when faced with an agency-based problem, employees indicated they would be less inclined to advise management of the existence of unethical work practices. Younger employees without supervisory experience displayed significant risk aversion. Traditional Chinese values associated with Confucian work dynamism, were shown to be poor predictors of (...) choice response. A parsimonious regression model was developed that provides evidence that the universal trait Masculinity/Femininity (Human-heartedness) acted to offset the negative influence of the agency problem. On the other hand, an operatives level of education attainment exerted a negative influence on moral response scores. (shrink)
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  25.  60
    The Lover of the Beautiful and the Good: Platonic Foundations of Aesthetic and Moral Value.John Martin - 2008 - Synthese 165 (1):31-51.
    Though acknowledged by scholars, Plato’s identification of the Beautiful and the Good has generated little interest, even in aesthetics where the moral concepts are a current topic. The view is suspect because, e.g., it is easy to find examples of ugly saints and beautiful sinners. In this paper the thesis is defended using ideas from Plato’s ancient commentators, the Neoplatonists. Most interesting is Proclus, who applied to value theory a battery of linguistic tools with fixed semantic properties—comparative adjectives, (...)
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  26.  85
    The Moral Value of Animals.Elisa Aaltola - 2007 - The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy 3:219-225.
    Altruism has often been thought to be the reason we treat animals with a certain moral respect. Animals are not moral agents who could reciprocally honour our well being, and because of this duties toward them are considered to be based on other-directed motivations. Altruism is a vague notion, and in the context of animals can be divided into at least three different alternatives. The first one equates altruism with benevolence or "kindness"; the second one argues altruism is (...)
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  27.  76
    On the Moral Value of Physical Activity: Body and Soul in Plato's Account of Virtue.David Carr - 2010 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 4 (1):3 – 15.
    It is arguable that some of the most profound and perennial issues and problems of philosophy concerning the nature of human agency, the role of reason and knowledge in such agency and the moral status and place of responsibility in human action and conduct receive their sharpest definition in Plato's specific discussion in the Republic of the human value of physical activities. From this viewpoint alone, Plato's exploration of this issue might be considered a locus classicus in the (...)
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  28.  23
    The Moral Value of Artistic Beauty in Kant.Joseph Cannon - 2011 - Kantian Review 16 (1):113-126.
    In the third Critique, Kant argues that it is to take an immediate interest in natural beauty, because it indicates an interest in harmony between nature and moral freedom. He, however, denies that there can be a similarly significant interest in artistic beauty. I argue that Kant ought not to deny this value to artistic beauty because his account of fine art as the joint product of the of genius and the discipline of taste commits him to the (...)
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  29.  8
    Beyond Primates: Research Protections and Animal Moral Value.Rebecca L. Walker - 2016 - Hastings Center Report 46 (4):28-30.
    Should monkeys be used in painful and often deadly infectious disease research that may save many human lives? This is the challenging question that Anne Barnhill, Steven Joffe, and Franklin G. Miller take on in their carefully argued and compelling article “The Ethics of Infection Challenges in Primates.” The authors offer a nuanced and even-handed position that takes philosophical worries about nonhuman primate moral status seriously and still appreciates the very real value of such research for human welfare. (...)
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  30.  87
    Emotional Expressions of Moral Value.Julie Tannenbaum - 2007 - Philosophical Studies 132 (1):43 - 57.
    In “Moral Luck” Bernard Williams describes a lorry driver who, through no fault of his own, runs over a child, and feels “agent-regret.” I believe that the driver’s feeling is moral since the thought associated with this feeling is a negative moral evaluation of his action. I demonstrate that his action is not morally inadequate with respect his moral obligations. However, I show that his negative evaluation is nevertheless justified since he acted in way that does (...)
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  31.  12
    Bernstein on Moral Status and the Comparative Value of Lives.Mylan Engel Jr - 2017 - Journal of Animal Ethics 7 (2):204.
    By stipulation, the Human Superiority Thesis [HST] consists of two claims: (1) the interests of humans should be given preferential consideration relative to the like interests of nonhuman animals, and (2) the lives of humans are more valuable than the lives of nonhuman animals. In his recent book, Mark Bernstein argues that both claims are false. I present and assess Bernstein’s main arguments, pointing out where they succeed and where they fall short. I then suggest ways of shoring up and (...)
