Results for 'negative threshold utilitarianism'

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  1. Evaluating Time-Continuous Action Alternatives From the Perspective of Negative Utilitarianism: A Layered Approach.Erich Rast - 2013 - Proceedings of the GV-Conf 2013.
    A layered approach to the evaluation of action alternatives with continuous time for decision making under the moral doctrine of Negative Utilitarianism is presented and briefly discussed from a philosophical perspective.
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  2.  32
    Negative Utilitarianism.H. B. Acton & J. W. N. Watkins - 1963 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 37 (1):83-114.
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  3. Negative Utilitarianism.H. B. Acton & J. W. N. Watkins - 1963 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 37 (1):83-114.
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  4.  44
    Symposium: Negative Utilitarianism.H. B. Acton & J. W. N. Watkins - 1963 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 37 (1):83 - 114.
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  5.  82
    Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism.Roger Chao - 2012 - Journal of Philosophy of Life 2 (1):55-66.
    For many philosophers working in the area of Population Ethics, it seems that either they have to confront the Repugnant Conclusion , or they have to confront the Non-Identity Problem . To them it seems there is no escape, they either have to face one problem or the other. However, there is a way around this, allowing us to escape the Repugnant Conclusion, by using what I will call Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism – which though similar to anti-frustrationism, (...)
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  6. Negative Utilitarianism.R. N. Smart - 1958 - Mind 67 (268):542-543.
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  7.  33
    Negative Utilitarianism.J. J. C. Smart - 1989 - In Fred D'Agostino & I. C. Jarvie (eds.), Freedom and Rationality. Reidel. pp. 35--46.
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  8.  1
    Inspiratory Threshold Loading Negatively Impacts Attentional Performance.Eli F. Kelley, Troy J. Cross & Bruce D. Johnson - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
    RationaleThere are growing concerns over the occurrence of adverse physiologic events occurring in pilots during operation of United States Air Force and Navy high-performance aircraft. We hypothesize that a heightened inspiratory work of breathing experienced by jet pilots by virtue of the on-board life support system may constitute a “distraction stimulus” consequent to an increased sensation of respiratory muscle effort. As such, the purpose of this study was to determine whether increasing inspiratory muscle effort adversely impacts on attentional performance.MethodsTwelve, healthy (...)
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  9. Negative Utilitarianism in Freedom and Rationality. Essays in Honor of John Watkins.Jjc Smart - 1989 - Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 117:35-46.
     
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  10.  67
    Negative Utilitarianism.A. D. M. Walker - 1974 - Mind 83 (331):424-428.
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  11.  16
    Soglia: Negativity as a Philosophical Threshold.Alejandro A. Vallega - 2011 - Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy 16 (1):1-16.
    Giorgio Agamben’s thought arises out of thinking through the concrete negativity or ungroundedness figured by “life” as understood under the sovereign exception. His work is sustained by the continuous exposure of philosophical concepts to what remains excluded, silenced, and to an extent unsayable for philosophy: Thus, disfiguring, decentering, and violating the temporality of Western history and philosophy as well as the concepts that order it. This means that Agamben thinks out of the ungrounded occurrences of language and history, and that (...)
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  12.  79
    Negative Utilitarianism: Not Dead Yet.R. I. Sikora - 1976 - Mind 85 (340):587-588.
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  13.  16
    Auditory Awareness Negativity is an Electrophysiological Correlate of Awareness in an Auditory Threshold Task.Rasmus Eklund & Stefan Wiens - 2019 - Consciousness and Cognition 71:70-78.
  14.  74
    Prospect Utilitarianism: A Better Alternative to Sufficientarianism.Hun Chung - 2017 - Philosophical Studies 174 (8):1911-1933.
    Ever since the publication of Harry Frankfurt’s “Equality as a Moral Ideal” :21–43, 1987), the doctrine of sufficiency has attracted great attention among both ethical theorists and political philosophers. The doctrine of sufficiency consists of two main theses: the positive thesis states that it is morally important for people to have enough; and the negative thesis states that once everybody has enough, relative inequality has absolutely no moral importance. Many political philosophers have presented different versions of sufficientarianism that retain (...)
