Results for 'nonmonotonic logic'

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  1. Bridges From Classical to Nonmonotonic Logic.David Makinson - 2005 - King's College Publications.
    An graduate level introduction to nonmonotonic reasoning, emphasizing structures and spirit common to different formulations, with exercises.
     
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  2.  77
    Moral Dilemmas and Nonmonotonic Logic.John F. Horty - 1994 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 23 (1):35 - 65.
    From a philosophical standpoint, the work presented here is based on van Fraassen [26]. The bulk of that paper is organized around a series of arguments against the assumption, built into standard deontic logic, that moral dilemmas are impossible; and van Fraassen only briefly sketches his alternative approach. His paper ends with the conclusion that “the problem of possibly irresolvable moral conflict reveals serious flaws in the philosophical and semantic foundations of ‘orthodox’ deontic logic, but also suggests a (...)
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  3.  31
    Judgment Aggregation in Nonmonotonic Logic.Xuefeng Wen - 2018 - Synthese 195 (8):3651-3683.
    Judgment aggregation studies how to aggregate individual judgments on logically correlated propositions into collective judgments. Different logics can be used in judgment aggregation, for which Dietrich and Mongin have proposed a generalized model based on general logics. Despite its generality, however, all nonmonotonic logics are excluded from this model. This paper argues for using nonmonotonic logic in judgment aggregation. Then it generalizes Dietrich and Mongin’s model to incorporate a large class of nonmonotonic logics. This generalization broadens (...)
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  4. Psychological Laws and Nonmonotonic Logic.Arnold Silverberg - 1996 - Erkenntnis 44 (2):199-224.
    In this essay I enter into a recently published debate between Stephen Schiffer and Jerry Fodor concerning whether adequate sense can be made of the ceteris paribus conditions in special science laws, much of their focus being on the case of putative psychological laws. Schiffer argues that adequate sense cannot be made of ceteris paribus clauses, while Fodor attempts to overcome Schiffer's arguments, in defense of special science laws. More recently, Peter Mott has attempted to show that Fodor's response to (...)
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  5.  12
    Bridges Between Classical and Nonmonotonic Logic.David Makinson - 2003 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 11 (1):69-96.
    The purpose of this paper is to take some of the mystery out of what is known as nonmonotonic logic, by showing that it is not as unfamiliar as may at first sight appear. In fact, it is easily accessible to anybody with a background in classical propositional logic, provided that certain misunderstandings are avoided and a tenacious habit is put aside. In effect, there are logics that act as natural bridges between classical consequence and the principal (...)
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  6.  26
    Semantic Interpretation as Computation in Nonmonotonic Logic: The Real Meaning of the Suppression Task.Keith Stenning & Michiel Lambalgen - 2005 - Cognitive Science 29 (6):919-960.
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  7.  20
    Relations Between the Logic of Theory Change and Nonmonotonic Logic.David Makinson & Peter Gärdenfors - 1991 - In André Fuhrmann & Michael Morreau (eds.), The Logic of Theory Change. Springer. pp. 183--205.
    Examines the link between nonmonotonic inference relations and theory revision operations, focusing on the correspondence between abstract properties which each may satisfy.
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  8.  8
    Semantic Interpretation as Computation in Nonmonotonic Logic: The Real Meaning of the Suppression Task.Keith Stenning & Michiel van Lambalgen - 2005 - Cognitive Science 29 (6):919-960.
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  9. Nonmonotonic Logic and Temporal Projection.Steve Hanks & Drew McDermott - 1987 - Artificial Intelligence 33 (3):379-412.
  10. Bridges From Classical to Nonmonotonic Logic.David Makinson - 2006 - London: College Publications.
    A textbook for graduate students of philosophy, computer science, and mathematics, on various approaches to nonmonotonic logic, with emphasis on they way in which they fall into an overall pattern.
     
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  11. Choosing Your Nonmonotonic Logic: A Shopper’s Guide.Ulf Hlobil - 2018 - In Pavel Arazim & Tomáš Lávička (eds.), The Logica Yearbook 2017. London: College Publications. pp. 109-123.
