Results for 'open science'

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  1. Believing Where We Cannot Prove.I. Opening Moves - 1980 - In Elmer Daniel Klemke, Robert Hollinger, David Wÿss Rudge & A. David Kline (eds.), Introductory readings in the philosophy of science. Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books. pp. 76.
     
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  2.  44
    “Editing” Genes: A Case Study About How Language Matters in Bioethics.Meaghan O'Keefe, Sarah Perrault, Jodi Halpern, Lisa Ikemoto, Mark Yarborough & U. C. North Bioethics Collaboratory for Life & Health Sciences - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (12):3-10.
    Metaphors used to describe new technologies mediate public understanding of the innovations. Analyzing the linguistic, rhetorical, and affective aspects of these metaphors opens the range of issues available for bioethical scrutiny and increases public accountability. This article shows how such a multidisciplinary approach can be useful by looking at a set of texts about one issue, the use of a newly developed technique for genetic modification, CRISPRcas9.
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  3. Open Science, Open Data, and Open Scholarship: European Policies to Make Science Fit for the Twenty-First Century.Rene Von Schomberg, Jean-Claude Burgelman, Corina Pascu, Kataezyna Szkuta, Athanasios Karalopoulos, Konstantinos Repanas & Michel Schouppe - 2019 - Frontiers in Big Data 2:43.
    Open science will make science more efficient, reliable, and responsive to societal challenges. The European Commission has sought to advance open science policy from its inception in a holistic and integrated way, covering all aspects of the research cycle from scientific discovery and review to sharing knowledge, publishing, and outreach. We present the steps taken with a forward-looking perspective on the challenges laying ahead, in particular the necessary change of the rewards and incentives system for (...)
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  4.  6
    Open science in China: Openness, economy, freedom & innovation.Xiyuan Zhang, Stefan Reindl, Hongjun Tian, Minghan Gou, Ruijie Song, Taoran Zhao, Liz Jackson & Petar Jandrić - 2023 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 55 (4):432-445.
    Taking credit for digitalization and platformization, China has initiated its open science infrastructure implementation and made an effort to focus on open access (OA) journals and data sharing over the past two decades. With the continuous development need, issues and concerns have caught in attention, including data accessibility, research transparency, general population awareness and communication of science, public trust in science, and scientific research and innovation efficiency. This paper has unfolded the maze of open (...)
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  5. Open science, data sharing and solidarity: who benefits?Ciara Staunton, Carlos Andrés Barragán, Stefano Canali, Calvin Ho, Sabina Leonelli, Matthew Mayernik, Barbara Prainsack & Ambroise Wonkham - 2021 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 43 (4):1-8.
    Research, innovation, and progress in the life sciences are increasingly contingent on access to large quantities of data. This is one of the key premises behind the “open science” movement and the global calls for fostering the sharing of personal data, datasets, and research results. This paper reports on the outcomes of discussions by the panel “Open science, data sharing and solidarity: who benefits?” held at the 2021 Biennial conference of the International Society for the History, (...)
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  6.  42
    Open Science and Epistemic Diversity: Friends or Foes?Sabina Leonelli - 2022 - Philosophy of Science 89 (5):991-1001.
    I argue that Open Science as currently conceptualized and implemented does not take sufficient account of epistemic diversity within research. I use three case studies to exemplify how Open Science threatens to privilege some forms of inquiry over others, thus exasperating divides within and across systems of practice, and overlooking important sources and forms of epistemic diversity. Building on insights from pluralist philosophy, I then identify four aspects of diverse research practices that should serve as reference (...)
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  7. Open Science and Intellectual Property Rights. How can they better interact? State of the art and reflections. Report of Study. European Commission.Javier de la Cueva & Eva Méndez - 2022 - Brussels: European Commission.
    Open science (OS) is considered the new paradigm for science and knowledge dissemination. OS fosters cooperative work and new ways of distributing knowledge by promoting effective data sharing (as early and broadly as possible) and a dynamic exchange of research outcomes, not only publications. On the other hand, intellectual property (IP) legislation seeks to balance the moral and economic rights of creators and inventors with the wider interests and needs of society. Managing knowledge outcomes in a new (...)
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  8.  13
    Open Science por defecto. La nueva normalidad para la investigación.Eva Méndez - 2021 - Arbor 197 (799):a587.
    Este trabajo aborda el nuevo paradigma de la Open Science o ciencia en abierto desde la perspectiva europea, pero destacando su necesario alcance global. Se analiza el concepto, origen y evolución de la Open Science y se discuten sus retos y la demora de su completa implementación. Se parte de la hipótesis de que la Open Science debería de ser el paradigma de comunicación científico por defecto en el siglo XXI. En primer lugar, se (...)
