Results for 'opacity'

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  1.  13
    Franqois Recanati.I. Opacity - 2000 - In Alex Orenstein & Petr Kotatko (eds.), Knowledge, Language and Logic: Questions for Quine. Dordrecht, Netherland: Kluwer Academic Print on Demand. pp. 210--367.
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  2. Dagfinn f0llesdal.Referential Opacity & Modal Logic - 1998 - In J. H. Fetzer & P. Humphreys (eds.), The New Theory of Reference: Kripke, Marcus, and its origins. Dordrecht, Netherland: Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 270--181.
  3.  48
    Opacity thought through: on the intransparency of computer simulations.Claus Beisbart - 2021 - Synthese 199 (3-4):11643-11666.
    Computer simulations are often claimed to be opaque and thus to lack transparency. But what exactly is the opacity of simulations? This paper aims to answer that question by proposing an explication of opacity. Such an explication is needed, I argue, because the pioneering definition of opacity by P. Humphreys and a recent elaboration by Durán and Formanek are too narrow. While it is true that simulations are opaque in that they include too many computations and thus (...)
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  4.  98
    The Opacity of Truth.Elia Zardini - 2015 - Topoi 34 (1):37-54.
    The paper offers a critical examination of a prominent, “quasi-deflationist” argument advanced in the contemporary debate on the semantic paradoxes against non-naive and non-transparent theories of truth. The argument claims that truth unrestrictedly fulfils certain expressive functions, and that its so doing requires the unrestricted validity of naivety and transparency principles. The paper criticises the quasi-deflationist argument by considering some kinds of cases in which transparency and naivety arguably fail. In some such cases truth still fulfils the relevant expressive functions (...)
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  5.  47
    Referential Opacity and Epistemic Logic.Saloua Chatti - 2011 - Logica Universalis 5 (2):225-247.
    Referential opacity is the failure of substitutivity of identity (SI, for short) and in Quine’s view of existential generalization (EG, for short) as well. Quine thinks that its “solution” in epistemic and doxastic contexts, which relies on the notion of exportation, leads to undesirable results. But epistemic logicians such as Jaakko Hintikka and Wolfgang Lenzen provide another solution based on a different diagnosis: opacity is not, as in Quine’s view, due to the absence of reference, it is rather (...)
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  6. Institutional Opacity, Epistemic Vulnerability, and Institutional Testimonial Justice.Carel Havi & Ian James Kidd - 2021 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 29 (4):473-496.
    ABSTRACT This paper offers an account of institutional testimonial justice and describes one way that it breaks down, which we call institutional opacity. An institution is opaque when it becomes resistant to epistemic evaluation and understanding by its agents and users. When one cannot understand the inner workings of an institution, it becomes difficult to know how to comport oneself testimonially. We offer an account of an institutional ethos to explain what it means for an institution to be testimonially (...)
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  7. AI, Opacity, and Personal Autonomy.Bram Vaassen - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (4):1-20.
    Advancements in machine learning have fuelled the popularity of using AI decision algorithms in procedures such as bail hearings, medical diagnoses and recruitment. Academic articles, policy texts, and popularizing books alike warn that such algorithms tend to be opaque: they do not provide explanations for their outcomes. Building on a causal account of transparency and opacity as well as recent work on the value of causal explanation, I formulate a moral concern for opaque algorithms that is yet to receive (...)
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  8.  33
    Opacity and the double life of singular propositions.Roberta Ballarin - 2012 - Journal of Applied Logic 10 (3):250-259.
    In this paper I analyze David Kaplan’s essay “Opacity”. In “Opacity” Kaplan attempts to dismiss Quine’s concerns about quantification across intensional (modal and intentional) operators. I argue that Kaplan succeeds in showing that quantification across intensional operators is logically coherent and that quantified modal logic is strictly speaking not committed to essentialism. However, I also argue that this is not in and of itself sufficient to support Kaplan’s more ambitious attempt to move beyond purely logical results and provide (...)
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  9.  47
    Opacity and cyclicity.Paul Kiparsky - manuscript
    Phonological opacity and paradigmatic effects (“synchronic analogy”) have long been of interest in relation to change, naturalness, and the phonology/morphology interface. Their investigation has now acquired a new urgency, because they call into question OT’s postulate that constraints are evaluated in parallel. Conceptually, parallelism is one of the basic and most interesting tenets of OT, and so there are good methodological reasons to try hard to save it in the face of such recalcitrant data. The price to be paid (...)
