Results for 'observational studies'

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  1.  14
    Preliminary Checklist for Reporting Observational Studies in Sports Areas: Content Validity.Salvador Chacón-Moscoso, Susana Sanduvete-Chaves, M. Teresa Anguera, José L. Losada, Mariona Portell & José A. Lozano-Lozano - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
  2. Observational Studies: Overview.P. R. Rosenbaum - 2001 - In N. J. Smelser & B. Baltes (eds.), International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences. pp. 10808--10815.
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  3.  21
    Using Data Mining Techniques to Characterize Participation in Observational Studies.Ariel Linden & Paul R. Yarnold - 2016 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 22 (6):839-847.
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  4.  4
    Observational Studies on Human Populations.Douglas L. Weed & Robert E. McKeown - 2008 - In Ezekiel J. Emanuel (ed.), The Oxford Textbook of Clinical Research Ethics. Oxford University Press. pp. 325.
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  5.  30
    When Ethics Precludes Randomization: Put Prospective, Matched-Pair Observational Studies to Work.Charles Joseph Kowalski - 2013 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 56 (2):184-197.
    In a recent paper in this journal, John Worrall (2008) used the example of a series of trials involving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), a technology for the treatment of respiratory failure in newborns, to illustrate the relationship between ethics and epistemology in medical research. One of the issues considered was whether or not it was ethical to perform a particular clinical trial at all, and he showed clearly that the answer was intimately related to epistemological judgments about the weight to (...)
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  6.  31
    Quantifying the Impact of Survivor Treatment Bias in Observational Studies.Peter C. Austin, Muhammad M. Mamdani, Carl Van Walraven & Jack V. Tu - 2006 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 12 (6):601-612.
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  7.  28
    Revisiting Issues, Drawbacks and Opportunities with Observational Studies in Comparative Effectiveness Research.Demissie Alemayehu & Joseph C. Cappelleri - 2013 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (4):579-583.
    Rationale Despite their inherently pervasive limitations, data from observational studies are increasingly relied upon by health car.
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  8.  25
    Methods for the Bias Adjustment of Meta-Analyses of Published Observational Studies.Suhail A. R. Doi, Jan J. Barendregt & Adedayo A. Onitilo - 2013 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (4):653-657.
  9.  3
    Neuropsychological Validation of a Brief Quiz to Examine Comprehension of Consent Information in Observational Studies of Substance Users.Aldebarán Toledo-Fernández, Ricardo Sánchez-Domínguez, Luis Villalobos-Gallegos, Alejandro Pérez-López, Alan Macías-Flores & Rodrigo Marín-Navarrete - forthcoming - Ethics and Behavior:1-12.
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  10. Observational Research with Adolescents: A Framework for the Management of the Parental Permission. [REVIEW]Ruiz-Canela Miguel, Burgo Cristina Lopez-del, Carlos Silvia, Calatrava Maria, Beltramo Carlos, Osorio Alfonso & de Irala Jokin - 2013 - BMC Medical Ethics 14 (1):2-.
    Background: Waiving parent permission can be an option in some epidemiological and social research with adolescents. However, exemptions have not been uniformly considered or applied. Our aim is to critically assess the different factors that could be taken into account when making decisions about waiving active parental permission in observational research with adolescents.DiscussionIn some cases alternatives to parental permission could be applied to protect the rights of both adolescents and parents and also to assure the benefits to adolescents as (...)
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  11.  61
    Does Observational Knowledge Require Metaknowledge? A Dialogue on Sellars.Timm Triplett & Willem deVries - 2007 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 15 (1):23 – 51.
    In the following dialogue between TT - a foundationalist - and WdeV - a Sellarsian, we offer our differing assessments of the principle for observational knowledge proposed in Wilfrid Sellars's 'Empiricism and the Philosophy of Mind'. Sellars writes: 'For a Konstatierung "This is green" to "express observational knowledge", not only must it be a symptom or sign of the presence of a green object in standard conditions, but the perceiver must know that tokens of "This is green" are (...)
