Results for 'nonhuman animals'

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  1. Nonhuman Animals in Adam Smith's Moral Theory.Alejandra Mancilla - 2009 - Between the Species 13 (9).
    By giving sympathy a central role, Adam Smith’s Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759) can be regarded as one of the ‘enlightened’ moral theories of the Enlightenment, insofar as it widened the scope of moral consideration beyond the traditionally restricted boundary of human beings. This, although the author himself does not seem to have been aware of this fact. In this paper, I want to focus on two aspects which I think lead to this conclusion. First, by making sentience the requisite (...)
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  2. Consequentialism and Nonhuman Animals.Tyler John & Jeff Sebo - forthcoming - In Douglas W. Portmore (ed.), Oxford Handbook of Consequentialism. New York, USA: Oxford University Press. pp. 564-591.
    Consequentialism is thought to be in significant conflict with animal rights theory because it does not regard activities such as confinement, killing, and exploitation as in principle morally wrong. Proponents of the “Logic of the Larder” argue that consequentialism results in an implausibly pro-exploitation stance, permitting us to eat farmed animals with positive well- being to ensure future such animals exist. Proponents of the “Logic of the Logger” argue that consequentialism results in an implausibly anti-conservationist stance, permitting us (...)
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  3.  77
    The Animal Question: Why Nonhuman Animals Deserve Human Rights.Paola Cavalieri - 2001 - Oxford University Press.
    How much do animals matter--morally? Can we keep considering them as second class beings, to be used merely for our benefit? Or, should we offer them some form of moral egalitarianism? Inserting itself into the passionate debate over animal rights, this fascinating, provocative work by renowned scholar Paola Cavalieri advances a radical proposal: that we extend basic human rights to the nonhuman animals we currently treat as "things." Cavalieri first goes back in time, tracing the roots of (...)
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  4. Concept Attribution in Nonhuman Animals: Theoretical and Methodological Problems in Ascribing Complex Mental Processes.Colin Allen & Marc D. Hauser - 1991 - Philosophy of Science 58 (2):221-240.
    The demise of behaviorism has made ethologists more willing to ascribe mental states to animals. However, a methodology that can avoid the charge of excessive anthropomorphism is needed. We describe a series of experiments that could help determine whether the behavior of nonhuman animals towards dead conspecifics is concept mediated. These experiments form the basis of a general point. The behavior of some animals is clearly guided by complex mental processes. The techniques developed by comparative psychologists (...)
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  5.  30
    Facial Expression in Nonhuman Animals.Bridget M. Waller & Jérôme Micheletta - 2013 - Emotion Review 5 (1):54-59.
    Many nonhuman animals produce facial expressions which sometimes bear clear resemblance to the facial expressions seen in humans. An understanding of this evolutionary continuity between species, and how this relates to social and ecological variables, can help elucidate the meaning, function, and evolution of facial expression. This aim, however, requires researchers to overcome the theoretical and methodological differences in how human and nonhuman facial expressions are approached. Here, we review the literature relating to nonhuman facial expressions (...)
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  6. Do Infants and Nonhuman Animals Attribute Mental States?Tyler Burge - 2018 - Psychological Review 125 (3):409-434.
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  7.  21
    Moral Responsiveness and Nonhuman Animals: A Challenge to Kantian Morality.Serrin Rutledge-Prior - 2019 - Ethics and the Environment 24 (1):45.
    The thesis of this paper is that certain nonhuman animals could be conceived of as capable of moral motivation and subsequent moral behavior, with the appropriate behavioral, psychological and cognitive evidence. I argue that a certain notion of morality—morality as the process of conscious, reasoned deliberation over explicit moral concepts—is excessively exclusionary, and that such a notion describes one mode of moral cognition, but not, as others have argued, morality's essence. Instead, morality and moral behaviors could be viewed (...)
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  8.  22
    Beyond Anthropocentrism: Cosmopolitanism and Nonhuman Animals.Angie Pepper - 2016 - Global Justice: Theory Practice Rhetoric 9 (2):114-133.