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  10. Inner Opacity. Nietzsche on Introspection and Agency.Mattia Riccardi - 2015 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 58 (3):221-243.
    Nietzsche believes that we do not know our own actions, nor their real motives. This belief, however, is but a consequence of his assuming a quite general skepticism about introspection. The main aim of this paper is to offer a reading of this last view, which I shall call the Inner Opacity (IO) view. In the first part of the paper I show that a strong motivation behind IO lies in Nietzsche’s claim that self-knowledge exploits the same set of (...)
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  11.  71
    The Opacity of Mind: An Integrative Theory of Self-Knowledge.Peter Carruthers - 2011 - Oxford, GB: Oxford University Press.
    Do we have introspective access to our own thoughts? Peter Carruthers challenges the consensus that we do: he argues that access to our own thoughts is always interpretive, grounded in perceptual awareness and sensory imagery. He proposes a bold new theory of self-knowledge, with radical implications for understanding of consciousness and agency.
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  12.  50
    Opacity respect, bureaucracy and philanthropy: A response to Nathan.Ian Carter - 2018 - European Journal of Political Theory 18 (4):541-552.
    In ‘Bureaucratic respectful equality’, Christopher Nathan puts forward two challenges for the author’s claim that basic equality can be grounded in a form of ‘opacity respect’ appropriately shown b...
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  13.  8
    Difficult Opacity: On Reading Difference.Kasia Mika-Bresolin - 2024 - Paragraph 47 (1):12-27.
    This article argues for a redefinition of difficulty in relation to the inextricable violence of modernity and examines the consecutive challenge to notions of understanding and interpretation — of a text, of language or of the other — that this repositioning brings. To this end, the article offers a nuanced rereading of Steiner’s canonical fourfold categorization of difficulty, in dialogue with, first, Édouard Glissant’s opacity and, second, Jonathan Pugh and David Chandler’s theorizations of ‘abyssal thought’, an approach emerging from (...)
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  14.  15
    Opacity.Chi-she Li - 2019 - Philosophy Today 63 (4):859-872.
    This essay explicates Édouard Glissant’s aesthetics of opacity in terms of its formation and significance. This theory comes into form in the historical condition of colonial alterity. In The Poetics of Relation, Glissant extrapolates opacity as the fundamental of aesthetics from such linguistic activities as creole languages and improvised stories found in the Caribbean islands. More than a postcolonial defense of identity alterity, opacity denotes the linguistic expression of material alterity. It means an involuntary flourishing of linguistically (...)
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  15.  14
    Opacity.Chi-she Li - 2019 - Philosophy Today 63 (4):859-872.
    This essay explicates Édouard Glissant’s aesthetics of opacity in terms of its formation and significance. This theory comes into form in the historical condition of colonial alterity. In The Poetics of Relation, Glissant extrapolates opacity as the fundamental of aesthetics from such linguistic activities as creole languages and improvised stories found in the Caribbean islands. More than a postcolonial defense of identity alterity, opacity denotes the linguistic expression of material alterity. It means an involuntary flourishing of linguistically (...)
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  16.  25
    The Opacity of Law: On the Hidden Impact of Experts’ Opinion on Legal Decision-making.Damiano Canale - 2021 - Law and Philosophy 40 (5):509-543.
    It is well known that experts’ opinion and testimony take on a decisive weight in judicial fact-finding, raising issues and perplexities that have long been under scholarly scrutiny. In this paper I argue that expert’s opinions have a much wider impact on legal decision-making. In particular, they may generate a problem that I will call ‘the opacity of law’. A legal text, such as a statute or regulation, becomes opaque if a legal authority is not able to grasp its (...)
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  17. Deep Learning Opacity in Scientific Discovery.Eamon Duede - 2023 - Philosophy of Science 90 (5):1089 - 1099.
    Philosophers have recently focused on critical, epistemological challenges that arise from the opacity of deep neural networks. One might conclude from this literature that doing good science with opaque models is exceptionally challenging, if not impossible. Yet, this is hard to square with the recent boom in optimism for AI in science alongside a flood of recent scientific breakthroughs driven by AI methods. In this paper, I argue that the disconnect between philosophical pessimism and scientific optimism is driven by (...)