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  32. Reliability of Motivation and the Moral Value of Actions.Paula Satne - 2013 - Studia Kantiana 14:5-33.
    Kant famously made a distinction between actions from duty and actions in conformity with duty claiming that only the former are morally worthy. Kant’s argument in support of this thesis is taken to rest on the claim that only the motive of duty leads non-accidentally or reliably to moral actions. However, many critics of Kant have claimed that other motives such as sympathy and benevolence can also lead to moral actions reliably, and that Kant’s thesis is false. In (...)
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  33.  22
    From Prejudice to Reasonable Judgement: Integrating (Moral) Value Discussions in University Courses.Joyce Aalberts, Edwin Koster & Robert Boschhuizen - 2012 - Journal of Moral Education 41 (4):437-455.
    The central question addressed in this article is how (moral) values discussions in university courses can be integrated in a systematic way. Discussion of (moral) values is fundamental to the Dublin descriptor about judgement formation in use in European universities. To integrate this descriptor and its (moral) values aspects in university courses, we developed a tool for evaluating academic judgement learning: the Dilemma-Oriented Learning Model. We introduce this model and discuss the way it has been implemented and (...)
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  34.  41
    Moral Value and Human Diversity.Robert Audi - 2007 - Oxford University Press.
    This short and accessible book is designed for those learning about the search for ethical rules that can apply despite cultural differences. Robert Audi looks at several such attempts: Aristotle, Kant; Mill; and the movement known as "common-sense" ethics associated with W.D. Ross. He shows how each attempt grew out of its own time and place, yet has some universal qualities that can be used for an ethical framework. This is a short, accessible treatment of a major topic in ethics (...)
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  35. Act and Value: Expectation and the Representability of Moral Theories.Graham Oddie & Peter Milne - 1991 - Theoria 57 (1-2):42-76.
    According to the axiologist the value concepts are basic and the deontic concepts are derivative. This paper addresses two fundamental problems that arise for the axiologist. Firstly, what ought the axiologist o understand by the value of an act? Second, what are the prospects in principle for an axiological representation of moral theories. Can the deontic concepts of any coherent moral theory be represented by an agent-netural axiology: (1) whatever structure those concepts have and (2) whatever (...)
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  36.  17
    Oppositional Defiance, Moral Reasoning and Moral Value Evaluation as Predictors of Self-Reported Juvenile Delinquency.Marinus Gcj Beerthuizen, Daniel Brugman & Karen S. Basinger - 2013 - Journal of Moral Education 42 (4):1-15.
  37.  69
    Reason and Value: Themes From the Moral Philosophy of Joseph Raz.R. Jay Wallace (ed.) - 2004 - Oxford University Press.
    Reason and Value collects 15 new papers by leading contemporary philosophers on themes from the work of Joseph Raz. Raz has made major contributions in a wide range of areas, including jurisprudence, political philosophy, and the theory of practical reason; but all of his work displays a deep engagement with central themes in moral philosophy. The subtlety and power of Raz's reflections on ethical topics make his writings a fertile source for anyone working in this area. Especially significant (...)
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  38. Incommensurability and Moral Value.Mark R. Reiff - 2014 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 13 (3):237-268.
    Some theorists believe that there is a plurality of values, and that in many circumstances these values are incommensurable, or at least incomparable. Others believe that all values are reducible to a single super-value, or that even if there is a plurality of irreducible values these values are commensurable. But I will argue that both sides have got it wrong. Values are neither commensurable nor incommensurable, at least not in the way most people think. We are free to believe (...)
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  39.  54
    Do We Have A Moral Obligation to Synthesize Organisms to Increase Biodiversity? On Kinship, Awe, and the Value of Life's Diversity.Joachim Boldt - 2013 - Bioethics 27 (8):411-418.
    Synthetic biology can be understood as expanding the abilities and aspirations of genetic engineering. Nonetheless, whereas genetic engineering has been subject to criticism due to its endangering biodiversity, synthetic biology may actually appear to prove advantageous for biodiversity. After all, one might claim, synthesizing novel forms of life increases the numbers of species present in nature and thus ought to be ethically recommended. Two perspectives on how to spell out the conception of intrinsic value of biodiversity are examined in (...)