    The paper presents an exhaustive menu of nonmonotonic logics. The options are individuated in terms of the principles they reject. I locate, e.g., cumulative logics and relevance logics on this menu. I highlight some frequently neglected options, and I argue that these neglected options are particularly attractive for inferentialists.
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  12.  48
    A Nonmonotonic Conditional Logic for Belief Revision.Hans Rott - 1991 - In André Fuhrmann & Michael Morreau (eds.), The Logic of Theory Change. Berlin: Springer. pp. 135–181.
    Using Gärdenfors's notion of epistemic entrenchment, we develop the semantics of a logic which accounts for the following points. It explains why we may generally infer `If ~A then B´ if all we know is AvB while must not generally infer `If ~A then B´ if all we know is {AvB, A}. More generally, it explains the nonmonotonic nature of the consequence relation governing languages which contain conditionals, and it explains how we can deduce conditionals from premise sets (...)
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  13. On the Applicability of Nonmonotonic Logic to Formal Reasoning in Continuous Time.Manny Rayner - 1991 - Artificial Intelligence 49 (1-3):345-360.
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  14.  19
    A Geo-Logical Solution to the Lottery Paradox, with Applications to Nonmonotonic Logic.Kevin T. Kelly & Hanti Lin - unknown
    We defend a set of acceptance rules that avoids the lottery paradox, that is closed under classical entailment, and that accepts uncertain propositions without ad hoc restrictions. We show that the rules we recommend provide a semantics that validates exactly Adams’ conditional logic and are exactly the rules that preserve a natural, logical structure over probabilistic credal states that we call probalogic. To motivate probalogic, we first expand classical logic to geologic, which fills the entire unit cube, and (...)
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  15. Nonmonotonic and Inductive Logic Second International Workshop, Reinhardsbrunn Castle, Germany, December 2-6, 1991 : Proceedings. [REVIEW]Gerhard Brewka, K. P. Jantke, P. H. Schmitt & International Workshop on Nonmonotonic and Inductive Logic - 1993
     
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  16.  6
    Bridges From Classical to Nonmonotonic Logic[REVIEW]Hykel Hosni - 2006 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 12 (3):499-502.
  17. Bridges From Classical to Nonmonotonic Logic.David Makinson - 2008 - Studia Logica 89 (3):437-439.
     
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  18.  9
    A Simple Nonmonotonic Logic as a Model of Belief Change.Masaharu Mizumoto - 2003 - Annals of the Japan Association for Philosophy of Science 12 (1):25-52.
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  19. Semantic Considerations on Nonmonotonic Logic.Robert C. Moore - 1985 - Artificial Intelligence 25 (1):75-94.
  20. Induction and Confirmation Theory: An Approach Based on a Paraconsistent Nonmonotonic Logic.Ricardo Sousa Silvestre - 2010 - Princípios 17 (28):71-98.
    This paper is an effort to realize and explore the connections that exist between nonmonotonic logic and confirmation theory. We pick up one of the most wide-spread nonmonotonic formalisms – default logic – and analyze to what extent and under what adjustments it could work as a logic of induction in the philosophical sense. By making use of this analysis, we extend default logic so as to make it able to minimally perform the task (...)
     
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  21.  48
    On Priest on Nonmonotonic and Inductive Logic.Greg Restall - 2016 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 5 (2):119-124.
    Graham Priest defends the use of a nonmonotonic logic, LPm, in his analysis of reasoning in the face of true contradictions, such as those arising from the paradoxes of self-reference. In the course of defending this choice of logic in the face of the criticism that this logic is not truth preserving, Priest argued that requirement is too much to ask: since LPm is a nonmonotonic logic, it necessarily fails to preserve truth. In this (...)
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  22. A Nonmonotonic Sequent Calculus for Inferentialist Expressivists.Ulf Hlobil - 2016 - In Pavel Arazim & Michal Dančák (eds.), The Logica Yearbook 2015. College Publications. pp. 87-105.
    I am presenting a sequent calculus that extends a nonmonotonic consequence relation over an atomic language to a logically complex language. The system is in line with two guiding philosophical ideas: (i) logical inferentialism and (ii) logical expressivism. The extension defined by the sequent rules is conservative. The conditional tracks the consequence relation and negation tracks incoherence. Besides the ordinary propositional connectives, the sequent calculus introduces a new kind of modal operator that marks implications that hold monotonically. Transitivity fails, (...)