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  18. Probabilistically coherent credences despite opacity.Christian List - forthcoming - Economics and Philosophy:1-10.
    Real human agents, even when they are rational by everyday standards, sometimes assign different credences to objectively equivalent statements, such as “George Orwell is a writer” and “Eric Arthur Blair is a writer”, or credences less than 1 to necessarily true statements, such as not-yet-proven theorems of arithmetic. Anna Mahtani calls this the phenomenon of “opacity” (a form of hyperintensionality). Opaque credences seem probabilistically incoherent, which goes against a key modelling assumption of probability theory. I sketch a modelling strategy (...)
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  19.  32
    On the Opacity of Deep Neural Networks.Anders Søgaard - forthcoming - Canadian Journal of Philosophy:1-16.
    Deep neural networks are said to be opaque, impeding the development of safe and trustworthy artificial intelligence, but where this opacity stems from is less clear. What are the sufficient properties for neural network opacity? Here, I discuss five common properties of deep neural networks and two different kinds of opacity. Which of these properties are sufficient for what type of opacity? I show how each kind of opacity stems from only one of these five (...)
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  20.  32
    The Opacity of Narrative.Peter Lamarque - 2014 - Rowman & Littlefield International.
    What is narrative? What is distinctive about the great literary narratives? In virtue of what is a narrative fictional or non-fictional? In this important new book Peter Lamarque, one of the leading philosophers of literature at work today, explores these and related questions to bring new clarity and insight to debates about narrative in philosophy, critical theory, and narratology.
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  21. Opacity and the attitudes.Francois Recanati - 2000 - In Alex Orenstein & Petr Kotatko (eds.), Knowledge, Language and Logic: Questions for Quine. Dordrecht, Netherland: Kluwer Academic Print on Demand. pp. 367--406.
  22.  27
    Opacity, Transparency, and the Paradox of the Accessibility Requirement.Julie Fontaine - 2015 - Philosophical Forum 46 (2):175-191.
    Key issues in epistemology for the most part have to do with epistemic values such as justification, truth, and knowledge—that is, values related to the epistemic status of our propositional attitudes, mental events, and states. However, another important issue that is worth examining is the extent to which a subject is in a position to evaluate the strength of her epistemic position. In this paper, I wish to emphasize two properties of our mental states that play a decisive part in (...)
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  23. The opacity of play: a reply to commentators.C. Thi Nguyen - 2021 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 48 (3):448-475.
    This is a reply to commentators in the Journal of the Philosophy of Sport's special issue symposium on GAMES: AGENCY AS ART. I respond to criticisms concerning the value of achievement play and striving play, the transparency and opacity of play, the artistic status of games, and many more.
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  24.  6
    Divining: ΥΔΩΡ, Opacity, and Thalean Considerations.D. M. Spitzer - 2021 - Research in Phenomenology 51 (3):426-447.
    Dowsing, water-witching, divining – the procedure seeks a flow or spring beneath the surface of earth. So too this inquiry attempts to locate and sound the meanings associated with the polestar of Thalean considerations, ὕδωρ, that course beneath the interpretative strata of an overly-familiar tradition grounded in the principles of clarity and intelligibility. If these principles are held in suspension, what meanings flow from the Thalean considerations of ὕδωρ? A twofold task guides this inquiry. First is to show opacity (...)
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  25. Opacity, coreference, and pronouns.Barbara Hall Partee - 1970 - Synthese 21 (3-4):359 - 385.
    The problem discussed here is to find a basis for a uniform treatment of the relation between pronouns and their antecedents, taking into account both linguists' and philosophers' approaches. The two main candidates would appear to be the linguists' notion of coreference and the philosophers' notion of pronouns as variables. The notion of coreference can be extended to many but not all cases where the antecedent is non-referential. The pronouns-as-variables approach appears to come closer to full generality, but there are (...)
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  26. Opacity.Francey Russell - 2022 - The Philosopher 110 (3):37-41.
  27.  10
    Referential Opacity and Modal Logic.Dagfinn Føllesdal - 1966 - New York: Routledge.
    First Published in 2004. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
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  28. Entitlement, opacity, and connection.Brad Majors & Sarah Sawyer - 2007 - In Sanford Goldberg (ed.), Internalism and externalism in semantics and epistemology. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 131.