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  9. New Frontiers in Translational Research: Touchscreens, Open Science, and the Mouse Translational Research Accelerator Platform (MouseTRAP).Jacqueline Anne Sullivan - 2021 - Genes, Brain and Behavior 20 (1):e12705.
    Many neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases and other brain disorders are accompanied by impairments in high-level cognitive functions including memory, attention, motivation, and decision-making. Despite several decades of extensive research, neuroscience is little closer to discovering new treatments. Key impediments include the absence of validated and robust cognitive assessment tools for facilitating translation from animal models to humans. In this review, we describe a state-of-the-art platform poised to overcome these impediments and improve the success of translational research, the Mouse Translational Research (...)
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  10.  61
    Open Science, Philosophy and Peer Review.Michael A. Peters - 2014 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 46 (3):215-219.
  11.  5
    Open Science: The Very Idea.Frank Miedema - 2021 - Springer Verlag.
    This open access book provides a broad context for the understanding of current problems of science and of the different movements aiming to improve the societal impact of science and research. The author offers insights with regard to ideas, old and new, about science, and their historical origins in philosophy and sociology of science, which is of interest to a broad readership. The book shows that scientifically grounded knowledge is required and helpful in understanding intellectual (...)
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  12.  22
    Open Science for Non-Specialists: Making Open Science Meaningful Beyond the Scientific Community.Kevin C. Elliott - 2022 - Philosophy of Science 89 (5):1013-1023.
    A major goal of the open science movement is to make more scientific information available to non-specialists, but it has been difficult to meaningfully achieve that goal. In response, this paper argues for two steps: (1) focusing on the scientific content that is most relevant to non-specialist audiences; and (2) packaging that content in meaningful ways for those audiences. The paper uses a case study involving a major environmental health issue (namely, PFAS pollution) to illustrate how the proponents (...)
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  13.  26
    Editorial: Open Science and Ethics.Marcus Düwell - 2019 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 22 (5):1051-1053.
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  14.  20
    How Does One “OpenScience? Questions of Value in Biological Research.Sabina Leonelli & Nadine Levin - 2017 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 42 (2):280-305.
    Open Science policies encourage researchers to disclose a wide range of outputs from their work, thus codifying openness as a specific set of research practices and guidelines that can be interpreted and applied consistently across disciplines and geographical settings. In this paper, we argue that this “one-size-fits-all” view of openness sidesteps key questions about the forms, implications, and goals of openness for research practice. We propose instead to interpret openness as a dynamic and highly situated mode of valuing (...)
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  15.  14
    Towards Open Science: The Precariat as a Subject of Scientific Creativity.Natalia N. Voronina & Artem M. Feigelman - 2022 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 59 (3):46-54.
    In this reply to the article by I.T. Kasavin “Creativity as a social phenomenon” the authors discuss the possibilities of the scientific precariat as a free creative class, which having entered the scientific community, will give it a new creative potential. The authors express some doubts that such a merger will preserve precariat's special creative spirit. The article draws attention to the diversity in understanding the nature, goals and values of creativity. The specificity of understanding creativity in the scientific community (...)
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    Where Does Open Science Lead Us During a Pandemic? A Public Good Argument to Prioritize Rights in the Open Commons.Benjamin Capps - 2021 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 30 (1):11-24.
    During the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic, open science has become central to experimental, public health, and clinical responses across the globe. Open science is described as an open commons, in which a right to science renders all possible scientific data for everyone to access and use. In this common space, capitalist platforms now provide many essential services and are taking the lead in public health activities. These neoliberal businesses, however, have a problematic role in the (...)
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  17.  14
    Open Science and Closed Science: Tradeoffs in a Democracy.Daryl E. Chubin - 1985 - Science, Technology and Human Values 10 (2):73-80.
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  18.  2
    Open Science Within Pediatric Medical and Mental Health Systems: Practical Considerations for Behavioral Health Researchers.Robyn E. Metcalfe - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13.
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  19.  16
    Open science: Friend, foe, or both to an antiracist psychology?Milton A. Fuentes, David G. Zelaya, Edward A. Delgado-Romero & Mamona Butt - 2023 - Psychological Review 130 (5):1351-1359.
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    Perception of Open Science in the Scientific Community of the Republic of Moldova.Nelly Turcan, Gheorghe Cuciureanu, Rodica Cujba, Viorica Lupu, Natalia Cheradi & Igor Cojocaru - 2022 - Postmodern Openings 13 (4):294-334.