    All cosmopolitan approaches to global distributive justice are premised on the idea that humans are the primary units of moral concern. In this paper, I argue that neither relational nor non-relational cosmopolitans can unquestioningly assume the moral primacy of humans. Furthermore, I argue that, by their own lights, cosmopolitans must extend the scope of justice to most, if not all, nonhuman animals. To demonstrate that cosmopolitans cannot simply ‘add nonhuman animals and stir,’ I examine the cosmopolitan (...)
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  9. Instrumental Reasoning in Nonhuman Animals.Elisabeth Camp & Eli Shupe - 2017 - In Kristin Andrews & Jake Beck (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Animal Minds. London, UK: pp. 100-118.
  10.  67
    Some Nonhuman Animals Can Have Pains in a Morally Relevant Sense.William S. Robinson - 1997 - Biology and Philosophy 12 (1):51-71.
    In a series of works, Peter Carruthers has argued for the denial of the title proposition. Here, I defend that proposition by offering direct support drawn from relevant sciences and by undercutting Carruthers argument. In doing the latter, I distinguish an intrinsic theory of consciousness from Carruthers relational theory of consciousness. This relational theory has two readings, one of which makes essential appeal to evolutionary theory. I argue that neither reading offers a successful view.
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  11. Roadkill: Between Humans, Nonhuman Animals, and Technologies.Mike Michael - 2004 - Society and Animals 12 (4):277-298.
    This paper has two broad objectives. First, the paper aims to treat roadkill as a topic of serious social scientific inquiry by addressing it as a cultural artifact through which various identities are played out. Thus, the paper shows how the idea of roadkill-as-food mediates contradictions and ironies in American identities concerned with hunting, technology, and relationships to nature. At a second, more abstract, level, the paper deploys the example of roadkill to suggest a par ticular approach to theorizing broader (...)
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  12.  70
    The Duty to Aid Nonhuman Animals in Dire Need.John Hadley - 2006 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 23 (4):445–451.
    abstract Most moral philosophers accept that we have obligations to provide at least some aid and assistance to distant strangers in dire need. Philosophers who extend rights and obligations to nonhuman animals, however, have been less than explicit about whether we have any positive duties to free‐roaming or ‘wild’ animals. I argue our obligations to free‐roaming nonhuman animals in dire need are essentially no different to those we have to severely cognitively impaired distant strangers. I (...)
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  13. Sexing the Rotifer: Reading Nonhuman Animals' Sex and Reproduction in 19th-Century Biology.K. Smilla Ebeling - 2011 - Society and Animals 19 (3):305-315.
    This paper looks at the role nonhuman animals play in how we think about sex, gender, and sexuality in zoology and in society. In examining the history of ideas regarding a microscopic invertebrate species—rotifers—the paper explores how humans have projected aspects of their lives onto nonhuman animals and how they have extrapolated from nonhuman animals to human society. The paper emphasizes the intersections between knowledge about nonhuman animals and gender and sexuality politics.
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  14.  6
    The Use of Nonhuman Animals in Biomedical Research: Necessity and Justification.Gary L. Francione - 2007 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 35 (2):241-248.
    Discourse about the use of animals in biomedical research usually focuses on two issues. The first, which I will refer to as the “necessity issue,” is empirical and asks whether the use of nonhumans in experiments is required in order to gather statistically valid information that will contribute in a significant way to improving human health. The second, which I will refer to as the “justification issue,” is moral and asks whether the use of nonhumans in biomedical research, if (...)
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  15.  45
    Topographies of Flesh: Women, Nonhuman Animals, and the Embodiment of Connection and Difference.Jennifer McWeeny - 2014 - Hypatia 29 (2):269-286.
    Because of risks of essentialism and homogenization, feminist theorists frequently avoid making precise ontological claims, especially in regard to specifying bodily connections and differences among women. However well-intentioned, this trend may actually run counter to the spirit of intersectionality by shifting feminists' attention away from embodiment, fostering oppressor-centric theories, and obscuring privilege within feminism. What feminism needs is not to turn from ontological specificity altogether, but to engage a new kind of ontological project that can account for the material complexity (...)
