Results for 'multiverse'

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  1. The Emergent Multiverse: Quantum Theory According to the Everett Interpretation.David Wallace - 2012 - Oxford University Press.
    David Wallace argues that we should take quantum theory seriously as an account of what the world is like--which means accepting the idea that the universe is constantly branching into new universes. He presents an accessible but rigorous account of the 'Everett interpretation', the best way to make coherent sense of quantum physics.
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  2. The Set-Theoretic Multiverse.Joel David Hamkins - 2012 - Review of Symbolic Logic 5 (3):416-449.
    The multiverse view in set theory, introduced and argued for in this article, is the view that there are many distinct concepts of set, each instantiated in a corresponding set-theoretic universe. The universe view, in contrast, asserts that there is an absolute background set concept, with a corresponding absolute set-theoretic universe in which every set-theoretic question has a definite answer. The multiverse position, I argue, explains our experience with the enormous range of set-theoretic possibilities, a phenomenon that challenges (...)
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  3. Multiverse Conceptions in Set Theory.Carolin Antos, Sy-David Friedman, Radek Honzik & Claudio Ternullo - 2015 - Synthese 192 (8):2463-2488.
    We review different conceptions of the set-theoretic multiverse and evaluate their features and strengths. In Sect. 1, we set the stage by briefly discussing the opposition between the ‘universe view’ and the ‘multiverse view’. Furthermore, we propose to classify multiverse conceptions in terms of their adherence to some form of mathematical realism. In Sect. 2, we use this classification to review four major conceptions. Finally, in Sect. 3, we focus on the distinction between actualism and potentialism with (...)
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  4.  4
    God and the Multiverse: Scientific, Philosophical, and Theological Perspectives.Klaas Kraay (ed.) - 2014 - Routledge.
    In recent decades, scientific theories have postulated the existence of many universes beyond our own. The details and implications of these theories are hotly contested. Some philosophers argue that these scientific models count against the existence of God. Others, however, argue that if God exists, a multiverse is precisely what we should expect to find. Moreover, these philosophers claim that the idea of a divinely created multiverse can help believers in God respond to certain arguments for atheism. These (...)
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  5. Against Multiverse Theodicies.Bradley Monton - 2010 - Philo 13 (2):113-135.
    In reply to the problem of evil, some suggest that God created an infinite number of universes—for example, that God created every universe that contains more good than evil. I offer two objections to these multiverse theodicies. First, I argue that, for any number of universes God creates, he could have created more, because he could have created duplicates of universes. Next, I argue that multiverse theodicies can’t adequately account for why God would create universes with pointless suffering, (...)
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  6.  3
    Multiverse Conceptions in Set Theory.Carolin Antos, Sy-David Friedman, Radek Honzik & Claudio Ternullo - 2018 - In Carolin Antos, Sy-David Friedman, Radek Honzik & Claudio Ternullo (eds.), The Hyperuniverse Project and Maximality. Birkhäuser. pp. 47-73.
    We review different conceptions of the set-theoretic multiverse and evaluate their features and strengths. In Sect. 1, we set the stage by briefly discussing the opposition between the ‘universe view’ and the ‘multiverse view’. Furthermore, we propose to classify multiverse conceptions in terms of their adherence to some form of mathematical realism. In Sect. 2, we use this classification to review four major conceptions. Finally, in Sect. 3, we focus on the distinction between actualism and potentialism with (...)
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  7.  35
    The Multiverse Conjecture: Whitehead’s Cosmic Epochs and Contemporary Cosmology.Leemon McHenry - 2011 - Process Studies 40 (1):5-24.
    Recent developments in cosmology and particle physics have led to speculation that our universe is merely one of a multitude of universes. While this notion, the multiverse hypothesis, is highly contested as legitimate science, it has nonetheless struck many physicists as a necessary consequence of the effort to construct a final, unified theory. In Process and Reality, his magnum opus, Alfred North Whitehead advanced a cosmology as part of his general metaphysics of process. Part of this project involved a (...)
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  8. On Multiverses and Infinite Numbers.Jeremy Gwiazda - 2014 - In Klaas Kraay (ed.), God and the Multiverse. Routledge. pp. 162-173.
