Results for 'non‐identity problem'

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  1. The Non-Identity Problem and the Ethics of Future People.David Boonin - 2014 - Oxford University Press.
    David Boonin presents a new account of the non-identity problem: a puzzle about our obligations to people who do not yet exist. He provides a critical survey of solutions to the problem that have been proposed, and concludes by developing an unorthodox alternative solution, one that differs fundamentally from virtually every other approach.
     
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  2. The Non-Identity Problem.James Woodward - 1986 - Ethics 96 (4):804-831.
  3. Have We Solved the Non-Identity Problem?Fiona Woollard - 2012 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 15 (5):677-690.
    Our pollution of the environment seems set to lead to widespread problems in the future, including disease, scarcity of resources, and bloody conflicts. It is natural to think that we are required to stop polluting because polluting harms the future individuals who will be faced with these problems. This natural thought faces Derek Parfit’s famous Non-Identity Problem ( 1984 , pp. 361–364). The people who live on the polluted earth would not have existed if we had not polluted. Our (...)
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  4. Identifying and Dissolving the Non-Identity Problem.Rivka Weinberg - 2008 - Philosophical Studies 137 (1):3-18.
    Philosophers concerned with procreative ethics have long been puzzled by Parfit’s Non-Identity Problem (NIP). Various solutions have been proposed, but I argue that we have not solved the problem on its own narrow person-affecting terms, i.e., in terms of the identified individuals affected by procreative decisions and acts, especially future children. Thus, the core problem remains unsolved. This is a nagging concern for all who hold the common intuition that actions that harm no one are permissible. I (...)
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  5.  25
    The Non‐Identity Problem and Genetic Harms – the Case of Wrongful Handicaps.Dan W. Brock - 1995 - Bioethics 9 (3):269-275.
    The Human Genome Project will produce information permitting increasing opportunities to prevent genetically transmitted harms, most of which will be compatible with a life worth living, through avoiding conception or terminating a pregnancy. Failure to prevent these harms when it is possible for parents to do so without substantial burdens or costs to themselves or others are what J call “wrongful handicaps”. Derek Parfit has developed a systematic difficulty for any such cases being wrongs — when the harm could be (...)
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  6. The Non-Identity Problem and Genetic Harms – the Case of Wrongful Handicaps.Dan W. Brock - 1995 - Bioethics 9 (3):269–275.
    The Human Genome Project will produce information permitting increasing opportunities to prevent genetically transmitted harms, most of which will be compatible with a life worth living, through avoiding conception or terminating a pregnancy. Failure to prevent these harms when it is possible for parents to do so without substantial burdens or costs to themselves or others are what J call “wrongful handicaps”. Derek Parfit has developed a systematic difficulty for any such cases being wrongs — when the harm could be (...)
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  7. Contractualism and the Non-Identity Problem.Elizabeth Finneron-Burns - 2016 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 19 (5):1151-1163.
    This paper argues that T.M. Scanlon’s contractualism can provide a solution to the non-identity problem. It first argues that there is no reason not to include future people in the realm of those to whom we owe justification, but that merely possible people are not included. It then goes on to argue that a person could reasonably reject a principle that left them with a barely worth living life even though that principle caused them to exist, and that current (...)
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  8. Causes, Contrasts, and the Non-Identity Problem.Thomas Bontly - 2016 - Philosophical Studies 173 (5):1233-1251.
    Can an act harm someone—a future someone, someone who does not exist yet but will—if that person would never exist but for that very action? This is one question raised by the non-identity problem. Many would argue that the answer is No: an action harms someone only insofar as it is worse for her, and an action cannot be worse for someone if she would not exist without it. The first part of this paper contends that the plausibility of (...)
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  9.  77
    Animal Disenhancement and the Non-Identity Problem: A Response to Thompson.Clare Palmer - 2011 - NanoEthics 5 (1):43-48.
    In his paper The Opposite of Human Enhancement: Nanotechnology and the Blind Chicken problem (Nanoethics 2:305–316, 2008) Paul Thompson argues that the possibility of disenhancing animals in order to improve animal welfare poses a philosophical conundrum. Although many people intuitively think such disenhancement would be morally impermissible, it’s difficult to find good arguments to support such intuitions. In this brief response to Thompson, I accept that there’s a conundrum here. But I argue that if we seriously consider whether creating (...)
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  10.  73
    The Non-Identity Problem and the Appeal to Future People’s Rights.Doran Smolkin - 1994 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 32 (3):315-329.