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  16.  2
    Suffering Existence: Nonhuman Animals and Ethics.Kay Peggs & Barry Smart - 2018 - In Andrew Linzey & Clair Linzey (eds.), The Palgrave Handbook of Practical Animal Ethics. Palgrave Macmillan Uk. pp. 419-443.
    This chapter explores critically ethical concerns arising from forms of suffering to which domesticated nonhuman animals are subjected in scientific instruction and research and within the industrial-factory-farm-food complex, as well as other contexts. Consideration is given to the views of Arthur Schopenhauer on suffering, René Descartes’s designation of ontological differences between human and non-human animals, and Donna Haraway’s reconfiguration of the relationship between human and nonhuman animals in scientific laboratory settings. Proceeding from a discussion of (...)
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  17.  54
    The Use of Nonhuman Animals in Biomedical Research: Necessity and Justification.Gary L. Francione - 2007 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 35 (2):241-248.
    Discourse about the use of animals in biomedical research usually focuses on two issues: its empirical and moral use. The empirical issue asks whether the use of nonhumans in experiments is required in order to get data. The moral issue asks whether the use of nonhumans can be defended as matter of ethical theory. Although the use of animals in research may involve a plausible necessity claim, no moral justification exists for using nonhumans in situations in which we (...)
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  18.  76
    Beyond Prejudice: The Moral Significance of Human and Nonhuman Animals.Evelyn B. Pluhar - 1995 - Duke University Press.
    In _Beyond Prejudice_, Evelyn B. Pluhar defends the view that any sentient conative being—one capable of caring about what happens to him or herself—is morally significant, a view that supports the moral status and rights of many nonhuman animals. Confronting traditional and contemporary philosophical arguments, she offers in clear and accessible fashion a thorough examination of theories of moral significance while decisively demonstrating the flaws in the arguments of those who would avoid attributing moral rights to nonhumans. Exposing (...)
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  19.  47
    Consciousness in Nonhuman Animals: Adopting the Precautionary Principle.R. H. Bradshaw - 1998 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 5 (1):108-14.
    The existence of consciousness in animals may have been overlooked. Continuity in consciousness between humans and animals is predicted by evolutionary theory. However, there are specific methodological difficulties associated with investigating such a phenomenon: it cannot be directly measured; animals, unlike humans, cannot directly tell us about their conscious experience; experiments which have made comparisons to human consciousness cannot detect consciousness of a different form; application of the law of parsimony in science has traditionally led to the (...)
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  20. The Mental Lives of Nonhuman Animals.John Dupre - 1996 - In Marc Bekoff & Dale W. Jamieson (eds.), Readings in Animal Cognition. MIT Press.
     
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  21.  18
    In It for the Nonhuman Animals: Animal Welfare, Moral Certainty, and Disagreements.Nicola Taylor - 2004 - Society and Animals 12 (4):317-339.
    Based on three years' ethnographic research with animal sanctuary workers, this paper argues that a level of moral certainty drives and justifies many of the workers' actions and beliefs. Similar to the "missionary zeal" of nonhuman animal rights activists, this moral certainty divides the world into two neat categories: good for the animals and bad for the animals. This overriding certainty takes precedence over other concerns and pervades all aspects of sanctuary life, resulting in the breakdown of (...)
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  22.  58
    There Is No Special Problem of Mindreading in Nonhuman Animals.Marta Halina - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (3):473-490.
    There is currently a consensus among comparative psychologists that nonhuman animals are capable of some forms of mindreading. Several philosophers and psychologists have criticized this consensus, however, arguing that there is a “logical problem” with the experimental approach used to test for mindreading in nonhuman animals. I argue that the logical problem is no more than a version of the general skeptical problem known as the theoretician’s dilemma. As such, it is not a problem that comparative (...)
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  23. Neuroethics and the Problem of Other Minds: Implications of Neuroscience for the Moral Status of Brain-Damaged Patients and Nonhuman Animals[REVIEW]Martha J. Farah - 2008 - Neuroethics 1 (1):9-18.