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  12.  18
    Observational Data and Scientific Progress.Friedrich Rapp - 1980 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 11 (2):153.
  13.  30
    Observational Learning in the Large-Billed Crow (Corvus Macrorhynchos): Effect of Demonstrator-Observer Dominance Relationship.Ei-Ichi Izawa & Shigeru Watanabe - 2011 - Interaction Studies 12 (2):281-303.
    Exploiting the skills of others enables individuals to reduce the risks and costs of resource innovation. Social corvids are known to possess sophisticated social and physical cognitive abilities. However, their capacity for imitative learning and its inter-individual transmission pattern remains mostly unexamined. Here we demonstrate the large-billed crows' ability to learn problem-solving techniques by observation and the dominance-dependent pattern in which this technique is transmitted. Crows were allowed to observe one of two box-opening behaviours performed by a dominant or subordinate (...)
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  14.  10
    Observational Learning in the Large-Billed Crow : Effect of Demonstrator-Observer Dominance Relationship.Ei-Ichi Izawa & Shigeru Watanabe - 2011 - Interaction Studies: Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systems 12 (2):281-303.
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  15.  39
    Some Observations on “Observational” Research.Robyn Bluhm - 2009 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 52 (2):252-263.
    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) ranks different medical research methods on a hierarchy, at the top of which are randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews or meta-analyses of RCTs. Any study that does not randomly assign patients to a treatment or a control group is automatically placed at a lower level on the hierarchy. This article argues that what matters is whether the treatment and control groups are similar with respect to potential confounding factors, not whether they got that way through (...)
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  16.  47
    Anatomy Education and the Observational-Embodied Look.T. Kenny Fountain - 2010 - Medicine Studies 2 (1):49-69.
    Based on observations and interviews collected during a yearlong ethnography of two anatomy laboratory courses at a large Midwestern university, this article argues that students learn anatomy through the formation of an observational-embodied look. All of the visual texts and material objects of the lab—from atlas illustrations, to photographs, to 3D models, to human bodies—are involved in this look that takes the form of anatomical demonstration and dissection. The student of anatomy, then, brings together observation, visual evidence, haptic experience, (...)
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  17.  6
    Community Engagement in Observational Human Exposure Studies.Peter P. Egeghy, Davyda M. Hammond & Roy C. Fortmann - 2010 - Ethics in Biology, Engineering and Medicine 1 (4):319-333.
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  18. On Two Mathematical Definitions of Observational Equivalence: Manifest Isomorphism and Epsilon-Congruence Reconsidered.Christopher Belanger - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 44 (2):69-76.
    In this article I examine two mathematical definitions of observational equivalence, one proposed by Charlotte Werndl and based on manifest isomorphism, and the other based on Ornstein and Weiss’s ε-congruence. I argue, for two related reasons, that neither can function as a purely mathematical definition of observational equivalence. First, each definition permits of counterexamples; second, overcoming these counterexamples will introduce non-mathematical premises about the systems in question. Accordingly, the prospects for a broadly applicable and purely mathematical definition of (...)
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  19.  92
    Time as Non‐Observational Knowledge: How to Straighten Out ΔEΔt≥H.Constantin Antonopoulos - 1997 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 11 (2):165 – 183.
    The Energy-Time Uncertainty (ETU) has always been a problem-ridden relation, its problems stemming uniquely from the perplexing question of how to understand this mysterious Δ t . On the face of it (and, indeed, far deeper than that), we always know what time it is. Few theorists were ignorant of the fact that time in quantum mechanics is exogenously defined, in no ways intrinsically related to the system. Time in quantum theory is an independent parameter, which simply means independently known (...)
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  20.  48
    What Have We Learned From Observational Cosmology?J. -Ch Hamilton - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 46 (1):70-85.
    We review the observational foundations of the ΛCDMΛCDM model, considered by most cosmologists as the standard model of cosmology. The Cosmological Principle, a key assumption of the model is shown to be verified with increasing accuracy. The fact that the Universe seems to have expanded from a hot and dense past is supported by many independent probes . The explosion of detailed observations in the last few decades has allowed for precise measurements of the cosmological parameters within Friedman–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker cosmologies (...)