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  15.  73
    From Utilitarianism to Prioritarianism – an Empathy-Based Internalist Foundation of Welfare Ethics.Christoph Lumer - 2021 - In Michael Schefczyk & Christoph Schmidt-Petri (eds.), Utility, Progress, Technology. Karlsruhe, Germany: KIT Scientific Publishing. pp. 139-151.
    The article develops an internalist justification of welfare ethics based on empathy. It takes up Hume’s and Schopenhauer’s internalistic (but not consistently developed) justification approach via empathy, but tries to solve three of their problems: 1. the varying strength of empathy depending on the proximity to the object of empathy, 2. the unclear metaethical foundation, 3. the absence of a quantitative model of empathy strength. 1. As a solution to the first problem, the article proposes to limit the foundation of (...)
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  16. The Prospects for ‘Prospect Utilitarianism’.Ben Davies - 2022 - Utilitas 34 (3):335-343.
    Hun Chung argues for a theory of distributive justice – ‘prospect utilitarianism’ – that overcomes two central problems purportedly faced by sufficientarianism: giving implausible answers in ‘lifeboat cases’, where we can save the lives of some but not all of a group, and failing to respect the axiom of continuity. Chung claims that prospect utilitarianism overcomes these problems, and receives empirical support from work in economics on prospect theory. This article responds to Chung's criticisms of sufficientarianism, showing that (...)
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  17. Negative Perfectionism.Jeppe von Platz - 2012 - Philosophy and Public Issues - Filosofia E Questioni Pubbliche 2 (1):101-122.
    In this essay I defend a variety of political perfectionism that I call negative perfectionism. Negative perfectionism is the position that if some design of the basic structure of society promotes objectively bad human living, then this should count as a reason against it. To give this hypothetical some bite, I draw on Rousseau’s diagnosis of the maladies of his society to defend two further claims: first, that some human lives are objectively bad, and, second, that some designs (...)
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  18.  59
    Negative “GHIs,” the Right to Health Protection, and Future Generations.Jan Deckers - 2011 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 8 (2):165-176.
    The argument has been made that future generations of human beings are being harmed unjustifiably by the actions individuals commit today. This paper addresses what it might mean to harm future generations, whether we might harm them, and what our duties toward future generations might be. After introducing the Global Health Impact (GHI) concept as a unit of measurement that evaluates the effects of human actions on the health of all organisms, an incomplete theory of human justice is proposed. Having (...)
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  19. Relativism: A Threshold for Pupils to Cross in Order to Become Dialogical Critical Thinkers.Marie-France Daniel - 2013 - Childhood and Philosophy 9 (17):43-62.
    According to a number of international organizations such as UNESCO, the development of critical thinking is fundamental in youth education. In general, critical thinking is recognized as thinking that doubts and evaluates principles and facts. We define it as essentially dialogical, in other words constructive and responsible. And we maintain that its development is essential to help youngsters make enlightened decisions and adequately face up to the challenges of everyday living. Our recent analyses of exchanges among pupils who benefited from (...)
     
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  20. Negative Utility Monsters.Richard Yetter Chappell - 2021 - Utilitas 33 (4):417 - 421.
    Many consider Nozick’s “utility monster”—a being more efficient than ordinary people at converting resources into wellbeing, with no upper limit—to constitute a damning counterexample to utilitarianism. But our intuitions may be reversed by considering a variation in which the utility monster starts from a baseline status of massive suffering. This suggests a rethinking of the force of the original objection.
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  21.  93
    Hare on Utilitarianism and Intuitive Morality.Tom Carson - 1993 - Erkenntnis 39 (3):305 - 331.
    InMoral Thinking R. M. Hare offers a very influential defense of utilitarianism against intuitive objections. Hare's argument is roughly that utilitarianism conflicts with defensible moral intuitions only in unusual cases and that, in such cases, even defensible moral intuitions are unreliable. This paper reconstructs Hare's arguments and argues that they presuppose the success of his problematic proof of utilitarianism. Contrary to what many have thought, Hare's negative defense of utilitarianism against intuitive objections is not separable (...)
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  22.  12
    Paternalism and Utilitarianism in Research with Human Participants.David B. Resnik - 2012 - Health Care Analysis (1):1-13.