    Our ethical obligations to another being depend at least in part on that being’s capacity for a mental life. Our usual approach to inferring the mental state of another is to reason by analogy: If another being behaves as I do in a circumstance that engenders a certain mental state in me, I conclude that it has engendered the same mental state in him or her. Unfortunately, as philosophers have long noted, this analogy is fallible because behavior and mental states (...)
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  24.  46
    Intervention or Protest: Acting for Nonhuman Animals.Gabriel Garmendia da Trindade & Andrew Woodhall (eds.) - 2016 - Wilmington, Delaware, USA: Vernon Press.
    Within current political, social, and ethical debates – both in academia and society – activism and how individuals should approach issues facing nonhuman animals, have become increasingly important, ‘hot’ issues. Individuals, groups, advocacy agencies, and governments have all espoused competing ideas for how we should approach nonhuman use and exploitation. Ought we proceed through liberation? Abolition? Segregation? Integration? As nonhuman liberation, welfare, and rights’ groups increasingly interconnect and identify with other ‘social justice movements’, resolutions to these (...)
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  25.  11
    The Unfinished Business of Respect for Autonomy: Persons, Relationships, and Nonhuman Animals.Rebecca L. Walker - 2020 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 45 (4-5):521-539.
    This essay explores three issues in respect for autonomy that pose unfinished business for the concept. By this, I mean that the dialogue over them is ongoing and essentially unresolved. These are: whether we ought to respect persons or their autonomous choices; the role of relational autonomy; and whether nonhuman animals can be autonomous. In attending to this particular set of unfinished business, I highlight some critical moral work left aside by the concept of respect for autonomy as (...)
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  26.  75
    Toward a Postcolonial, Posthumanist Feminist Theory: Centralizing Race and Culture in Feminist Work on Nonhuman Animals.Maneesha Deckha - 2012 - Hypatia 27 (3):527-545.
    Posthumanist feminist theory has been instrumental in demonstrating the salience of gender and sexism in structuring human–animal relationships and in revealing the connections between the oppression of women and of nonhuman animals. Despite the richness of feminist posthumanist theorizations it has been suggested that their influence in contemporary animal ethics has been muted. This marginalization of feminist work—here, in its posthumanist version—is a systemic issue within theory and needs to be remedied. At the same time, the limits of (...)
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  27.  40
    Slaves, Embryos, and Nonhuman Animals: Moral Status and the Limitations of Common Morality Theory.Ronald Alan Lindsay - 2005 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 15 (4):323-346.
    : Common morality theory must confront apparent counterexamples from the history of morality, such as the widespread acceptance of slavery in prior eras, that suggest core norms have changed over time. A recent defense of common morality theory addresses this problem by drawing a distinction between the content of the norms of the common morality and the range of individuals to whom these norms apply. This distinction is successful in reconciling common morality theory with practices such as slavery, but only (...)
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  28. Nonhuman Animals and Sovereignty: On Zoopolis, Failed States and Institutional Relationships with Free-Living Animals.Josh Milburn - 2016 - In Andrew Woodhall & Gabriel Garmendia da Trindade (eds.), Intervention or Protest: Acting for Nonhuman Animals. Wilmington, DE: Vernon Press. pp. 183-212.
    When considering the possibility of intervening in nature to aid suffering nonhuman animals, we can ask about moral philosophy, which concerns the actions of individuals, or about political philosophy, which concerns the apparatus of the state. My focus in this paper is on the latter, and, in particular, the proposal from Sue Donaldson and Will Kymlicka that nonhuman animals should be offered sovereignty rights over their territories. Such rights, among other things, seriously limit the occasions on (...)
     
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  29.  2
    Anthropomorphized Nonhuman Animals in Mass Media and Their Influence on Human Attitudes Toward Wildlife.Chiara Grasso, Christian Lenzi, Siobhan Speiran & Federica Pirrone - forthcoming - Society and Animals:1-25.