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  21.  2
    An Observational Study Of Verbal And Nonverbal Communication In Female And Male University Students.Aliyah Ali - 2019 - Pakistan Journal of Gender Studies 19:1-18.
    Gender based sociological and linguistic studies show that differences exist in communication style of men and women, boys and girls. Although many gender stereotypes have changed with modernization and awareness about gender issues however common assumption is that ‘girls are talkative’ and boys are ‘less emotional’. In the context of transitions in culture and society, this study explored verbal and nonverbal communication differences among male and female university students. Using purposive sampling method, male and female students were observed in (...)
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  22.  2
    An Observational Study of Interaction and Progress for the Immigrant in School.J. Ward - 1978 - Educational Studies 4 (2):91-97.
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  23.  1
    Observational Learning in the Large-Billed Crow.Ei-Ichi Izawa & Shigeru Watanabe - 2011 - Interaction Studies. Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systemsinteraction Studies / Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systemsinteraction Studies 12 (2):281-303.
    Exploiting the skills of others enables individuals to reduce the risks and costs of resource innovation. Social corvids are known to possess sophisticated social and physical cognitive abilities. However, their capacity for imitative learning and its inter-individual transmission pattern remains mostly unexamined. Here we demonstrate the large-billed crows' ability to learn problem-solving techniques by observation and the dominance-dependent pattern in which this technique is transmitted. Crows were allowed to observe one of two box-opening behaviours performed by a dominant or subordinate (...)
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  24.  1
    Promoting Historical Contextualisation in Classrooms: An Observational Study.Tim Huijgen, Paul Holthuis, Carla van Boxtel & Wim van de Grift - 2018 - Educational Studies 45 (4):456-479.
    ABSTRACTThe aim of this observational study is to explore how history teachers promote historical contextualisation in their lessons. Historical contextualisation is the ability to situate phenomen...
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  25.  61
    Lists, Field Guides, and the Descriptive Organization of Seeing: Birdwatching as an Exemplary Observational Activity. [REVIEW]John Law & Michael Lynch - 1988 - Human Studies 11 (2-3):271 - 303.
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  26.  23
    Questionable Requirement for Consent in Observational Research in Psychiatry.Marit Helene Hem, Kristin Heggen & Knut W. Ruyter - 2007 - Nursing Ethics 14 (1):41-53.
    Informed consent represents a cornerstone of the endeavours to make health care research ethically acceptable. Based on experience of qualitative research on power dynamics in nursing care in acute psychiatry, we show that the requirement for informed consent may be practised in formalistic ways that legitimize the researcher's activities without taking the patient's changing perception of the situation sufficiently into account. The presentation of three patient case studies illustrates a diversity of issues that the researcher must consider in each (...)
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  27.  2
    Using Democracy to Award Research Funding: An Observational Study.Nicholas Graves, Cedryck Vaquette, Philip Clarke & Adrian G. Barnett - 2017 - Research Integrity and Peer Review 2 (1).
    BackgroundWinning funding for health and medical research usually involves a lengthy application process. With success rates under 20%, much of the time spent by 80% of applicants could have been better used on actual research. An alternative funding system that could save time is using democracy to award the most deserving researchers based on votes from the research community. We aimed to pilot how such a system could work and examine some potential biases.MethodsWe used an online survey with a convenience (...)
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  28.  96
    Experimental Comparisons of Observational Learning Mechanisms for Movement Imitation in Mobile Robots.Joe Saunders, Chrystopher L. Nehaniv & Kerstin Dautenhahn - 2007 - Interaction Studies. Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systemsinteraction Studies / Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systemsinteraction Studies 8 (2):307-335.
    Research into robotic social learning, especially that concerned with imitation, often focuses at differing ends of a spectrum from observational learning at one end to following or matched-dependent behaviour at the other. We study the implications and differences that arise when carrying out experiments both at the extremes and within this spectrum. Physical Khepera robots with minimal sensory capabilities are used, and after training, experiments are carried out where an imitating robot perceives the dynamic movement behaviours of another model (...)