    A multiverse is comprised of many universes, which quickly leads to the question: How many universes? There are either finitely many or infinitely many universes. The purpose of this paper is to discuss two conceptions of infinite number and their relationship to multiverses. The first conception is the standard Cantorian view. But recent work has suggested a second conception of infinite number, on which infinite numbers behave very much like finite numbers. I will argue that that this second conception (...)
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  9.  78
    Multiversism and Concepts of Set: How Much Relativism Is Acceptable?Neil Barton - 2016 - In Francesca Boccuni & Andrea Sereni (eds.), Objectivity, Realism, and Proof. Filmat Studies in the Philosophy of Mathematics. Springer Verlag. pp. 189-209.
    Multiverse Views in set theory advocate the claim that there are many universes of sets, no-one of which is canonical, and have risen to prominence over the last few years. One motivating factor is that such positions are often argued to account very elegantly for technical practice. While there is much discussion of the technical aspects of these views, in this paper I analyse a radical form of Multiversism on largely philosophical grounds. Of particular importance will be an account (...)
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  10. The Multiverse and Divine Creation.Mike Almeida - 2017 - Religions 8 (12):1 - 10.
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  11.  5
    Multiverse Deism: Shifting Perspectives of God and the World.Leland Harper - 2020 - Lexington Books.
    Given recent scientific findings suggesting that our world is part of a multiverse, Leland Harper argues that we ought to abandon the idea of an active God in Judeo-Christian theism. This shift results in a more coherent, cohesive and, ultimately, better account of God than is currently offered by the Judeo-Christian monotheistic tradition.
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  12. Multiverses and Cosmology.W. R. Stoeger, G. F. R. Ellis & U. Kirchner - forthcoming - Philosophical Issues.
  13. The Landscape and the Multiverse: What’s the Problem?James Read & Baptiste Le Bihan - 2021 - Synthese 199 (3-4):7749-7771.
    As a candidate theory of quantum gravity, the popularity of string theory has waxed and waned over the past four decades. One current source of scepticism is that the theory can be used to derive, depending upon the input geometrical assumptions that one makes, a vast range of different quantum field theories, giving rise to the so-called landscape problem. One apparent way to address the landscape problem is to posit the existence of a multiverse; this, however, has in turn (...)
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    Forcing, Multiverse and Realism.Giorgio Venturi - 2016 - In Francesca Boccuni & Andrea Sereni (eds.), Objectivity, Realism, and Proof. Filmat Studies in the Philosophy of Mathematics. Springer Verlag.
    In this article we analyze the method of forcing from a more philosophical perspective. After a brief presentation of this technique we outline some of its philosophical imports in connection with realism. We shall discuss some philosophical reactions to the invention of forcing, concentrating on Mostowski’s proposal of sharpening the notion of generic set. Then we will provide an overview of the notions of multiverse and the related philosophical debate on the foundations of set theory. In conclusion, we connect (...)
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  15.  64
    The Failure of the Multiverse Hypothesis as a Solution to the Problem of No Best World.David Kyle Johnson - 2014 - Sophia 53 (4):447-465.
    The multiverse hypothesis is growing in popularity among theistic philosophers because some view it as the preferable way to solve certain difficulties presented by theistic belief. In this paper, I am concerned specifically with its application to Rowe’s problem of no best world, which suggests that God’s existence is impossible given the fact that the world God actualizes must be unsurpassable, yet for any given possible world, there is one greater. I will argue that, as a solution to the (...)
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  16. Multiverse Cosmological Models.P. C. W. Davies - unknown
    Recent advances in string theory and inflationary cosmology have led to a surge of interest in the possible existence of an ensemble of cosmic regions, or “universes”, among the members of which key physical parameters, such as the masses of elementary particles and the coupling constants, might assume different values. The observed values in our cosmic region are then attributed to an observer selection effect (the so-called anthropic principle). The assemblage of universes has been dubbed “the multiverse”. In this (...)
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  17. Beyond Falsifiability: Normal Science in a Multiverse.Sean M. Carroll - 2019 - In Richard Dawid, Radin Dardashti & Karim Thebault (eds.), Epistemology of Fundamental Physics: Why Trust a Theory? Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Cosmological models that invoke a multiverse - a collection of unobservable regions of space where conditions are very different from the region around us - are controversial, on the grounds that unobservable phenomena shouldn't play a crucial role in legitimate scientific theories. I argue that the way we evaluate multiverse models is precisely the same as the way we evaluate any other models, on the basis of abduction, Bayesian inference, and empirical success. There is no scientifically respectable way (...)