    This paper looks at the debates between internalism and externalism in mind and epistemology. In each realm, internalists face what we call 'The Connection Problem', while externalists face what we call 'The Problem of Opacity'. We offer an integrated account of thought content and epistemic warrant that overcomes the problems. We then apply the framework to debates between internalists and externalists in metaethics.
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  29.  29
    Opacity.Mark Richard - 2005 - In Ernie Lepore & Barry C. Smith (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Language. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
    There seems to be a lot of opacity in our language. Quotation is opaque. The modal idioms are apparently opaque. Propositional attitude ascriptions seem opaque, as do the environments created by verbs such as ‘seeks’ and ‘fears’. Opacity raises a number of issues — first and foremost, whether there is such a thing. This article concentrates on the question of whether there is any opacity to be found in natural language, examining various reasons one might have for (...)
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  30.  84
    Kant on moral self‐opacity.Anastasia N. A. Berg - 2020 - European Journal of Philosophy 28 (3):567-585.
    It has been widely accepted that Kant holds the “Opacity Thesis,” the claim that we cannot know the ultimate grounds of our actions. Understood in this way, I shall argue, the Opacity Thesis is at odds with Kant's account of practical self-consciousness, according to which I act from the (always potentially conscious) representation of principles of action and that, in particular, in acting from duty I act in consciousness of the moral law's determination of my will. The (...) Thesis thus threatens to render acting from duty unintelligible. To diffuse the threat, I argue, first, that we need not attribute the Opacity Thesis to Kant. Kant's concern with the ubiquity of moral self-opacity does not imply the strong skeptical conclusion that knowledge of the grounds of one's action is impossible. Second, I show how moral self-opacity in cases of morally bad action emerges from the intrinsic inability of representing oneself, insofar as one is pursuing the indeterminate end of “happiness.” Thus, moral self-opacity does not undermine the will's self-consciousness but is born of it. (shrink)
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  31. Opacity.David Kaplan - 1989 - In Barbara Humphries (ed.), The Philosophy of W. V. Quine. Duke University Press. pp. 229-289.
  32. The Logic of Opacity.Andrew Bacon & Jeffrey Sanford Russell - 2017 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 99 (1):81-114.
    We explore the view that Frege's puzzle is a source of straightforward counterexamples to Leibniz's law. Taking this seriously requires us to revise the classical logic of quantifiers and identity; we work out the options, in the context of higher-order logic. The logics we arrive at provide the resources for a straightforward semantics of attitude reports that is consistent with the Millian thesis that the meaning of a name is just the thing it stands for. We provide models to show (...)
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  33. Classical Opacity.Michael Caie, Jeremy Goodman & Harvey Lederman - 2019 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 101 (3):524-566.
    Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, EarlyView.
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  34. Opacity, inexistence and intentionality.Anthony C. Genova - 1975 - Ratio (Misc.) 17 (December):237-246.
  35.  10
    The Development of Understanding Opacity in Preschoolers: A Transition From a Coarse- to Fine-Grained Understanding of Beliefs.Arkadiusz Gut, Maciej Haman, Oleg Gorbaniuk & Monika Chylińskia - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    Intensionality (or opacity) is a core property of mental representations and sometimes understanding opacity is claimed to be a part of children's theory of mind (evidenced with the false belief task). Children, however, pass the false belief task and the intensionality tasks at different ages (typically 4 vs. 5;1-6;11 years). According to two dominant interpretations, the two tests either require different conceptual resources or vary only in their executive or linguistic load. In two experiments, involving 120 children aged (...)
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  36.  61
    The Opacity of Law: On the Hidden Impact of Experts’ Opinion on Legal Decision-making.Damiano Canale - 2021 - Law and Philosophy 40 (5):509-543.
    It is well known that experts’ opinion and testimony take on a decisive weight in judicial fact-finding, raising issues and perplexities that have long been under scholarly scrutiny. In this paper I argue that expert’s opinions have a much wider impact on legal decision-making. In particular, they may generate a problem that I will call ‘the opacity of law’. A legal text, such as a statute or regulation, becomes opaque if a legal authority is not able to grasp its (...)
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  37.  17
    Opacity, obscurity, and the geometry of question-asking.Christina Boyce-Jacino & Simon DeDeo - 2020 - Cognition 196 (C):104071.
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  38.  10
    Referential Opacity and Modal Logic.Dagfinn Føllesdal - 1966 - New York: Routledge.