    Open Science becomes the basic concept in organizing and conducting the research and development process. The opening of the process of research and communication of science is supported and promoted both at the international level and at the national level in many countries through science policies and actions. At present, no Open Science policy is approved at the national level in the Republic of Moldova, but there are actions, undertaken by various organizations or within (...)
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  21. Full Throttle: COVID-19 Open Science to Build Planetary Public Goods.Rene Von Schomberg & Vural Ozdemir - 2020 - Omics: A Journal of Integrative Biology 24:1-3.
    this article makes the case that the rationale of open science and responsible innovation will help to build public planetary goods: the necessity of this rationale is illustrated on the COViD-19 case.
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  22.  9
    Consolidating RRI and Open Science: understanding the potential for transformative change.Rune Nydal, Mads Dahl Gjefsen & Clare Shelley-Egan - 2020 - Life Sciences, Society and Policy 16 (1):1-14.
    In European research and innovation policy, Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) and Open Science (OS) encompass two co-existing sets of ambitions concerning systemic change in the practice of research and innovation. This paper is an exploratory attempt to uncover synergies and differences between RRI and OS, by interrogating what motivates their respective transformative agendas. We offer two storylines that account for the specific contexts and dynamics from which RRI and OS have emerged, which in turn offer entrance points (...)
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  23.  11
    Science Artisans and Open Science Hardware.Denisa Kera - 2017 - Bulletin of Science, Technology and Society 37 (2):97-111.
    Open science hardware (OSH) are prototypes of laboratory instruments that use open source hardware to extend the purely epistemic (improving knowledge about nature) and normative (improving society) ideals of science and emphasize the importance of technology. They remind us of Zilsel’s 1942 thesis about the artisanal origins of science and instrument making that bridged disciplinary and social barriers in the 16th century. The emphasis on making, tinkering, and design transcends research, reproducibility, and corroboration in (...) and pushes to the forefront educational, emancipatory, and aesthetic and exploratory uses. I will use two recent projects, OpenDrop electrowetting platform and Open Source Estrogen that make but also reflect OSH’s playful, expressive, and performative strategies and define the present practices as “artisanal science.” These hybrid and ambiguous practices bridge divides between present disciplines and skills but they also define science as an everyday activity directly connected to the private and public interests of the citizens. To describe this epistemic and normative ambiguity of artisanal science, I employ Hannah Arendt’s 1958 critique of homo laborans and homo faber and claim that science artisans (citizen scientists, geeks, makers, and hackers) offer an alternative to professionalization of science as practiced in the university and R&D laboratories. Science artisans design and build instruments to engage in civic “vita activa” over instruments but also leisurely “otium” outside of the work and science labor. OSH in this sense empowers individuals and communities to explore new connections between scientific practices, public actions, and private interests (leisure). The science artisans strive for and explore sovereignty, dignity, and freedom in an age immersed in science and technology controversies by bridging the divides between art, science, engineering, and humanities. (shrink)
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  24.  28
    Big data, open science and the brain: lessons learned from genomics.Suparna Choudhury, Jennifer R. Fishman, Michelle L. McGowan & Eric T. Juengst - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  25.  8
    Beyond data sharing in open science.Carl J. Sciglitano - 2024 - Metascience 33 (1):119-122.
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    Biobanks: patents or open science?Antonella De Robbio - 2012 - Oxford: Woodhead Publishing.
    Biobanks represent an invaluable research tool and, as a result of their intrinsic and extrinsic nature, may be looked upon as archives or repositories largely made up of libraries, or collections of content where the content is the biological material derived from different individuals or species, representing valuable tangible assets. Biobanks analyses aspects of the commons and common intellectual property relating to the concepts of private property, not only concerning data but biological materials as well, and the advantages and disadvantages (...)
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  27.  27
    Whose Commons? Data Protection as a Legal Limit of Open Science.Mark Phillips & Bartha M. Knoppers - 2019 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 47 (1):106-111.
    Open science has recently gained traction as establishment institutions have come on-side and thrown their weight behind the movement and initiatives aimed at creation of information commons. At the same time, the movement's traditional insistence on unrestricted dissemination and reuse of all information of scientific value has been challenged by the movement to strengthen protection of personal data. This article assesses tensions between open science and data protection, with a focus on the GDPR.
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  28.  17
    Open Access, Open Science, and Coronavirus: Mega trends with historical proportions.Dima Jamali, Ralf Barkemeyer, Jennifer Leigh & Georges Samara - 2020 - Business Ethics: A European Review 29 (3):419-421.
    Business Ethics: A European Review, EarlyView.