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  18.  86
    Reinterpreting the Universe-Multiverse Debate in Light of Inter-Model Inconsistency in Set Theory.Daniel Kuby - manuscript
    In this paper I apply the concept of _inter-Model Inconsistency in Set Theory_ (MIST), introduced by Carolin Antos (this volume), to select positions in the current universe-multiverse debate in philosophy of set theory: I reinterpret H. Woodin’s _Ultimate L_, J. D. Hamkins’ multiverse, S.-D. Friedman’s hyperuniverse and the algebraic multiverse as normative strategies to deal with the situation of de facto inconsistency toleration in set theory as described by MIST. In particular, my aim is to situate these (...)
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  19. Maddy On The Multiverse.Claudio Ternullo - 2019 - In Deniz Sarikaya, Deborah Kant & Stefania Centrone (eds.), Reflections on the Foundations of Mathematics. Berlin: Springer Verlag. pp. 43-78.
    Penelope Maddy has recently addressed the set-theoretic multiverse, and expressed reservations on its status and merits ([Maddy, 2017]). The purpose of the paper is to examine her concerns, by using the interpretative framework of set-theoretic naturalism. I first distinguish three main forms of 'multiversism', and then I proceed to analyse Maddy's concerns. Among other things, I take into account salient aspects of multiverse-related mathematics , in particular, research programmes in set theory for which the use of the (...) seems to be crucial, and show how one may provide responses to Maddy's concerns based on a careful analysis of 'multiverse practice'. (shrink)
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  20.  72
    Classical theism and the multiverse.Katherin A. Rogers - 2020 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 88 (1):23-39.
    Some analytic philosophers of religion argue that theists should embrace the hypothesis of the multiverse to address the problem of evil and make the concept of a “best possible creation” plausible. I discuss what classical theists, such as Augustine, Anselm, and Aquinas, might make of the multiverse hypothesis including issues such as: the principle of plenitude, what a classical theist multiverse could look like, and how a classical theist multiverse could deal with the problem of evil (...)
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  21.  2
    On the Set-Generic Multiverse.Sy-David Friedman, Sakaé Fuchino & Hiroshi Sakai - 2018 - In Carolin Antos, Sy-David Friedman, Radek Honzik & Claudio Ternullo (eds.), The Hyperuniverse Project and Maximality. Birkhäuser. pp. 109-124.
    The forcing method is a powerful tool to prove the consistency of set-theoretic assertions relative to the consistency of the axioms of set theory. Laver’s theorem and Bukovský’s theorem assert that set-generic extensions of a given ground model constitute a quite reasonable and sufficiently general class of standard models of set-theory.In Sects. 2 and 3 of this note, we give a proof of Bukovsky’s theorem in a modern setting ). In Sect. 4 we check that the multiverse of set-generic (...)
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  22.  19
    Multiverse Oriented Philosophy (Transcending Earth- and Anthropocenteredness).Ulrich De Balbian - unknown
    The intended title was “Universe Oriented Ontology” or “Multiverse Oriented Ontology”, or “Universe or Multiverse Metaphysics”. I mention this as it gives an idea about the meaning and intention of the title and the work as well as the titles I considered and why I moved away from them to the present one. The sub-title provides a further hint towards the intentions of the work, namely: ” Beyond Earth- and Human-centricity’. I opted for ‘transcending’ rather than beyond, as (...)
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  23. Privileged-Perspective Realism in the Quantum Multiverse.Nora Berenstain - 2020 - In David Glick, George Darby & Anna Marmodoro (eds.), The Foundation of Reality: Fundamentality, Space, and Time. Oxford University Press.
    Privileged-perspective realism (PPR) is a version of metaphysical realism that takes certain irreducibly perspectival facts to be partly constitutive of reality. PPR asserts that there is a single metaphysically privileged standpoint from which these perspectival facts obtain. This chapter discusses several views that fall under the category of privileged-perspective realism. These include presentism, which is PPR about tensed facts, and non-multiverse interpretations of quantum mechanics, which the chapter argues, constitute PPR about world-indexed facts. Using the framework of the bird (...)
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  24.  8
    Abolishing Platonism in Multiverse Theories.Stathis Livadas - 2020 - Axiomathes 32 (2):321-343.