    In this article I defend a rule utilitarian approach to paternalistic policies in research with human participants. Some rules that restrict individual autonomy can be justified on the grounds that they help to maximize the overall balance of benefits over risks in research. The consequences that should be considered when formulating policy include not only likely impacts on research participants, but also impacts on investigators, institutions, sponsors, and the scientific community. The public reaction to adverse events in research (such as (...)
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  23. The Consequences of Individual Consumption: A Defence of Threshold Arguments for Vegetarianism and Consumer Ethics.Ben Almassi - 2011 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 28 (4):396-411.
    As a moral foundation for vegetarianism and other consumer choices, act consequentialism can be appealing. When we justify our consumer and dietary choices this way, however, we face the problem that our individual actions rarely actually precipitate more just agricultural and economic practices. This threshold or individual impotence problem engaged by consequentialist vegetarians and their critics extends to morally motivated consumer decision-making more generally, anywhere a lag persists between individual moral actions taken and systemic moral progress made. Regan and (...)
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  24.  41
    A New Argument Against Critical-Level Utilitarianism.Patrick Williamson - forthcoming - Utilitas:1-18.
    One prominent welfarist axiology, critical-level utilitarianism, says that individual lives must surpass a specified ‘critical level’ in order to make a positive contribution to the comparative status of a given population. In this article I develop a new dilemma for critical-level utilitarians. When comparatively evaluating populations composed of different species, critical-level utilitarians must decide whether the critical level is a universal threshold or whether the critical level is a species-relative threshold. I argue that both thresholds lead to (...)
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  25.  6
    Locus of Control and Negative Cognitive Styles in Adolescence as Risk Factors for Depression Onset in Young Adulthood: Findings From a Prospective Birth Cohort Study.Ilaria Costantini, Alex S. F. Kwong, Daniel Smith, Melanie Lewcock, Deborah A. Lawlor, Paul Moran, Kate Tilling, Jean Golding & Rebecca M. Pearson - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Whilst previous observational studies have linked negative thought processes such as an external locus of control and holding negative cognitive styles with depression, the directionality of these associations and the potential role that these factors play in the transition to adulthood and parenthood has not yet been investigated. This study examined the association between locus of control and negative cognitive styles in adolescence and probable depression in young adulthood and whether parenthood moderated these associations. Using a UK (...)
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  26.  63
    Between the Philosophy of Religion and Cultural History: Susan Taubes on the Birth of Tragedy and the Negative Theology of Modernity.Sigrid Weigel - 2010 - Telos: Critical Theory of the Contemporary 2010 (150):115-135.
    The caesura of tragedy, more precisely tragedy as the scene of a caesura upon which an interruption occurs in the relation between divine grounds and human will, stands at the center of Susan Taubes's confrontation with tragedy. Moving beyond an explication of generic history, she analyzed the “Nature of Tragedy” (1953) as a phenomenon emerging from a cultural-historical threshold situation, illuminating tragedy's origins in the framework of her approach to ritual, religion, and philosophy. In respect to the history of (...)
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  27. The World Destruction Argument.Simon Knutsson - 2019 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy (10).
    The most common argument against negative utilitarianism is the world destruction argument, according to which negative utilitarianism implies that if someone could kill everyone or destroy the world, it would be her duty to do so. Those making the argument often endorse some other form of consequentialism, usually traditional utilitarianism. It has been assumed that negative utilitarianism is less plausible than such other theories partly because of the world destruction argument. So, it is (...)
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  28.  63
    Utilitarian Theories Reconsidered: Common Misconceptions, More Recent Developments, and Health Policy Implications.Afschin Gandjour & Karl Wilhelm Lauterbach - 2003 - Health Care Analysis 11 (3):229-244.
    Despite the prevalence of the terms utilitarianism and utilitarian in the health care and health policy literature, anecdotal evidence suggests that authors are often not fully aware of the diversity of utilitarian theories, their principles, and implications. Further, it seems that authors often categorically reject utilitarianism under the assumption that it violates individual rights. The tendency of act utilitarianism to neglect individual rights is attenuated, however, by the diminishing marginal utility of wealth and the disutility of a (...)
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  29. Harming Yourself and Others: A Note on the Asymmetry of Agency in Action Evaluations.Erich Rast - 2016 - Polish Journal of Philosophy, Vol. VIII, No. 2 (2014) (2):65-74.