  11. Future People, the Non‐Identity Problem, and Person‐Affecting Principles.Derek Parfit - 2017 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 45 (2):118-157.
    Suppose we discover how we could live for a thousand years, but in a way that made us unable to have children. Everyone chooses to live these long lives. After we all die, human history ends, since there would be no future people. Would that be bad? Would we have acted wrongly? Some pessimists would answer No. These people are saddened by the suffering in most people’s lives, and they believe it would be wrong to inflict such suffering on others (...)
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  12. Genetic Engineering and The Non-Identity Problem.Tomasz Żuradzki - 2008 - Diametros 16:63-79.
    In my essay I consider the imaginary case of a future mother who refuses to undergo genetic alteration on her germline although she knows that her, as yet unconceived, child will have a serious genetic disorder. I analyze the good and bad points of two branches of arguments directed against her decision, consequentialist and rights-based. Then I discuss whether accepting one line of these arguments or the other makes a difference in moral assessment. I conclude that, although from the preanalytical (...)
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  13.  88
    Reproductive Autonomy, the Non-Identity Problem, and the Non-Person Problem.Russell Disilvestro - 2009 - Bioethics 23 (1):59-67.
    The Non-Identity Problem is the problem of explaining the apparent wrongness of a decision that does not harm people, especially since some of the people affected by the decision would not exist at all were it not for the decision. One approach to this problem, in the context of reproductive decisions, is to focus on wronging, rather than harming, one's offspring. But a Non-Person Problem emerges for any view that claims (1) that only persons can be (...)
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  14.  50
    Physicians' Duties and the Non-Identity Problem.Tony Hope & John McMillan - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics 12 (8):21 - 29.
    The non-identity problem arises when an intervention or behavior changes the identity of those affected. Delaying pregnancy is an example of such a behavior. The problem is whether and in what ways such changes in identity affect moral considerations. While a great deal has been written about the non-identity problem, relatively little has been written about the implications for physicians and how they should understand their duties. We argue that the non-identity problem can make a crucial (...)
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  15.  64
    The Non-Identity Problem and the Ethics of Future People By David BooninThe Risk of a Lifetime: How, When and Why Procreation May Be Permissible By Rivka Weinberg.Fiona Woollard - 2017 - Analysis 77 (4):865-869.
    © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Analysis Trust. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.comDavid Boonin’s The Non-Identity Problem and the Ethics of Future People and Rivka Weinberg’s The Risk of a Lifetime: How, When and Why Procreation May Be Permissible are both important books for those interested in procreative ethics. Each argues for surprising and controversial conclusions: Boonin argues that we should solve the non-identity problem by accepting its apparently (...)
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  16.  42
    Parfit on the Non-Identity Problem, Again.David Heyd - 2014 - Law and Ethics of Human Rights 8 (1):1-20.
    In his recent work, Parfit returns to the examination of the non-identity problem, but this time not in the context of a theory of value but as part of a Scanlonian theory of reasons for action. His project is to find a middle ground between pure impersonalism and the narrow person-affecting view so as to do justice to some of our fundamental intuitions regarding procreative choices. The aim of this article is to show that despite the sophisticated and challenging (...)
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  17. A Harm Based Solution to the Non-Identity Problem.Molly Gardner - 2015 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 2:427-444.
    Many of us agree that we ought not to wrong future people, but there remains disagreement about which of our actions can wrong them. Can we wrong individuals whose lives are worth living by taking actions that result in their very existence? The problem of justifying an answer to this question has come to be known as the non-identity problem.[1] While the literature contains an array of strategies for solving the problem,[2] in this paper I will take (...)
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  18. How to Solve the Non-Identity Problem.David Boonin - 2008 - Public Affairs Quarterly 22 (2):129-159.
  19.  96
    The Non-Identity Problem, Collective Rights, and the Threshold Conception of Harm.Makoto Usami - 2011 - Tokyo Institute of Technology Department of Social Engineering Discussion Paper (2011-04):1-17.
    One of the primary views on our supposed obligation towards our descendants in the context of environmental problems invokes the idea of the rights of future generations. A growing number of authors also hold that the descendants of those victimized by historical injustices, including colonialism and slavery, have the right to demand financial reparations for the sufferings of their distant ancestors. However, these claims of intergenerational rights face theoretical difficulties, notably the non-identity problem. To circumvent this problem in (...)
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  20.  85
    Historic Justice and the Non-Identity Problem: The Limitations of the Subsequent-Wrong Solution and Towards a New Solution.Ori J. Herstein - 2008 - Law and Philosophy 27 (5):505 - 531.