    A debated issue in the mathematical foundations in at least the last two decades is whether one can plausibly argue for the merits of treating undecidable questions of mathematics, e.g., the Continuum Hypothesis, by relying on the existence of a plurality of set-theoretical universes except for a single one, i.e., the well-known set-theoretical universe V associated with the cumulative hierarchy of sets. The multiverse approach has some varying versions of the general concept of multiverse yet my intention is (...)
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  25. Maddy On The Multiverse.Claudio Ternullo - 2019 - In Stefania Centrone, Deborah Kant & Deniz Sarikaya (eds.), Reflections on the Foundations of Mathematics: Univalent Foundations, Set Theory and General Thoughts. Springer Verlag. pp. 43-78.
    Penelope Maddy has recently addressed the set-theoretic multiverseset-theoretic multiverse, and expressed reservations on its status and merits Foundations of mathematics. Essays in honor of W. Hugh Woodin’s 60th birthday. Contemporary mathematics. American Mathematical Society, Providence, pp. 289–322, 2017). The purpose of the paper is to examine her concerns, by using the interpretative framework of set-theoretic naturalismset-theoretic naturalism. I first distinguish three main forms of ‘multiversism’multiversism, and then I proceed to analyse MaddyMaddy’s concerns. Among other things, I take into account (...)
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  26.  25
    Multiverse Assumptions and Philosophy.James R. Johnson - 2018 - Filosofiâ I Kosmologiâ 20:8-17.
    Multiverses are predictions based on theories. Focusing on each theory’s assumptions is key to evaluating a proposed multiverse. Although accepted theories of particle physics and cosmology contain non-intuitive features, multiverse theories entertain a host of “strange” assumptions classified as metaphysical topics such as: infinity, duplicate yous, hypothetical fields, more than three space dimensions, Hilbert space, advanced civilizations, and reality established by mathematical relationships. It is easy to confuse multiverse proposals because many divergent models exist. This overview defines (...)
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  27. On Using the Multiverse to Avoid the Paradoxes of Time Travel.J. Abbruzzese - 2001 - Analysis 61 (1):36-38.
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  28.  58
    Fine-Tuning the Multiverse.Thomas Metcalf - 2018 - Faith and Philosophy 35 (1):3-32.
    I present and defend an “indexical” version of the Fine-Tuning Argument. I begin by outlining the dialectic between the Fine-Tuning Argument, the Multiverse Objection, and the This-Universe Reply. Next, I sketch an indexical fine-tuning argument and defend it from two new objections. Then, I show that such an argument is immune to the Multiverse Objection. I explain how a further augmentation to the argument allows it to avoid an objection I call the “Indifference Objection.” I conclude that my (...)
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  29. Fine Tuning Explained? Multiverses and Cellular Automata.Francisco José Soler Gil & Manuel Alfonseca - 2013 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 44 (1):153-172.
    The objective of this paper is analyzing to which extent the multiverse hypothesis provides a real explanation of the peculiarities of the laws and constants in our universe. First we argue in favor of the thesis that all multiverses except Tegmark’s “mathematical multiverse” are too small to explain the fine tuning, so that they merely shift the problem up one level. But the “mathematical multiverse" is surely too large. To prove this assessment, we have performed a number (...)
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  30. Megill’s Multiverse Meta-Argument.Klaas J. Kraay - 2013 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 73 (3):235-241.
    In a recent paper in this journal, Jason Megill (2011) offers an innovative meta-argument which deploys considerations about multiple universes in an effort to block all arguments from evil. In what follows, I contend that Megill has failed to establish a key premise in his meta-argument. I also offer a rival account of the effect of multiverse models on the debate about evil.
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  31.  28
    The Multiverse Conundrum.Tim Wilkinson - 2012 - Philosophy Now 89:35-38.
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  32.  1
    Multiverse Assumptions and Philosophy.James R. Johnson - 2018 - Философия И Космология 20:8-17.
    Multiverses are predictions based on theories. Focusing on each theory’s assumptions is key to evaluating a proposed multiverse. Although accepted theories of particle physics and cosmology contain non-intuitive features, multiverse theories entertain a host of “strange” assumptions classified as metaphysical topics such as: infinity, duplicate yous, hypothetical fields, more than three space dimensions, Hilbert space, advanced civilizations, and reality established by mathematical relationships. It is easy to confuse multiverse proposals because many divergent models exist. This overview defines (...)