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  29.  25
    Why Randomized Interventional Studies.Adam La Caze - 2013 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 38 (4):352-368.
    A number of arguments have shown that randomization is not essential in experimental design. Scientific conclusions can be drawn on data from experimental designs that do not involve randomization. John Worrall has recently taken proponents of randomized studies to task for suggesting otherwise. In doing so, however, Worrall makes an additional claim: randomized interventional studies are epistemologically equivalent to observational studies, providing the experimental groups are comparable according to background knowledge. I argue against this claim. In (...)
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  30.  9
    On Two Mathematical Definitions of Observational Equivalence: Manifest Isomorphism and Ε - Congruence Reconsidered.Christopher Belanger - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 44 (2):69-76.
  31.  21
    Huge Variation in Obtaining Ethical Permission for a Non-Interventional Observational Study in Europe.Dylan W. de Lange, Bertrand Guidet, Finn H. Andersen, Antonio Artigas, Guidio Bertolini, Rui Moreno, Steffen Christensen, Maurizio Cecconi, Christina Agvald-Ohman, Primoz Gradisek, Christian Jung, Brian J. Marsh, Sandra Oeyen, Bernardo Bollen Pinto, Wojciech Szczeklik, Ximena Watson, Tilemachos Zafeiridis & Hans Flaatten - 2019 - BMC Medical Ethics 20 (1):39.
    Ethical approval must be obtained before medical research can start. We describe the differences in EA for an pseudonymous, non-interventional, observational European study. Sixteen European national coordinators of the international study on very old intensive care patients answered an online questionnaire concerning their experience getting EA. N = 8/16 of the NCs could apply at one single national ethical committee, while the others had to apply to various regional ECs and/or individual hospital institutional research boards. The time between applying (...)
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  32.  5
    Inductive Logic, Atomism, and Observational Error.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 1997 - Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 51:117-132.
  33.  8
    Reporting of Ethical Approval and Informed Consent in Clinical Research Published in Leading Nursing Journals: A Retrospective Observational Study.Yanni Wu, Michelle Howarth, Chunlan Zhou, Mingyu Hu & Weilian Cong - 2019 - BMC Medical Ethics 20 (1):1-10.
    Background Ethical considerations play a prominent role in the protection of human subjects in clinical research. To date the disclosure of ethical protection in clinical research published in the international nursing journals has not been explored. Our research objective was to investigate the reporting of ethical approval and informed consent in clinical research published in leading international nursing journals. Methods This is a retrospective observational study. All clinical research published in the five leading international nursing journals from the SCI (...)
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  34.  20
    On Two Mathematical Definitions of Observational Equivalence: Manifest Isomorphism and Reconsidered.Christopher Belanger - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 44 (2):69-76.
    In this paper I examine two mathematical definitions of observational equivalence, one proposed by Charlotte Werndl and based on manifest isomorphism, and the other based on Ornstein and Weiss's ε-congruenceε-congruence. I argue, for two related reasons, that neither can function as a purely mathematical definition of observational equivalence. First, each definition permits of counterexamples; second, overcoming these counterexamples will introduce non-mathematical premises about the systems in question. Accordingly, the prospects for a broadly applicable and purely mathematical definition of (...)
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  35.  30
    Ethnology in the Metropole: Robert Knox, Robert Gordon Latham and Local Sites of Observational Training.Efram Sera-Shriar - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (4):486-496.
  36.  9
    What Have We Learned From Observational Cosmology?J. -Ch Hamilton - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 46 (1):70-85.
    23 pages, no figure. Proceedings of "Philosophical Aspects of Modern Cosmology" held in Granada, Spain, 22-23 Sept. 2011. Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics ; doi:10.1016/j.shpsb.2013.02.002.