    Principles are investigated that allow one to establish a preference ordering between possible actions based on the question of whether the acting agent himself or other agents will benefit or be harmed by the consequences of an action. It is shown that a combination of utility maximization, an altruist principle, and weak negative utilitarianism yields an ordering that seems to be intuitively appealing, although it does not necessarily reflect common everyday evaluations of actions.
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  30. Beyond Sacrificial Harm: A Two-Dimensional Model of Utilitarian Psychology.Guy Kahane, Jim A. C. Everett, Brian D. Earp, Lucius Caviola, Nadira S. Faber, Molly J. Crockett & Julian Savulescu - 2018 - Psychological Review 125 (2):131-164.
    Recent research has relied on trolley-type sacrificial moral dilemmas to study utilitarian versus nonutili- tarian modes of moral decision-making. This research has generated important insights into people’s attitudes toward instrumental harm—that is, the sacrifice of an individual to save a greater number. But this approach also has serious limitations. Most notably, it ignores the positive, altruistic core of utilitarianism, which is characterized by impartial concern for the well-being of everyone, whether near or far. Here, we develop, refine, and validate (...)
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  31. Is Unhappiness Morally More Important Than Happiness?James Griffin - 1979 - Philosophical Quarterly 29 (114):47-55.
    The view that the obligation to promote happiness is, as Popper puts it, "in any case much less urgent" than the obligation to eliminate unhappiness we might call the "Negative Doctrine". I know of no plausible form of the Negative Doctrine.
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  32.  10
    Fighting Software Piracy: Some Global Conditional Policy Instruments.Simplice A. Asongu, Pritam Singh & Sara Le Roux - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 152 (1):175-189.
    This study examines the efficiency of tools for fighting software piracy in the conditional distributions of software piracy. Our paper examines software piracy in 99 countries over the period 1994–2010, using contemporary and non-contemporary quantile regressions. The intuition for modelling distributions contingent on existing levels of software piracy is that the effectiveness of tools against piracy may consistently decrease or increase simultaneously with the increasing levels of software piracy. Hence, blanket policies against software piracy are unlikely to succeed unless they (...)
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  33.  39
    The Paley's Concept of Liberty and the Eclipse of the Republicanism (O conceito de liberdade em Paley e o eclipse do republicanismo).Rogério A. Picoli - 2013 - Cadernos de Ética E Filosofia Política 22:141-158.
    According to Pettit and Skinner the rising of utilitarianism would have decisively contributed to the eclipse of the modern republican tradition. The Utilitarians would have been responsible for a radical critique of the concept of republican liberty, which would have resulted in the predominance of the Hobbesian conception of freedom. The sharpness and strength of the utilitarian attack to the conception of republican liberty would have be summarized in a set of objections formulated, in the late eighteenth century, by (...)
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  34.  26
    Distributive Justice and Cognitive Enhancement in Lower, Normal Intelligence.Mikael Dunlop & Julian Savulescu - 2014 - Monash Bioethics Review 32 (3-4):189-204.
    There exists a significant disparity within society between individuals in terms of intelligence. While intelligence varies naturally throughout society, the extent to which this impacts on the life opportunities it affords to each individual is greatly undervalued. Intelligence appears to have a prominent effect over a broad range of social and economic life outcomes. Many key determinants of well-being correlate highly with the results of IQ tests, and other measures of intelligence, and an IQ of 75 is generally accepted as (...)
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  35. Communication of Corporate Social Responsibility: A Study of the Views of Management Teams in Large Companies. [REVIEW]Susanne Arvidsson - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 96 (3):339 - 354.
    In light of the many corporate scandals, social and ethical commitment of society has increased considerably, which puts pressure on companies to communicate information related to corporate social responsibility (CSR). The reasons underlying the decision by management teams to engage in ethical communication are scarcely focussed on. Thus, grounded on legitimacy and stakeholder theory, this study analyses the views management teams in large listed companies have on communication of CSR. The focus is on aspects on interest, motives/reasons, users and problems (...)
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  36. Minimalizacja Cierpienia Zwierząt a Wegetarianizm.Krzysztof Saja - 2013 - Analiza I Egzystencja 22:67-83.