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  33. The Theistic Multiverse: Problems and Prospects.Klaas J. Kraay - 2012 - In Yujin Nagasawa (ed.), Scientific Approaches to the Philosophy of Religion. Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 143--162.
    In recent decades, there has been astonishing growth in scientific theorizing about multiverses. Once considered outré or absurd, multiple universe theories appear to be gaining considerable scientific respectability. There are, of course, many such theories, including (i) Everett’s (1957) many worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics, defended by Deutsch (1997) and others; (ii) Linde’s (1986) eternal inflation view, which suggests that universes form like bubbles in a chaotically inflating sea; (iii) Smolin’s (1997) fecund universe theory, which proposes that universes are generated (...)
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  34. An Unwelcome Consequence of the Multiverse Thesis.N. Effingham - 2012 - Synthese 184 (3):375-386.
    The Multiverse Thesis is a proposed solution to the Grandfather Paradox. It is popular and well promulgated, found in fiction, philosophy and (most importantly) physics. I first offer a short explanation on behalf of its advocates as to why it qualifies as a theory of time travel (as opposed to mere 'universe hopping'). Then I argue that the thesis nevertheless has an unwelcome consequence: that extended objects cannot travel in time. Whilst this does not demonstrate that the Multiverse (...)
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  35. Multiverse, M-Theory, and God the Creator.Wojciech P. Grygiel - 2013 - International Philosophical Quarterly 53 (1):23-35.
    From a physical point of view, the no-boundary Hartle-Hawking model put forward in 1983 was an attempt to demonstrate that the incorporation of quantum effects into the general theory of relativity would solve the problem of singularities that make the theory of relativity incomplete. This was achieved by imposing the so called “no-boundary conditions” whereby the Universe could emerge with non-zero probability from a non-existing state. Stephen Hawking quickly turned this result into a metaphysical claim that physical laws explained away (...)
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  36.  6
    The Multiverse: An Existential Crisis for Science?Bznuni Vahan - 2014 - Wisdom 1 (2):22.
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  37.  4
    EMAAN: An Evolutionary Multiverse Argument Against Naturalism.Ward Blondé - 2019 - Symposion: Theoretical and Applied Inquiries in Philosophy and Social Sciences 6 (2):113-128.
    In this paper, an evolutionary multiverse argument against naturalism is presented: E1. In an evolutionary multiverse, phenomena have variable evolutionary ages. E2. After some time T, the development of the empirical sciences will be evolutionarily conserved. E3. The phenomena with an evolutionary age above T are methodologically supernatural. Entities are classified according to whether they are physical and spatiotemporal, causally efficacious, and either observed by or explanatorily necessary for the empirical sciences. While the conjunction of and is taken (...)
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  38. Counterpart Theory V. The Multiverse: Reply to Watson.Jim Stone - 2011 - Analysis 71 (1):96-100.
    Suppose that reality consists of parallel universes of every variety imaginable. No path through space and time leads from one to another, and each universe is causally isolated from the rest. Some physicists believe a ‘multiverse’ hypothesis not terribly distant from this one simplifies quantum mechanics and provides an elegant explanation of why our universe has its particular laws. Suppose as science advances we come to accept the multiverse hypothesis, so construed.
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  39.  10
    Leland Royce Harper: Multiverse deism: shifting perspectives of God and the world: Lexington Books, 2020, v and 140 pp. $85.00. [REVIEW]Joshua Matthan Brown - 2021 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 90 (3):247-250.
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    Against the Theistic Multiverse.Sara L. Uckelman - 2020 - Kriterion - Journal of Philosophy 34 (4):1-14.
    We argue that Kraay's "theistic multiverse" response to the objections to theism [Kraay 2011] is unsuccessful as it simply shifts the problems leveled against theism from the level of possible worlds to the level of possible universes. Furthermore, when we restate the objections at the level of possible universes, we can show how Kraay's conclusion about the uniqueness of the theistic multiverse is undermined.
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  41. The Multiversity.Sheila Grant & William Christian - 1998 - In Sheila Grant & William Christian (eds.), The George Grant Reader. University of Toronto Press. pp. 190-200.