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  37.  19
    Increasing the Acceptability and Rates of Organ Donation Among Minority Ethnic Groups: A Programme of Observational and Evaluative Research on Donation, Transplantation and Ethnicity.M. Morgan, C. Kenten, S. Deedat, B. Farsides, T. Newton, G. Randhawa, J. Sims & M. Sque - unknown
    Background: Black, Asian and minority ethnic groups have a high need for organ transplantation but deceased donation is low. This restricts the availability of well-matched organs and results in relatively long waiting times for transplantation, with increased mortality risks. Objective: To identify barriers to organ donor registration and family consent among the BAME population, and to develop and evaluate a training intervention to enhance communication with ethnic minority families and identify impacts on family consent. Methods: Three-phase programme comprising community-based research (...)
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  38.  12
    Are Physicians on the Same Page About Do-Not-Resuscitate? To Examine Individual Physicians’ Influence on Do-Not-Resuscitate Decision-Making: A Retrospective and Observational Study.Yen-Yuan Chen, Melany Su, Shu-Chien Huang, Tzong-Shinn Chu, Ming-Tsan Lin, Yu-Chun Chiu & Kuan-Han Lin - 2019 - BMC Medical Ethics 20 (1):1-13.
    Background Individual physicians and physician-associated factors may influence patients’/surrogates’ autonomous decision-making, thus influencing the practice of do-not-resuscitate orders. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of individual attending physicians on signing a DNR order. Methods This study was conducted in closed model, surgical intensive care units in a university-affiliated teaching hospital located in Northern Taiwan. The medical records of patients, admitted to the surgical intensive care units for the first time between June 1, 2011 and December 31, (...)
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  39.  2
    Educational Administration and Policy Making in the United States and Canada: Some Observational Differences.Dennis Dibski - 1979 - Educational Studies 10 (2):163-173.
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  40.  43
    Using Balance Statistics to Determine the Optimal Number of Controls in Matching Studies.Ariel Linden & Steven J. Samuels - 2013 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (5):968-975.
  41.  14
    Ethics Review of Studies During Public Health Emergencies - the Experience of the WHO Ethics Review Committee During the Ebola Virus Disease Epidemic.Emilie Alirol, Annette C. Kuesel, Maria Magdalena Guraiib, Vânia Dela Fuente-Núñez, Abha Saxena & Melba F. Gomes - 2017 - BMC Medical Ethics 18 (1):43.
    Between 2013 and 2016, West Africa experienced the largest ever outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease. In the absence of registered treatments or vaccines to control this lethal disease, the World Health Organization coordinated and supported research to expedite identification of interventions that could control the outbreak and improve future control efforts. Consequently, the World Health Organization Research Ethics Review Committee was heavily involved in reviews and ethics discussions. It reviewed 24 new and 22 amended protocols for research studies including (...)
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  42.  51
    The Similarity of Causal Inference in Experimental and Non‐Experimental Studies.Richard Scheines - 2005 - Philosophy of Science 72 (5):927-940.
    For nearly as long as the word “correlation” has been part of statistical parlance, students have been warned that correlation does not prove causation, and that only experimental studies, e.g., randomized clinical trials, can establish the existence of a causal relationship. Over the last few decades, somewhat of a consensus has emerged between statisticians, computer scientists, and philosophers on how to represent causal claims and connect them to probabilistic relations. One strand of this work studies the conditions under (...)
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  43. Retelling Experiments: H.B.D. Kettlewell's Studies of Industrial Melanism in Peppered Moths. [REVIEW]Joel B. Hagen - 1999 - Biology and Philosophy 14 (1):39-54.
    H. B. D. Kettlewell's field experiments on industrial melanism in the peppered moth, Biston betularia, have become the best known demonstration of natural selection in action. I argue that textbook accounts routinely portray this research as an example of controlled experimentation, even though this is historically misleading. I examine how idealized accounts of Kettlewell's research have been used by professional biologists and biology teachers. I also respond to some criticisms of David Rudge to my earlier discussions of this case study, (...)
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  44.  61
    Causal Explanation Beyond the Gene: Manipulation and Causality in Epigenetics.Jan Baedke - 2012 - Theoria : An International Journal for Theory, History and Fundations of Science 27 (2):153-174.