    The article is a reductio ad absurdum of assumptions which are shared by a large number of followers of the animal welfare movement and utilitarianism. I argue that even if we accept the main ethical arguments for a negative moral assessment of eating meat we should not promote vegetarianism but rather beefism (eating only meat from beef cattle). I also argue that some forms of vegetarianism, i.e. ichtivegetarianism, can be much more morally worse than normal meat diet. In (...)
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  37.  79
    Is There an Ethics of Algorithms?Martin Peterson - 2011 - Ethics and Information Technology 13 (3):251-260.
    We argue that some algorithms are value-laden, and that two or more persons who accept different value-judgments may have a rational reason to design such algorithms differently. We exemplify our claim by discussing a set of algorithms used in medical image analysis: In these algorithms it is often necessary to set certain thresholds for whether e.g. a cell should count as diseased or not, and the chosen threshold will partly depend on the software designer’s preference between avoiding false positives (...)
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  38.  41
    Verschiedene Versionen Des Negativen Utilitarismus.Fabian Fricke - 2002 - Kriterion - Journal of Philosophy 15 (1):13-27.
    Karl Popper suggested that the utilitarian formula "Maximise happiness" should be replaced by the formula "Minimize suffering" – a view which has been called "negative utilitarianism". Can such a view be spelled out in a plausible way? Examining several ways of understanding the alleged ethical priority of pain over pleasure, I come to the conclusion that none of them is satisfactory as a basis for a theory of benevolence. However, once we move from hedonistic to preference utilitarianism (...)
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  39.  46
    Pluralistyczna Teoria Alokacji Narządów.Piotr Grzegorz Nowak - 2017 - Diametros 51:65-89.
    Biomedical sciences cannot answer the question who should be saved from death if not everyone can be. This is an ethical issue. However, we face exactly this question when deliberating on the criteria for organ allocation. The main aim of this article is to formulate a pluralistic theory of just distribution of organs, which incorporates the tenets of utilitarianism, egalitarianism and sufficientarianism. Each constituent theory adopts a different value as a criterion for organ allocation. For utilitarianism it is (...)
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  40.  31
    No Difference Between Conscious and Nonconscious Visuomotor Control: Evidence From Perceptual Learning in the Masked Prime Task☆.Friederike Schlaghecken, Elisabeth Blagrove & Elizabeth A. Maylor - 2008 - Consciousness and Cognition 17 (1):84-93.
    Negative compatibility effects in the masked-prime paradigm are usually obtained when primes are masked effectively. With ineffective masks—and primes above the perceptual threshold—positive compatibility effects occur. We investigated whether this pattern reflects a causal relationship between conscious awareness and low-level motor control, or whether it reflects the fact that both are affected in the same way by changes in physical stimulus attributes. In a 5-session perceptual learning task, participants learned to consciously identify masked primes. However, they showed unaltered (...)
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  41.  26
    What Global Emission Regulations Should Corporations Support?David Burress - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 60 (4):317-339.
    In their role as political actors and lobbyists, corporations have responsibilities to help determine the existence and content of global regulations of pollutants. The ethical nature of those responsibilities is highly sensitive to the assumed normative framework. This paper compares several frameworks by modeling them as differently weighted versions of utilitarianism. Under a strict neoclassical approach, corporations have a narrow obligation to maximize profits, which generally entails opposing emission regulations. In contrast, a stakeholder approach as well as Marxian and (...)
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  42.  24
    The Justification of Freedom in John Stuart Mill. Reply to Some Criticism by Martha Nussbaum.David José Blanco Cortina - 2019 - Las Torres de Lucca. International Journal of Political Philosophy 8 (14):35-54.
    This paper aims to check some Nussbaum’s reviews, in Hiding from Humanity, about Mill’s conception of liberty. The analysis frame is given by constant tension between the utilitarian justification and the justification based on per se value of liberty. This article wants to support the following hypothesis: Millean liberty cannot be criticized for reducing its value to instrumental terms. On the contrary, in order to be loyal with Mill, liberty has a double justification: one based on its utilitarianism and (...)
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  43.  39
    Clinical Decisions Using AI Must Consider Patient Values.Jonathan Birch, Kathleen A. Creel, Abhinav K. Jha & Anya Plutynski - 2022 - Nature Medicine 28:229–232.