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  42.  50
    Incarnation and the Multiverse.Timothy O'Connor & Philip Woodward - 2014 - In Klaas Kraay (ed.), God and the Multiverse: Scientific, Philosophical, and Theological Perspectives. Routledge. pp. 227-241.
    Timothy O’Connor and Philip Woodward defend a version of a compositional theory, according to which an incarnate deity has two natures, each of which is a distinct component of its being. They then extend this model to permit multiple incarnations. Finally, they consider an objection to this model based on the theological idea that Christ’s work is necessary for ushering in a united community of all divine-image-bearing creatures. In response, they speculate that no such all-encompassing community would be possible, given (...)
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  43.  37
    Methodological Solipsism and the Multiverse.Daniel King - 2004 - Philosophy Today 48 (3):255-263.
    "Methodological Solipsism and the Multiverse" defends the many-universes interpretation of quantum physics, but draws attention to a major philosophical obstacle to the interpretation's acceptance: the question of why, if there are many universes, all on a par with one another, at a particular time the 'I' is manifest in only one. This is known as the 'preferred basis' problem. The so-called methodological solipsism approach, introduced by Driesch and employed by philosophers, such as Putnam and Fodor, is used to answer (...)
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  44.  68
    Fine-Tuning the Multiverse in Advance.Thomas Metcalf - forthcoming - Faith and Philosophy.
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  45.  7
    Worlds Without End: The Many Lives of the Multiverse.Mary-Jane Rubenstein - 2014 - Columbia University Press.
    Beginning with ancient Atomist and Stoic philosophies, Mary-Jane Rubenstein links contemporary models of the multiverse to their forerunners and explores their current emergence.
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  46. Anthropic Reasoning in Multiverse Cosmology and String Theory.Steven Weinstein - unknown
    Anthropic arguments in multiverse cosmology and string theory rely on the weak anthropic principle (WAP). We show that the principle, though ultimately a tautology, is nevertheless ambiguous. It can be reformulated in one of two unambiguous ways, which we refer to as WAP_1 and WAP_2. We show that WAP_2, the version most commonly used in anthropic reasoning, makes no physical predictions unless supplemented by a further assumption of "typicality", and we argue that this assumption is both misguided and unjustified. (...)
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  47.  22
    Prediction and Typicality in Multiverse Cosmology.Feraz Azhar - unknown
    In the absence of a fundamental theory that precisely predicts values for observable parameters, anthropic reasoning attempts to constrain probability distributions over those parameters in order to facilitate the extraction of testable predictions. The utility of this approach has been vigorously debated of late, particularly in light of theories that claim we live in a multiverse, where parameters may take differing values in regions lying outside our observable horizon. Within this cosmological framework, we investigate the efficacy of top-down anthropic (...)
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  48.  22
    Testing Typicality in Multiverse Cosmology.Feraz Azhar - unknown
    In extracting predictions from theories that describe a multiverse, we face the difficulty that we must assess probability distributions over possible observations, prescribed not just by an underlying theory, but by a theory together with a conditionalization scheme that allows for selection effects. This means we usually need to compare distributions that are consistent with a broad range of possible observations, with actual experimental data. One controversial means of making this comparison is by invoking the 'principle of mediocrity': that (...)
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  49.  17
    Physics Beyond the Multiverse: Naturalness and the Quest for a Fundamental Theory.Heinrich Päs - 2019 - Foundations of Physics 49 (9):1051-1065.
    Finetuning and Naturalness are extra-empirical theory assessments that reflect our expectation how scientific theories should provide an intuitive understanding about the foundations underlying the observed phenomena. Recently, the absence of new physics at the LHC and the theoretical evidence for a multiverse of alternative physical realities, predicted by our best fundamental theories, have casted doubts about the validity of these concepts. In this essay we argue that the discussion about Finetuning should not predominantly concentrate on the desired features a (...)
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  50.  90
    Life, the Multiverse and Everything.Mark Vernon - 2009 - The Philosophers' Magazine 44:45-50.
    The multiverse is a hypothesis for which there is no evidence, and perhaps can never be any evidence. It is only since 1998 that it has leapt off the blackboards of a few physicists doing esoteric mathematics and lodged itself in the popular imagination. As is the way with popular science, it is easy to move from speculating that there might have been more than one big bang to proceeding on the basis that there has been more than one (...)
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