    Anthropomorphic figures of nonhuman animals are omnipresent in various forms of mass media. The depiction of companion and wild animals, including nonhuman primates, as possessing human characteristics or behaviors can influence these animals’ desirability as companions. Ultimately, this can distort general public perception of what constitutes “normal” wild behavior, as well as the conservation status of these animals. Therefore, anthropomorphic animal representations can contribute to the spread of misleading messages that may have highly unpredictable (...)
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  30.  10
    Nonhuman Animals as Fictitious Commodities: Exploitation and Consequences in Industrial Agriculture.Diana Stuart & Ryan Gunderson - 2020 - Society and Animals 28 (3):291-310.
    This article examines how nonhuman animals, along with land and labor, represent fictitious commodities as described by Karl Polanyi. Animals in agriculture are examined as an extreme example of animal commodification whose use resembles the exploitation of land and labor. Conceptual frameworks developed from Marxist theory, including the subsumption of nature, the second contradiction of capitalism, and alienation, are applied to illustrate how the negative impacts to animals, the environment, and public health associated with animal agriculture (...)
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  31.  52
    Rethinking the Ethics of Research Involving Nonhuman Animals: Introduction.Tom L. Beauchamp, Hope R. Ferdowsian & John P. Gluck - 2014 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 35 (2):91-96.
    In the relatively short time since 2006—when Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics published an issue on moral issues relevant to the use of nonhuman animals in research [1]—significant changes have occurred for nonhuman animals in many quarters. Public sentiment, new policy initiatives, and scientific studies of nonhuman animals’ capacities have all influenced the ways in which nonhuman animals are perceived and treated in research. Today, a large body of information is available for use (...)
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  32.  71
    Nonhuman Animals Are Morally Responsible.Asia Ferrin - 2019 - American Philosophical Quarterly 56 (2):135-154.
    Animals are often presumed to lack moral agency insofar as they lack the capacities for reflection or the ability to understand their motivating reasons for acting. In this paper, I argue that animals are in some cases morally responsible. First, I outline conditions of moral action, drawing from a quality of will account of moral responsibility. Second, I review recent empirical research on the capacities needed for moral action in humans and show that animals also have such (...)
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  33.  92
    Do Nonhuman Animals Have a Language of Thought?Beck Jacob - forthcoming - In The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Animal Minds. Routledge.
    Because we humans speak a public language, there has always been a special reason to suppose that we have a language of thought. For nonhuman animals, this special reason is missing, and the issue is less straightforward. On the one hand, there is evidence of various types of nonlinguistic representations, such as analog magnitude representations, which can explain many types of intelligent behavior. But on the other hand, the mere fact that some aspects of animal cognition can be (...)
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  34.  4
    The Duty to Aid Nonhuman Animals in Dire Need.John Hadley - 2006 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 23 (4):445-451.
    abstract Most moral philosophers accept that we have obligations to provide at least some aid and assistance to distant strangers in dire need. Philosophers who extend rights and obligations to nonhuman animals, however, have been less than explicit about whether we have any positive duties to free‐roaming or ‘wild’ animals. I argue our obligations to free‐roaming nonhuman animals in dire need are essentially no different to those we have to severely cognitively impaired distant strangers. I (...)
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  35. Nonhuman Animals: Not Necessarily Saints or Sinners.C. E. Abbate - 2014 - Between the Species 17 (1):1-30.
    Higher-order thought theories maintain that consciousness involves the having of higher-order thoughts about mental states. In response to these theories of consciousness, an attempt is often made to illustrate that nonhuman animals possess said consciousness, overlooking an alarming consequence: attributing higher-order thought to nonhuman animals might entail that they should be held morally accountable for their actions. I argue that moral responsibility requires more than higher-order thought: moral agency requires a specific higher-order thought which concerns a (...)
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  36. Elephants Who Marry Mice Are Very Unusual: The Use of the Relative Pronoun Who with Nonhuman Animals.Gaëtanelle Gilquin & George Jacobs - 2006 - Society and Animals 14 (1):79-105.