    The "non-identity argument" has been applied to reject the validity of claims for historic justice, often generating highly unintuitive conclusions. George Sher has suggested a solution to this problem, explaining the harm to descendants of historically wronged peoples as deriving not from the historic wrongs but from the failure to provide rectification to the previous generation for harm they suffered. That generation was likewise owed rectification for harm they suffered from failure to provide rectification to the generation preceding them. (...)
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  21.  95
    Existence: Who Needs It? The Non‐Identity Problem and Merely Possible People.Rivka Weinberg - 2013 - Bioethics 27 (9):471-484.
    In formulating procreative principles, it makes sense to begin by thinking about whose interests ought to matter to us. Obviously, we care about those who exist. Less obviously, but still uncontroversially, we care about those who will exist. Ought we to care about those who might possibly, but will not actually, exist? Recently, unusual positions have been taken regarding merely possible people and the non-identity problem. David Velleman argues that what might have happened to you – an existent person (...)
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  22.  30
    Zika, Contraception and the Non‐Identity Problem.Keyur Doolabh, Lucius Caviola, Julian Savulescu, Michael Selgelid & Dominic J. C. Wilkinson - 2017 - Developing World Bioethics 17 (3):173-204.
    The 2016 outbreak of the Zika arbovirus was associated with large numbers of cases of the newly-recognised Congenital Zika Syndrome. This novel teratogenic epidemic raises significant ethical and practical issues. Many of these arise from strategies used to avoid cases of CZS, with contraception in particular being one proposed strategy that is atypical in epidemic control. Using contraception to reduce the burden of CZS has an ethical complication: interventions that impact the timing of conception alter which people will exist in (...)
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  23. Benefit, Disability and the Non-Identity Problem.Hallvard Lillehammer - 2005 - In Nafsika Athanassoulis (ed.), Philosophical Reflections on Medical Ethics. Palgrave-Macmillan.
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  24. Reproduction, Partiality, and the Non-Identity Problem.Hallvard Lillehammer - 2009 - In M. A. Roberts & D. T. Wasserman (eds.), Harming Future Persons. Springer Verlag. pp. 231--248.
    Much work in contemporary bioethics defends a broadly liberal view of human reproduction. I shall take this view to comprise (but not to be exhausted by) the following four claims.1 First, it is permissible both to reproduce and not to reproduce, either by traditional means or by means of assisted reproductive techniques such as IVF and genetic screening. Second, it is permissible either to reproduce or to adopt or otherwise foster an existing child to which one is not biologically related. (...)
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  25. The Exploitation Solution to the Non-Identity Problem.Hallie Liberto - 2014 - Philosophical Studies 167 (1):73-88.
    When discussing exploitation, we often say things like this, “sweatshop laborers have terrible working conditions and are paid almost nothing, but they are better off with that labor than with no labor.” Similarly, in describing the Non-Identity Problem, Derek Parfit points out: we cannot say that the individuals born in future generations are worse off because of our destructive environmental policies because the particular people living in those future generations wouldn’t even exist if it were not for these destructive (...)
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  26.  83
    Has Industrialization Benefited No One? Climate Change and the Non-Identity Problem.Ramon Das - 2014 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 17 (4):747-759.
    Within the climate justice debate, the ‘beneficiary pays’ principle holds that those who benefit from greenhouse emissions associated with industrialization ought to pay for the costs of mitigating and adapting to their adverse effects. This principle constitutes a claim of inter-generational justice, and it is widely believed that the non-identity problem raises serious difficulties for any such claim. After briefly sketching the rationale behind ‘beneficiary pays,’ this paper offers a new way of understanding the claim that persons in developed (...)
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  27. Well-Being and the Non-Identity Problem.Molly Gardner - 2016 - In Guy Fletcher (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy of Well-Being. Routledge. pp. 429-438.
  28.  11
    The Non-Identity Problem in Climate Ethics: A Restatement.Jasmina Nedevska - 2020 - Intergenerational Justice Review 5 (2).
    This article justifies and restates the non-identity problem in relation to climate change. First and briefly, I argue that while there is often good reason to set the NIP aside in practical politics, there can be areas where a climate NIP will have practical implications. An instructive example concerns climate change litigation. Second, I argue that there are three particular circumstances of a climate NIP that may set it apart from the more established NIP in bioethics. These differences regard (...)