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    Addressing exploitation and inequities in open science: A relational perspective.Cornelius Ewuoso, Luís Cordeiro-Rodrigues, Ambroise Wonkam & Jantina Vries - 2023 - Developing World Bioethics 23 (4):331-343.
    There are concerns that participation in open science will lead to various forms of exploitation – of researchers and scholars in low-income countries and under-resourced institutions. This article defends a contrary thesis and demonstrates the exact ways the underexplored notions of communal relationships, human dignity and social justice – and the normative principles to which they give rise – grounded in African philosophy can usefully address critical concerns regarding exploitation in the sharing of research resources to facilitate (...) partnership/collaboration and reuse. Further research is required to study the specific roles different institutions can play in facilitating open practice and contribute towards establishing effective structures that can enhance equity and balance unfavourable power asymmetries. (shrink)
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  30.  18
    Addressing exploitation and inequities in open science: A relational perspective.Cornelius Ewuoso, Luís Cordeiro-Rodrigues, Ambroise Wonkam & Jantina Vries - 2023 - Developing World Bioethics 23 (4):331-343.
    There are concerns that participation in open science will lead to various forms of exploitation – of researchers and scholars in low-income countries and under-resourced institutions. This article defends a contrary thesis and demonstrates the exact ways the underexplored notions of communal relationships, human dignity and social justice – and the normative principles to which they give rise – grounded in African philosophy can usefully address critical concerns regarding exploitation in the sharing of research resources to facilitate (...) partnership/collaboration and reuse. Further research is required to study the specific roles different institutions can play in facilitating open practice and contribute towards establishing effective structures that can enhance equity and balance unfavourable power asymmetries. (shrink)
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  31.  12
    Addressing exploitation and inequities in open science: A relational perspective.Cornelius Ewuoso, Luís Cordeiro-Rodrigues, Ambroise Wonkam & Jantina de Vries - 2023 - Developing World Bioethics 23 (4):331-343.
    There are concerns that participation in open science will lead to various forms of exploitation – of researchers and scholars in low‐income countries and under‐resourced institutions. This article defends a contrary thesis and demonstrates the exact ways the underexplored notions of communal relationships, human dignity and social justice – and the normative principles to which they give rise – grounded in African philosophy can usefully address critical concerns regarding exploitation in the sharing of research resources to facilitate (...) partnership/collaboration and reuse. Further research is required to study the specific roles different institutions can play in facilitating open practice and contribute towards establishing effective structures that can enhance equity and balance unfavourable power asymmetries. (shrink)
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  32.  14
    How Do Scientists Define Openness? Exploring the Relationship Between Open Science Policies and Research Practice.John Dupré, David Castle, Dagmara Weckowska, Sabina Leonelli & Nadine Levin - 2016 - Bulletin of Science, Technology and Society 36 (2):128-141.
    This article documents how biomedical researchers in the United Kingdom understand and enact the idea of “openness.” This is of particular interest to researchers and science policy worldwide in view of the recent adoption of pioneering policies on Open Science and Open Access by the U.K. government—policies whose impact on and implications for research practice are in need of urgent evaluation, so as to decide on their eventual implementation elsewhere. This study is based on 22 in-depth (...)
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  33.  16
    How to Crack Pre-registration: Toward Transparent and Open Science.Yuki Yamada - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
  34. The Perils of "Open Science": How Radical and How Many? [REVIEW]Simon Høffding - 2017 - Constructivist Foundations 13 (1):72-73.
    I ask exactly how “open” we should be in “opening up cognitive science” and how many scientists should embrace the radical openness Martiny advocates. I suggest that the most fruitful realization of Martiny’s vision would consist in the creation of research groups with a balance between scholars of singular disciplines and transdisciplinary cognitive scientists.
     
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  35. Open data, open review and open dialogue in making social sciences plausible.Quan-Hoang Vuong - 2017 - Nature: Scientific Data Updates 2017.
    Nowadays, protecting trust in social sciences also means engaging in open community dialogue, which helps to safeguard robustness and improve efficiency of research methods. The combination of open data, open review and open dialogue may sound simple but implementation in the real world will not be straightforward. However, in view of Begley and Ellis’s (2012) statement that, “the scientific process demands the highest standards of quality, ethics and rigour,” they are worth implementing. More importantly, they are (...)
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  36.  2
    Beyond data sharing in open science[REVIEW]Carl J. Sciglitano - 2023 - Metascience 2023 (1):1-4.
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  37.  39
    Automatic sleep spindle detection: benchmarking with fine temporal resolution using open science tools.Christian O'Reilly & Tore Nielsen - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
  38. Open data, open review and open dialogue in making social sciences plausible.Quan-Hoang Vuong - 2017 - Scientific Data 4.