    This paper explores the use of the relative pronoun with nonhuman animals. The paper looks at what dictionaries, an encyclopedia, grammars, publication manuals, newspapers, and news agencies say and do relative to this issue. In addition to investigating the views and practices of these authoritative publications, the study also searched a 100-million-word collection of spoken and written English. The study found that while some reference works reject or ignore the use of with nonhuman animals, other works (...)
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  37.  70
    Taking Solipsism Seriously: Nonhuman Animals and Meta-Cognitive Theories of Consciousness. [REVIEW]Michael Ridge - 2001 - Philosophical Studies 103 (3):315-340.
  38.  40
    Vulnerable Subjects? The Case of Nonhuman Animals in Experimentation.Jane Johnson - 2013 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 10 (4):497-504.
    The concept of vulnerability is deployed in bioethics to, amongst other things, identify and remedy harms to participants in research, yet although nonhuman animals in experimentation seem intuitively to be vulnerable, this concept and its attendant protections are rarely applied to research animals. I want to argue, however, that this concept is applicable to nonhuman animals and that a new taxonomy of vulnerability developed in the context of human bioethics can be applied to research (...). This taxonomy does useful explanatory work, helping to pinpoint the limitations of the 3Rs/welfare approach currently adopted in the context of animal experimentation. On this account, the 3Rs/welfare approach fails to deliver for nonhuman animals in experimentation because it effectively addresses only one element of their vulnerability (inherent) and paradoxically through the institution of Animal Ethics Committees intended to protect experimental animals in fact generates new vulnerabilities that exacerbate their already precarious situation. (shrink)
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  39. Beyond 'Compassion and Humanity': Justice for Nonhuman Animals.Martha C. Nussbaum - 2004 - In Cass R. Sunstein & Martha Craven Nussbaum (eds.), Animal Rights: Current Debates and New Directions. Oxford University Press. pp. 299--320.
    This chapter discusses the application of the capabilities approach to the question of animal rights. It explains that this approach provides better theoretical guidance on the issue of animal entitlements over contractarian and utilitarian approaches because it is capable of recognising a wide range of types of animal dignity and of corresponding needs for flourishing. The chapter criticises the view of philosopher Immanuel Kant and his followers that mistreatment of animals does not raise questions of justice and suggests that (...)
     
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  40.  26
    A Linguistic Analysis of Discourse on the Killing of Nonhuman Animals.Jill Jepson - 2008 - Society and Animals 16 (2):127-148.
    Human attitudes about killing nonhuman animals are complex, ambivalent, and contradictory. This study attempts to elucidate those attitudes through a linguistic analysis of the terms used to refer to the killing of animals. Whereas terms used for killing human beings are highly specific and differentiated on the basis of the motivation for the killing, the nature of the participants, and evaluative and emotional content, terms used for killing animals are vague and interchangeable. Terms for animal-killing often (...)
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  41.  26
    Battered Women and Their Animal Companions: Symbolic Interaction Between Human and Nonhuman Animals.Clifton Flynn - 2000 - Society and Animals 8 (2):99-127.
    Only recently have sociologists considered the role of nonhuman animals in human society. The few studies undertaken of battered women and their animal companions have revealed high rates of animal abuse co-existing with domestic violence. This study examines several aspects of the relationship between humans and animals in violent homes. The study explored the role of companion animals in the abusive relationship through in-depth, semi-structured interviews with clients at a battered women's shelter. In particular, the study (...)
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  42.  1
    Neglecting Nonhuman Animals: A Content Analysis of Introductory Criminal Justice and Criminology Textbooks.Jen Girgen - forthcoming - Society and Animals:1-20.
    As illustrated by the fact that all states now have felony anti-cruelty laws and the FBI has begun tracking some forms of nonhuman animal abuse in its National Incident-Based Reporting System, there is growing recognition by lawmakers and criminal justice professionals that the abuse of animals should be taken seriously and properly addressed by the criminal justice system. This article assesses 19 popular introductory criminal justice and criminology textbooks to determine whether these texts share this sentiment by giving (...)