    This landmark dissertation provides a systematic introduction to systems of modal logic and stands as the first presentation of what have become central ideas in philosophy of language and metaphysics, from the 'new theory of reference' and non-linguistic necessity and essentialism to 'Kripke semantics'.
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  39.  44
    Opacity in Actual Belief Structures.Robert Ackermann - 1972 - Journal of Philosophy 69 (3):55.
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  40. Self-Knowledge and the Opacity Thesis in Kant’s Doctrine of Virtue.Aaron Halper - 2023 - Kantian Review 28 (2):185-200.
    Kant’s moral philosophy both enjoins the acquisition of self-knowledge as a duty, and precludes certain forms of its acquisition via what has become known as the Opacity Thesis. This article looks at several recent attempts to solve this difficulty and argues that they are inadequate. I argue instead that the Opacity Thesis rules out only the knowledge that one has acted from genuine moral principles, but does not apply in cases of moral failure. The duty of moral self-knowledge (...)
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  41.  30
    Social Opacity and the Dynamics of Empathic In‐Sight among the Tzotzil Maya of Chiapas, Mexico.Kevin P. Groark - 2008 - Ethos: Journal of the Society for Psychological Anthropology 36 (4):427-448.
  42.  68
    Referential opacity and false belief in the theaetetus.C. J. F. Williams - 1972 - Philosophical Quarterly 22 (89):289-302.
  43.  33
    Referential opacity.Alan Reeves - 1971 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 49 (3):271 – 289.
  44. Referential opacity and modal logic.Dagfinn Føllesdal - 1966 - New York: Routledge.
    This landmark work provides a systematic introduction to systems of modal logic and stands as the first presentation of what have become central ideas in philosophy of language and metaphysics, from the "new theory of reference" and non-linguistic necessity and essentialism to "Kripke semantics.".
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  45.  68
    Opacity and Identity.J. M. Bell - 1970 - Analysis 31 (1):19 - 24.
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  46.  25
    The Opacity of Tridence.John Woods - 1967 - Analysis 28 (2):43 - 48.
  47.  91
    Transparency and the Mindfulness Opacity Hypothesis.Victor Lange & Thor Grünbaum - 2024 - Philosophical Quarterly 74 (3):822-843.
    Many philosophers endorse the Transparency Thesis, the claim that by introspection one cannot become aware of one's experience. Recently, some authors have suggested that the Transparency Thesis is challenged by introspective states reached under mindfulness. We label this the Mindfulness Opacity Hypothesis. The present paper develops the hypothesis in important new ways. First, we motivate the hypothesis by drawing on recent clinical psychology and cognitive science of mindfulness. Secondly, we develop the hypothesis by describing the implied shift in experiential (...)
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  48.  39
    Opacity and discourse referents: Object identity and object properties.Manuel Sprung, Josef Perner & Peter Mitchell - 2007 - Mind and Language 22 (3):215–245.
    It has been found that children appreciate the limited substitutability of co-referential terms in opaque contexts a year or two after they pass false belief tasks (e.g. Apperly and Robinson, 1998, 2001, 2003). This paper aims to explain this delay. Three- to six-year-old children were tested with stories where a protagonist was either only partially informed or had a false belief about a particular object. Only a few children had problems predicting the protagonist’s action based on his partial knowledge, when (...)
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  49.  72
    Mind and opacity.Peter Simons - 1995 - Dialectica 49 (2-4):131-46.
    Where there is mind there is representational opacity, and vice versa. Opacity arises because where there is representation there may be misrepresentation, and the status of the misrepresenting sign or state of the misrepresenting sign‐user can only be characterized via the terms used for a correctly represented object. Opacity is not a blight for naturalism, but must be recognized and exploited if naturalism is to adequately embrace the mental. Opacity is illustrated for language, for the mental (...)
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  50.  4
    Opacity in Open Air: Producing Queer Outsides through Glissant’s Poetics of Relation.M. Garea Albarrán - 2024 - Krisis 44 (1):37-51.
    This essay provides a queer reading of Édouard Glissant’s critique of Western metaphysics as presented in his 1990 work Poetics of Relation. Glissant’s text is interpreted as offering conceptual tools for understanding the production of an outside of the gender binary, as well as for a critique of the naturalisation of the bourgeois framework underlying queer visibility and inclusion as political ends. Based on the self-transgressive character shared by the notions of Relation and queerness, it is further argued that both (...)
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