    Built-in decision thresholds for AI diagnostics are ethically problematic, as patients may differ in their attitudes about the risk of false-positive and false-negative results, which will require that clinicians assess patient values.
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  44. Totalism Without Repugnance.Jacob M. Nebel - 2022 - In Jeff McMahan, Tim Campbell, James Goodrich & Ketan Ramakrishnan (eds.), Ethics and Existence: The Legacy of Derek Parfit. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 200-231.
    Totalism is the view that one distribution of well-being is better than another just in case the one contains a greater sum of well-being than the other. Many philosophers, following Parfit, reject totalism on the grounds that it entails the repugnant conclusion: that, for any number of excellent lives, there is some number of lives that are barely worth living whose existence would be better. This paper develops a theory of welfare aggregation—the lexical-threshold view—that allows totalism to avoid the (...)
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  45.  95
    Corporate Governance, Ethics, and the Backdating of Stock Options.Avshalom M. Adam & Mark S. Schwartz - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 85 (S1):225 - 237.
    Backdating of stock options is an example of an agency problem. It has emerged despite all the measures (i.e., new regulations and additional corporate governance mechanisms) aimed at addressing such problems? Beyond such negative controlling measures, a more positive empowering approach based on ethics may also be necessary. What ethical measures need to be taken to address the agency problem? What values and norms should guide the board of directors in protecting the shareholders' interests? To examine these issues, we (...)
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  46.  14
    Towards a Rational Philosophical Anthropology.Joseph Agassi - 1977 - M. Nijhoff.
    The thesis of the present volume is critical and dual. (1) Present day philosophy of man and sciences of man suffer from the Greek mis taken polarization of everything human into nature and convention which is (allegedly) good and evil, which is (allegedly) truth and fal sity, which is (allegedly) rationality and irrationality, to wit, the polar ization of all fields of inquiry, the natural and social sciences, as well as ethics and all technology, whether natural or social, into the (...)
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  47.  7
    Children as Research Subjects: A Dilemma.Loretta M. Kopelman - 2000 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 25 (6):745-764.
    ABSTRACT A complex problem exists about how to promote the best interests of children as a group through research while protecting the rights and welfare of individual research subjects. The Nuremberg Code forbids studies without consent, eliminating most children as subjects, and the Declaration of Helsinki disallows non-therapeutic research on non-consenting subjects. Both codes are unreasonably restrictive. Another approach is represented by the Council for the International Organizations of Medical Science, the U.S. Federal Research Guidelines, and many other national policies. (...)
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  48.  58
    Climate Change—Do I Make a Difference?Bernward Gesang - 2017 - Environmental Ethics 39 (1):3-19.
    When an individual’s action is only one among a large number of similar actions and does not seem to make any difference to the bad collective outcome, can it nonetheless be condemned by act utilitarianism? This question has currently regained interest with papers, e.g., by Shelly Kagan, Julia Nefsky, and Felix Pinkert. Christopher Morgan-Knapp and Charles Goodman answer the question in the affirmative for miniscule emissions in the context of climate change. They use expected utility analysis as Kagan did (...)
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  49. Consequentialism and Collective Action.Brian Hedden - 2020 - Ethics 130 (4):530-554.
    Many consequentialists argue that you ought to do your part in collective action problems like climate change mitigation and ending factory farming because (i) all such problems are triggering cases, in which there is a threshold number of people such that the outcome will be worse if at least that many people act in a given way than if fewer do, and (ii) doing your part in a triggering case maximises expected value. I show that both (i) and (ii) (...)
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  50.  56
    O conceito de liberdade em Paley E o eclipse do republicanismo.Rogério Antônio Picoli - 2013 - Cadernos de Ética E Filosofia Política 22:141-158.
    De acordo com Pettit e Skinner, o surgimento do utilitarismo teria contribuído decisivamente para o eclipse da tradição republicana moderna. Os utilitaristas teriam sido responsáveis por uma crítica radical à concepção de liberdade republicana, o que teria resultado no predomínio da concepção de liberdade hobbesiana. A agudeza e a força do ataque utilitarista à concepção de liberdade republicana estariam sintetizadas em um conjunto de objeções formuladas, ainda no final do século XVIII, pelo utilitarista teológico inglês William Paley. Um exame do (...)
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