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  43.  8
    Battered Women and Their Animal Companions: Symbolic Interaction Between Human and Nonhuman Animals.Clifton P. Flynnl - 2000 - Society and Animals 8 (1):99-127.
    Only recently have sociologists considered the role of nonhuman animals in human society.The few studies undertaken of battered women and their animal companions have revealed high rates of animal abuse co-existing with domestic violence.This study examines several aspects of the relationship between humans and animals in violent homes.The study explored the role of companion animals in the abusive relationship through in-depth, semi-structured interviews with clients at a battered women's shelter. In particular, the study focused on the (...)
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  44.  70
    Contractualism and Our Duties to Nonhuman Animals.Matthew Talbert - 2006 - Environmental Ethics 28 (2):201-215.
    The influential account of contractualist moral theory offered recently by T. M. Scanlon in What We Owe to Each Other is not intended to account for all the various moral commitments that people have; it covers only a narrow—though important—range of properly moral concerns and claims. Scanlon focuses on what he calls the morality of right and wrong or, as he puts it in his title, what we owe to each other. The question arises as to whether nonhuman (...) can be wronged in the narrow sense of a moral wrong with which contractualism is concerned. Can we owe things to nonhuman animals? Scanlon is sensitive to the importance of this question, but he ultimately favors an account in which the perspectives of nonhuman animals are not explicitly included in contractualist theorizing. Nevertheless, it appears that contractualism, largely as Scanlon conceives it, can accommodate duties to nonhuman animals. Moreover, if contractualism cannot make this accommodation, then its status as a theory that answers to important common-sense moral intuitions becomes questionable in ways that extend beyond its failure to live up to intuitions many share about the status of nonhuman animals. (shrink)
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  45.  22
    Pigs and People: Sociological Perspectives on the Discipline of Nonhuman Animals in Intensive Confinement.Joel Novek - 2005 - Society and Animals 13 (3):221-244.
    Highly concentrated intensive confinement systems have become the norm in agriculture concerning nonhuman animals. These systems have provoked a lively debate from an animal welfare perspective. Sociologists can contribute to this debate by drawing parallels between the institutional regulation of human beings and of animals under confinement. Results of research on the transformation of Canadian hog production from the 1950s to the present—based on the evolution of plans for sow housing produced by the Canada Plan Service—showed a (...)
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  46. Commoditizing Nonhuman Animals and Their Consumers: Industrial Livestock Production, Animal Welfare, and Ecological Justice.Heather McLeod-Kilmurray - 2012 - Bulletin of Science, Technology and Society 32 (1):71-85.
    There is increasing research on the effects of industrial livestock production on the environment and human health, but less on the effects this has on animal welfare and ecological justice. The concept of ecological justice as a tool for achieving sustainability is gaining traction in the legal world. Klaus Bosselman defines ecological justice as consisting of three elements: intragenerational justice, intergenerational justice, and interspecies justice. While the first two have been extensively discussed, interspecies justice has received less attention. It is (...)
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  47.  11
    Why Does Human Twin Research Not Produce Results Consistent with Those From Nonhuman Animals?J. P. Scott - 1987 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10 (1):39-40.
  48.  3
    Violence Among Beasts. Why is It Wrong to Harm Nonhuman Animals in the Context of a Game.S. P. Morris - 2018 - Philosophical Journal of Conflict and Violence 2 (2).
    The thesis of this paper is that games and sports that harm nonhuman animals are unethical because they exceed the permissible limits of optional harm and the more harm the game imposes on the nonhuman animal(s) it objectifies the worse the ethical transgression. Factors in the analysis include the nature of games and sports, the ontology of beings (i.e., human and nonhuman animals) in games, the mitigating power of informed consent among human game-players and its (...)
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  49.  19
    Nonhuman Animals: A Review Essay.Marion W. Copeland - 1998 - Society and Animals 6 (1):87-100.
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  50.  5
    Making Nonhuman Animals Real.Kimberly Socha - 2019 - Society and Animals 27 (2):229-231.
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