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  23.  7
    Book Reviews: David Makinson, "Bridges From Classical to Nonmonotonic Logic", King's College Publications, London, 2005.Tomasz Jarmużek - 2007 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 16 (2-3):259-262.
    David Makinson, "Bridges from Classical to Nonmonotonic Logic", King’s College Publications, London, 2005, pp. 216, ISBN 1-904987-00-1.
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  24. Fixed Points in the Propositional Nonmonotonic Logic.Grigory F. Shvarts - 1989 - Artificial Intelligence 38 (2):199-206.
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  25.  40
    David Makinson, Bridges From Classical to Nonmonotonic Logic, Texts in Computingvox. 5, King's College Publications, London, 2005. XVI + 216 Pp. Isbn 1-904987-00-. [REVIEW]Heinrich Wansing - 2006 - Theoria 72 (4):336-340.
  26. On the Logic of Nonmonotonic Conditionals and Conditional Probabilities: Predicate Logic[REVIEW]James Hawthorne - 1998 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 27 (1):1-34.
    In a previous paper I described a range of nonmonotonic conditionals that behave like conditional probability functions at various levels of probabilistic support. These conditionals were defined as semantic relations on an object language for sentential logic. In this paper I extend the most prominent family of these conditionals to a language for predicate logic. My approach to quantifiers is closely related to Hartry Field's probabilistic semantics. Along the way I will show how Field's semantics differs from (...)
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  27.  68
    Real Logic is Nonmonotonic.Henry E. Kyburg - 2001 - Minds and Machines 11 (4):577-595.
    Charles Morgan has argued that nonmonotonic logic is ``impossible''. We show here that those arguments are mistaken, and that Morgan's preferred alternative, the representation of nonmonotonic reasoning by ``presuppositions'' fails to provide a framework in which nonmonotonic reasoning can be constructively criticised. We argue that an inductive logic, based on probabilistic acceptance, offers more than Morgan's approach through presuppositions.
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  28. Is Indian Logic Nonmonotonic?John A. Taber - 2004 - Philosophy East and West 54 (2):143-170.
    : Claus Oetke, in his "Ancient Indian Logic as a Theory of Non-monotonic Reasoning," presents a sweeping new interpretation of the early history of Indian logic. His main proposal is that Indian logic up until Dharmakirti was nonmonotonic in character-similar to some of the newer logics that have been explored in the field of Artificial Intelligence, such as default logic, which abandon deductive validity as a requirement for formally acceptable arguments; Dharmakirti, he suggests, was the (...)
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  29.  19
    Makinson David. Bridges From Classical to Nonmonotonic Logic. Text in Computing, Vol. 5. King's College, London, 2005, Xvi+ 216 Pp. [REVIEW]Hykel Hosni - 2006 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 12 (3):499-502.
  30.  4
    Relations Between Assumption-Based Approaches in Nonmonotonic Logic and Formal Argumentation.Jesse Heyninck & Christian Straßer - 2016 - In Gabriele Kern-Isberner & Renata Wassermann (eds.), Proceedings of Nmr2016. pp. 65--76.
  31.  55
    Nonmonotonic Reasoning: Logical Foundations of Commonsense.Gerhard Brewka (ed.) - 1991 - Cambridge University Press.
    In this book the author gives a broad overview of different areas of research in nonmonotonic reasoning, and presents some new results and ideas based on his research. The guiding principles are: clarification of the different research activities in the area, which have sometimes been undertaken independently of each other; and appreciation of the fact that these research activities often represent different means to the same ends, namely sound theoretical foundations and efficient computation. The book begins with a discussion (...)
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  32. On the Logic of Nonmonotonic Conditionals and Conditional Probabilities.James Hawthorne - 1996 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 25 (2):185-218.
    I will describe the logics of a range of conditionals that behave like conditional probabilities at various levels of probabilistic support. Families of these conditionals will be characterized in terms of the rules that their members obey. I will show that for each conditional, →, in a given family, there is a probabilistic support level r and a conditional probability function P such that, for all sentences C and B, 'C → B' holds just in case P[B | C] ≥ (...)