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  40.  31
    Emotions and the Ontology of Moral Value.Susan Stark - 2004 - Journal of Value Inquiry 38 (3):355-374.
  41.  10
    Moral Status, Moral Value, and Human Embryos: Implications for Stem Cell Research.Bonnie Steinbock - 2009 - In The Oxford Handbook of Bioethics. Oxford University Press.
    This article begins with an introduction to the biology behind embryonic stem cell research. Next it presents briefly four views of moral status, based on four different criteria: biological humanity, personhood, possession of interests, and having a future-like-ours. On two of these views, embryos clearly lack moral status, but they most likely do not have moral status on the FLO account either. Only the biological humanity criterion combined with the view that life begins at conception results in (...)
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  42.  12
    The Free-Will Defence: Evil and the Moral Value of Free Will: Kenneth Einar Himma.Kenneth Einar Himma - 2009 - Religious Studies 45 (4):395-415.
    One version of the free-will argument relies on the claim that, other things being equal, a world in which free beings exist is morally preferable to a world in which free beings do not exist . I argue that this version of the free-will argument cannot support a theodicy that should alleviate the doubts about God's existence to which the problems of evil give rise. In particular, I argue that the value thesis has no foundation in common intuitions about (...)
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  43.  97
    The Free-Will Defence: Evil and the Moral Value of Free Will.Kenneth Einar Himma - 2009 - Religious Studies 45 (4):395-415.
    One version of the free-will argument relies on the claim that, other things being equal, a world in which free beings exist is morally preferable to a world in which free beings do not exist (the 'value thesis'). I argue that this version of the free-will argument cannot support a theodicy that should alleviate the doubts about God's existence to which the problems of evil give rise. In particular, I argue that the value thesis has no foundation in (...)
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  44.  15
    Seeing Color, Seeing Emotion, Seeing Moral Value.Benjamin De Mesel - 2016 - Journal of Value Inquiry 50 (3):539-555.
  45.  24
    God and the Foundation of Moral Value.Joel Thomas Tierno - 1992 - Journal of Value Inquiry 26 (3):417-422.
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  46.  16
    The Moral Value of the Universe.George N. Schlesinger - 1988 - Journal of Value Inquiry 22 (4):319-325.
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  47.  3
    Moral Value and Exchange Value.Elena L. Dubko - 1996 - Journal of Value Inquiry 30 (1-2):125-133.
  48.  2
    Fact and Moral Value—a Comment on Dr Hudson’s Paper: Paul Helm.Paul Helm - 1969 - Religious Studies 5 (2):140-144.
    In the first part of his paper, Dr Hudson argues that the distinction between between facts and values is eroded because there are some factual statements from which moral judgments do follow; and secondly he argues that there is a non-contingent connexion between beliefs about man and what it is intelligible to approve of or disapprove of morally. Both these conclusions are argued for tentatively and with reservation. In this comment I want to discuss three of the many issues (...)
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  49. On The Grounding Of Moral Value, Or Is A Post-Kantian, Post-Christian Morality Possible?Matthew Sharpe - 2001 - Minerva 5:118-137.
    This paper stages a consideration of Slavoj Zizek’s recent texts discussing the Christian ethics of agape. Iread Zizek’s ‘turn’ to Christian ethics as not a violation of his earlier Kantianism, but as an attempt toovercome two related problems which haunt Kantian deontological moral philosophy. The first is theproblem that Kant severs morality too totally from the realm of ‘pathological’ inclination, and does notoffer us a realistic depiction of moral psychology. The second is that the formal emptiness of thecategorical (...)
     
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  50. Some Aspects of Epistemic Value and Role of Moral Instuitions in Ethics Education.Vojko Strahovnik - 2014 - Metodicki Ogledi 21 (2):35-51.
    Moral philosophy has for quite some time practiced the use of thought experiments in argumentative strategies. Thought experiments can be understood as imagined scenarios with a certain level of complexity and novelty, which are usually designed and used to elicit our responses or moral intuitions in order to make our use of key moral concepts clearer or in order to support or reject a particular ethical theory, general moral principle, hypothesis, deeply held moral belief or (...)
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