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  29.  1
    The Non-Identity Problem and the Admissibility of Outlandish Thought Experiments in Applied Philosophy.Adrian Walsh - 2020 - Croatian Journal of Philosophy 20 (2):229-246.
    The non-identity problem, which is much discussed in bioethics, metaphysics and environmental ethics, is usually examined by philosophers because of the difficulties it raises for our understanding of possible harms done to present human agents. In this article, instead of attempting to solve the non-identical problem, I explore an entirely different feature of the problem, namely the implications it has for the admissibility of outlandish or bizarre thought experiments. I argue that in order to sustain the claim (...)
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  30.  58
    The Non-Identity Problem and the Ethics of Future People, David Boonin. [REVIEW]Silvia Milano - 2016 - Economics and Philosophy 32:353-381.
  31.  89
    Rights, Indirect Harms and the Non-Identity Problem.Justin Patrick Mcbrayer - 2008 - Bioethics 22 (6):299–306.
    The non-identity problem is the problem of grounding moral wrongdoing in cases in which an action affects who will exist in the future. Consider a woman who intentionally conceives while on medication that is harmful for a fetus. If the resulting child is disabled as a result of the medication, what makes the woman's action morally wrong? I argue that an explanation in terms of harmful rights violations fails, and I focus on Peter Markie's recent rights-based defense. Markie's (...)
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  32.  71
    Individual Procreative Responsibility and the Non-Identity Problem.Eduardo Rivera-López - 2009 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 90 (3):336-363.
    The question I address in this paper is whether and under what conditions it is morally right to bring a person into existence. I defend the commonsensical thesis that, other things being equal, it is morally wrong to create a person who will be below some threshold of quality of life, even if the life of this potential person, once created, will nevertheless be worth living. However commonsensical this view might seem, it has shown to be problematic because of the (...)
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  33.  23
    Animal Biotechnology and the Non-Identity Problem.Robert Streiffer - 2008 - American Journal of Bioethics 8 (6):47 – 48.
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  34.  46
    Revisiting the Non-Identity Problem and the Virtues of Parenthood.James J. Delaney - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics 12 (4):24-26.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 12, Issue 4, Page 24-26, April 2012.
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  35.  27
    Non-Identity: Solving the Waiver Problem for Future People’s Rights.Rudolf Schuessler - 2016 - Law and Philosophy 35 (1):87-105.
    In a familiar interpretation, the Non-Identity Problem claims that persons whose existence depends on a seemingly harmful action cannot in fact be harmed through such an action. It is often objected that the persons in question can nevertheless be wronged through a violation of their rights. However, this objection seems to fail because these persons would readily waive any violated right in order to come into existence. The present article will analyze this Waiver Counter Argument in detail and show (...)
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  36. Being Fair to Future People: The Non-Identity Problem in the Original Position.Jeffrey Reiman - 2007 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 35 (1):69–92.
  37.  87
    Historic Injustice, Group Membership and Harm to Individuals: Defending Claims for Historic Justice From the Non-Identity Problem.Ori J. Herstein - 2009 - Harvard Journal of Racial and Ethnic Justice 25:229.
    Some claim slavery did not harm the descendants of slaves since, without slavery, its descendants would never have been born and a life worth living, even one including the subsequent harms of past slavery, is preferable to never having been born at all. This creates a classic puzzle known as the non-identity argument, applied to reject the validity of claims for historic justice based on harms to descendants of victims of historic wrongs: since descendants are never harmed by historic wrongs, (...)
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  38. The Apology Paradox and the Non-Identity Problem.Neil Levy - 2002 - Philosophical Quarterly 52 (208):358-368.
    Janna Thompson has outlined ‘the apology paradox’, which arises whenever people apologize for an action or event upon which their existence is causally dependent. She argues that a sincere apology seems to entail a wish that the action or event had not occurred, but that we cannot sincerely wish that events upon which our existence depends had not occurred. I argue that Thompson’s paradox is a backward-looking version of Parfit’s (forward-looking) ‘non-identity problem’, where backward- and forward-looking refer to the (...)
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  39.  16
    The Non‐Identity Problem and the Ethics of Future People by David Boonin, 2014 Oxford, Oxford University Press320 Pp., £45.00. [REVIEW]David Archard - 2016 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 33 (1):110-112.
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  40.  15
    The Non-Identity Problem.Tim Mulgan - 2003 - In Heather Dyke (ed.), Time and Ethics: Essays at the Intersection. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 209--218.