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  33.  31
    Belief Revision, Conditional Logic and Nonmonotonic Reasoning.Wayne Wobcke - 1995 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 36 (1):55-103.
    We consider the connections between belief revision, conditional logic and nonmonotonic reasoning, using as a foundation the approach to theory change developed by Alchourrón, Gärdenfors and Makinson (the AGM approach). This is first generalized to allow the iteration of theory change operations to capture the dynamics of epistemic states according to a principle of minimal change of entrenchment. The iterative operations of expansion, contraction and revision are characterized both by a set of postulates and by Grove's construction based (...)
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  34.  76
    Classical Logic, Conditionals and “Nonmonotonic” Reasoning.Nicholas Allott & Hiroyuki Uchida - 2009 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (1):85-85.
    Reasoning with conditionals is often thought to be non-monotonic, but there is no incompatibility with classical logic, and no need to formalise inference itself as probabilistic. When the addition of a new premise leads to abandonment of a previously compelling conclusion reached by modus ponens, for example, this is generally because it is hard to think of a model in which the conditional and the new premise are true.
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  35. General Patterns in Nonmonotonic Reasoning.David Makinson - 1994 - In Handbook of Logic in Artificial Intelligence Nad Logic Programming, Vol. Iii. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 35-110.
    An extended review of what is known about the formal behaviour of nonmonotonic inference operations, including those generated by the principal systems in the artificial intelligence literature. Directed towards computer scientists and others with some background in logic.
     
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  36.  27
    Levels of Belief in Nonmonotonic Reasoning.David C. Makinson - 2009 - In Franz Huber & Christoph Schmidt-Petri (eds.), Degrees of Belief. Springer. pp. 341--354.
    Reviews the connections between different kinds of nonmonotonic logic and the general idea of varying degrees of belief.
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  37.  34
    Handbook of Logic in Artificial Intelligence and Logic Programming, Volume 3, Nonmonotonic Reasoning and Uncertain Reasoning.G. Aldo Antonelli - 2000 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 6 (4):480-484.
  38.  71
    Nonmonotonic Conditionals That Behave Like Conditional Probabilities Above a Threshold.James Hawthorne - 2007 - Journal of Applied Logic 5 (4):625-637.
    I’ll describe a range of systems for nonmonotonic conditionals that behave like conditional probabilities above a threshold. The rules that govern each system are probabilistically sound in that each rule holds when the conditionals are interpreted as conditional probabilities above a threshold level specific to that system. The well-known preferential and rational consequence relations turn out to be special cases in which the threshold level is 1. I’ll describe systems that employ weaker rules appropriate to thresholds lower than 1, (...)
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  39.  1
    On the Acceptability of Arguments and its Fundamental Role in Nonmonotonic Reasoning, Logic Programming and N-Person Games.Phan Minh Dung - 1995 - Artificial Intelligence 77 (2):321-357.
  40.  49
    For the Sake of the Argument: Ramsey Test Conditionals, Inductive Inference and Nonmonotonic Reasoning.Isaac Levi - 1996 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book by one of the world's foremost philosophers in the fields of epistemology and logic offers an account of suppositional reasoning relevant to practical deliberation, explanation, prediction and hypothesis testing. Suppositions made 'for the sake of argument' sometimes conflict with our beliefs, and when they do, some beliefs are rejected and others retained. Thanks to such belief contravention, adding content to a supposition can undermine conclusions reached without it. Subversion can also arise because suppositional reasoning is ampliative. These (...)
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  41.  28
    A First Order Nonmonotonic Extension of Constructive Logic.David Pearce & Agustín Valverde - 2005 - Studia Logica 80 (2-3):321-346.
    Certain extensions of Nelson's constructive logic N with strong negation have recently become important in arti.cial intelligence and nonmonotonic reasoning, since they yield a logical foundation for answer set programming (ASP). In this paper we look at some extensions of Nelson's .rst-order logic as a basis for de.ning nonmonotonic inference relations that underlie the answer set programming semantics. The extensions we consider are those based on 2-element, here-and-there Kripke frames. In particular, we prove completeness for .rst-order (...)