    _This paper deals with the interrelationship between causal explanation and methodology in a relatively young discipline in biology: epigenetics. Based on cases from molecular and ecological epigenetics, I show that James Woodward’s interventionist account of causation captures essential features about how epigeneticists using highly diverse methods, i.e. laboratory experiments and purely observational studies, think about causal explanation. I argue that interventionism thus qualifies as a useful unifying explanatory approach when it comes to cross-methodological research efforts: It can act (...)
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  45.  61
    Reporting of Informed Consent and Ethics Committee Approval in Genetics Studies of Stroke.J. F. Meschia - 2003 - Journal of Medical Ethics 29 (6):371-a-372.
    The study of low penetrance gene variants in a complex genetic disorder such as stroke does not pose the same risks and benefits as a study of highly penetrant mutations.1 Because of the nature of their disease, however, stroke patients may not understand the information given when they are asked for consent to participate in research and are potentially vulnerable subjects. In a systematic review of publications on ischaemic stroke genetics, we assessed the way in which informed consent and ethics (...)
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  46. Studies in Scientific Realism.Stathis Psillos - 2001 - Foundations of Chemistry 3 (1):79-86.
    The recent debate around scientific realism has taken an epistemic turn. The issue is no longer whether theoretical discourse is or is not assertoric (truth-valuable), nor whether theoretical discourse can be reduced to observational discourse. All sides of the present debate have left behind traditional instrumentalism and reductive empiricism. Instead, they endorse semantic realism which suggests that theoretical discourse (that is, statements about theoretical entities) should be understood literally and be taken to be assertoric and irreducible. In this setting, (...)
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  47. Philosophical Controversies in the Evaluation of Medical Treatments : With a Focus on the Evidential Roles of Randomization and Mechanisms in Evidence-Based Medicine.Alexander Mebius - 2015 - Dissertation, KTH Royal Institute of Technology
    This thesis examines philosophical controversies surrounding the evaluation of medical treatments, with a focus on the evidential roles of randomised trials and mechanisms in Evidence-Based Medicine. Current 'best practice' usually involves excluding non-randomised trial evidence from systematic reviews in cases where randomised trials are available for inclusion in the reviews. The first paper challenges this practice and evaluates whether adding of evidence from non-randomised trials might improve the quality and precision of some systematic reviews. The second paper compares the alleged (...)
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  48.  25
    Informed Recruitment in Partner Studies of HIV Transmission: An Ethical Issue in Couples Research.Louise-Anne McNutt, Elisa J. Gordon & Anneli Uusküla - 2009 - BMC Medical Ethics 10 (1):14.
    Much attention has been devoted to ethical issues related to randomized controlled trials for HIV treatment and prevention. However, there has been less discussion of ethical issues surrounding families involved in observational studies of HIV transmission. This paper describes the process of ethical deliberation about how best to obtain informed consent from sex partners of injection drug users (IDUs) tested for HIV, within a recent HIV study in Eastern Europe. The study aimed to assess the amount of HIV (...)
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  49.  48
    Studies in the Empiricist Theory of Scientific Meaning.William W. Rozeboom - 1960 - Philosophy of Science 27 (4):359-373.
    Part I is concerned with the tenet of modern Emperical Realism that while the theoretical concepts employed in science obtain their meanings entirely from the connections their usage establishes with the data language, the referents of such terms may be "unobservables," that is, entities which cannot be discussed within the data language alone. Such a view avoids both the restrictive excesses of logical positivism and the epistemic laxity of transcendentalism; however, it also necessitates a break with classical semantics, for it (...)
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  50. Introspective Knowledge of Experience and its Role in Consciousness Studies.Jesse Butler - 2011 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 18 (2):128-145.
    In response to Petitmengin and Bitbol's recent account of first-person methodologies in the study of consciousness, I provide a revised model of our introspective knowledge of our own conscious experience. This model, which I call the existential constitution model of phenomenal knowledge, avoids the problems that Petitmengin and Bitbol identify with standard observational models of introspection while also avoiding an underlying metaphorical misconception in their own proximity model, which misconstrues first-person knowledge of consciousness in terms of a dichotomous epistemic (...)
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