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  41. Whose Problem Is Non-Identity?Paul Hurley & Rivka Weinberg - 2014 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 12 (6):699-730.
    Teleological theories of reason and value, upon which all reasons are fundamentally reasons to realize states of affairs that are in some respect best, cannot account for the intuition that victims in non-identity cases have been wronged. Many philosophers, however, reject such theories in favor of alternatives that recognize fundamentally non-teleological reasons, second-personal reasons that reflect a moral significance each person has that is not grounded in the teleologist’s appeal to outcomes. Such deontological accounts appear to be better positioned to (...)
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  42. No Harm Done? An Experimental Approach to the Non-Identity Problem.Matthew Kopec & Justin P. Bruner - forthcoming - Journal of the American Philosophical Association.
    Discussions of the non-identity problem presuppose a widely shared intuition that actions or policies that change who comes into existence don't, thereby, become morally unproblematic. We hypothesize that this intuition isn’t generally shared by the public, which could have widespread implications concerning how to generate support for large-scale, identity-affecting policies relating to matters like climate change. To test this, we ran a version of the well-known dictator game designed to mimic the public's behavior over identity-affecting choices. We found the (...)
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  43.  72
    Toward A Rights-Based Solution to the Non-Identity Problem.Doran Smolkin - 1999 - Journal of Social Philosophy 30 (1):194-208.
  44. Harm to Future Persons: Non-Identity Problems and Counterpart Solutions.Anthony Wrigley - 2012 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 15 (2):175-190.
    Non-Identity arguments have a pervasive but sometimes counter-intuitive grip on certain key areas in ethics. As a result, there has been limited success in supporting the alternative view that our choices concerning future generations can be considered harmful on any sort of person-affecting principle. However, as the Non-Identity Problem relies overtly on certain metaphysical assumptions, plausible alternatives to these foundations can substantially undermine the Non-Identity argument itself. In this paper, I show how the pervasive force and nature of Non-Identity (...)
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  45.  7
    Is the Non-Identity Problem Relevant to Public Health and Policy? An Online Survey.Keyur Doolabh, Lucius Caviola, Julian Savulescu, Michael J. Selgelid & Dominic Wilkinson - 2019 - BMC Medical Ethics 20 (1):46.
    The non-identity problem arises when our actions in the present could change which people will exist in the future, for better or worse. Is it morally better to improve the lives of specific future people, as compared to changing which people exist for the better? Affecting the timing of fetuses being conceived is one case where present actions change the identity of future people. This is relevant to questions of public health policy, as exemplified in some responses to the (...)
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  46.  82
    Review of The Non-Identity Problem and the Ethics of Future People. [REVIEW]Molly Gardner - 2015 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews.
  47.  41
    Questioning the Significance of the Non-Identity Problem in Applied Ethics.Rob Lawlor - 2015 - Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (11):893-896.
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  48.  36
    Does the Non-Identity Problem Block a Class of Arguments Against Cloning?Richard Greene - 2004 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 18 (1):95-101.
    One class of argument against cloning human beings in the contemporary literature focuses on the bad consequences that will befall the clone or “later-twin.” In this paper I consider whether this line of argumentation can be blocked by invoking Parfit’s non-identity problem. I canvass two general strategies for solving the non-identity problem: a consequentialist strategy and a non-consequentialist, rights based strategy. I argue that while each general strategy offers a plausible solution to the non-identity problem as applied (...)
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  49.  26
    Impossible Obligations and the Non-Identity Problem.Robert Noggle - 2019 - Philosophical Studies 176 (9):2371-2390.
    In a common example of the non-identity problem, a person deliberately conceives a child who she knows will have incurable blindness but a life well worth living. Although Wilma’s decision seems wrong, it is difficult to say why. This paper develops and defends a version of the “indirect strategy” for solving the NIP. This strategy rests on the idea that it is wrong to deliberately make it impossible to fulfill an obligation; consequently, it is wrong for Wilma to create (...)
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  50.  15
    Why the Non-Identity Problem Does Not Undermine Our Obligations to the Future Under Real-World Conditions.Johan Sandelin - 2019 - Philosophia 47 (3):851-863.
    When Derek Parfit in Reasons and Persons, examined whether the Non-Identity Problem could be solved with the Impersonal Total Principle, he assumed perfect equality in the future population outcomes under his consideration. His thinking was that this assumption could not distort his reasoning, but would make it more simple and clear. He then reasoned that the best future population outcome, according to the Impersonal Total Principle, would be an enormous population, whose members have lives only barely worth living, as (...)
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