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  42.  19
    Nonmonotonic Consequence Based on Intuitionistic Logic.Gisèle Fischer Servi - 1992 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 57 (4):1176-1197.
  43.  85
    The Nature of Nonmonotonic Reasoning.Charles G. Morgan - 2000 - Minds and Machines 10 (3):321-360.
    Conclusions reached using common sense reasoning from a set of premises are often subsequently revised when additional premises are added. Because we do not always accept previous conclusions in light of subsequent information, common sense reasoning is said to be nonmonotonic. But in the standard formal systems usually studied by logicians, if a conclusion follows from a set of premises, that same conclusion still follows no matter how the premise set is augmented; that is, the consequence relations of standard (...)
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  44. A Nonmonotonic Observation Logic.Frans Voorbraak - 2004 - Artificial Intelligence 157 (1-2):281-302.
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  45. Logic Programming and Nonmonotonic Reasoning 7th International Conference, Lpnmr 2004, Fort Lauderdale, Fla., January 6-8, 2004 : Proceedings. [REVIEW]Vladimir Lifschitz & Ilkka Niemelä - 2004
     
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  46.  29
    A Nonmonotonic Modal Formalization of the Logic of Acceptance and Rejection.Anna Gomolińska - 1997 - Studia Logica 58 (1):113-127.
    The problems we deal with concern reasoning about incomplete knowledge. Knowledge is understood as ability of an ideal rational agent to make decisions about pieces of information. The formalisms we are particularly interested in are Moore's autoepistemic logic (AEL) and its variant, the logic of acceptance and rejection (AEL2). It is well-known that AEL may be seen as the nonmonotonic KD45 modal logic. The aim is to give an appropriate modal formalization for AEL2.
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  47.  52
    Nonmonotonic Reasoning Based on Incomplete Logic.Tuan-Fang Fan, I. -Peng Lin & Churn-Jung Liau - 1997 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 7 (4):375-395.
    ABSTRACT What characterizes human reasoning is the ability of dealing with incomplete information. Incomplete logic is developed for modeling incomplete knowledge. The most distinctive feature of incomplete logic is its semantics. This is an alternative presentation of partial semantics. In this paper, we will introduce the general notion of incomplete logic, compare it with partial logic, and give the resolution method for it. We will also show how ICL can be applied to nonmonotonic reasoning. We (...)
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  48.  56
    Nonmonotonic Reasoning: From Finitary Relations to Infinitary Inference Operations.Michael Freund & Daniel Lehmann - 1994 - Studia Logica 53 (2):161 - 201.
    A. Tarski [22] proposed the study of infinitary consequence operations as the central topic of mathematical logic. He considered monotonicity to be a property of all such operations. In this paper, we weaken the monotonicity requirement and consider more general operations, inference operations. These operations describe the nonmonotonic logics both humans and machines seem to be using when infering defeasible information from incomplete knowledge. We single out a number of interesting families of inference operations. This study of infinitary (...)
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  49.  6
    Nonmonotonic Inference Operations.Michael Freund & Daniel Lehmann - 1993 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 1 (1):23-68.
    A. Tarski [21] proposed the study of infinitary consequence operations as the central topic of mathematical logic. He considered monotonicity to be a property of all such operations. In this paper, we weaken the monotonicity requirement and consider more general operations, inference operations. These operations describe the nonmonotonic logics both humans and machines seem to be using when infering dofeasible information from incomplete knowledge. We single out a number of interesting families of inference operations. This study of infinitary (...)
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  50.  92
    Change, Choice and Inference: A Study of Belief Revision and Nonmonotonic Reasoning.Hans Rott - 2001 - Oxford University Press.
    Change, Choice and Inference develops logical theories that are necessary both for the understanding of adaptable human reasoning and for the design of intelligent systems. The book shows that reasoning processes - the drawing on inferences and changing one's beliefs - can be viewed as belonging to the realm of practical reason by embedding logical theories into the broader context of the theory of rational choice. The book unifies lively and significant strands of research in logic, philosophy, economics and (...)
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