    A growing awareness of the lack of reproducibility has undermined society’s trust and esteem in social sciences. In some cases, well-known results have been fabricated or the underlying data have turned out to have weak technical foundations.
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  39.  12
    Die Zukunft der Indikatoren für Forschungsbewertung und „offene Wissenschaft“/Open Science. Ein Plädoyer für einen Verzicht auf der Verwendung quantitativer Metriken.René von Schomberg - 2023 - In Julia Mörtel, Alfred Nordmann & Oliver Schlaudt (eds.), Indikatoren in Entscheidungsprozessen: Stärken und strukturelle Schwächen. Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden. pp. 91-100.
    In dem gegenwärtig erwünschten Übergang zu einer offenen Wissenschaft ist es nicht mehr angebracht, Wissenschaftler auf ihre quantitative publizistische Produktivität zu reduzieren. Dieser Artikel macht den Vorschlag, die Wissenschaftler qualitativ auf der Grundlage ihres Forschungsverhaltens im Sinne eines frühzeitigen Teilens von Daten und Wissen und ihres qualitativen Beitrags für eine Forschungsmission zu bewerten. Dies kann dazu beitragen, die Wissenschaft im Ganzen produktiver zu gestalten.
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  40.  13
    New Steps on the Way to Open Science.Beth Brait, Maria Helena Cruz Pistori, Bruna Lopes Dugnani, Paulo Rogério Stella & Carlos Gontijo Rosa - 2023 - Bakhtiniana 18 (1):2-7.
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  41. An open database of productivity in Vietnam's social sciences and humanities for public use.Quan-Hoang Vuong, Viet-Phuong La, Thu-Trang Vuong, Manh-Toan Ho, Hong K. T. Nguyen, Viet-Ha T. Nguyen, Hiep-Hung Pham & Manh-Tung Ho - 2018 - Scientific Data (Nature) 5 (180188):1-15.
    This study presents a description of an open database on scientific output of Vietnamese researchers in social sciences and humanities, one that corrects for the shortcomings in current research publication databases such as data duplication, slow update, and a substantial cost of doing science. Here, using scientists’ self-reports, open online sources and cross-checking with Scopus database, we introduce a manual system and its semi-automated version of the database on the profiles of 657 Vietnamese researchers in social sciences (...)
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  42.  17
    Openness and trust in data-intensive science: the case of biocuration.Ane Møller Gabrielsen - 2020 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 23 (3):497-504.
    Data-intensive science comes with increased risks concerning quality and reliability of data, and while trust in science has traditionally been framed as a matter of scientists being expected to adhere to certain technical and moral norms for behaviour, emerging discourses of open science present openness and transparency as substitutes for established trust mechanisms. By ensuring access to all available information, quality becomes a matter of informed judgement by the users, and trust no longer seems necessary. This (...)
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  43.  15
    When open data is a Trojan Horse: The weaponization of transparency in science and governance.David Merritt Johns & Karen E. C. Levy - 2016 - Big Data and Society 3 (1).
    Openness and transparency are becoming hallmarks of responsible data practice in science and governance. Concerns about data falsification, erroneous analysis, and misleading presentation of research results have recently strengthened the call for new procedures that ensure public accountability for data-driven decisions. Though we generally count ourselves in favor of increased transparency in data practice, this Commentary highlights a caveat. We suggest that legislative efforts that invoke the language of data transparency can sometimes function as “Trojan Horses” through which other (...)
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  44. Cognitive science and epistemic openness.Michael L. Anderson - 2006 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 5 (2):125-154.
    b>. Recent findings in cognitive science suggest that the epistemic subject is more complex and epistemically porous than is generally pictured. Human knowers are open to the world via multiple channels, each operating for particular purposes and according to its own logic. These findings need to be understood and addressed by the philosophical community. The current essay argues that one consequence of the new findings is to invalidate certain arguments for epistemic anti-realism.
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  45.  10
    Open-minded Environmental Education in the Science Classroom.David P. Burns & Stephen P. Norris - 2009 - Paideusis: Journal of the Canadian Philosophy of Education Society 18 (1):36-43.
    In this paper we will discuss the issue of environmental advocacy in science education in light of William Hare’s concept of open-mindedness. Although we shall assume that science teaching and learning must go beyond the scientific facts and theories and deal with the implications of science for society, we shall argue that science education should also demand an open-mindedness about environmental concerns such that all proposals for sustainability and the like are weighed against the (...)
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  46.  17
    Science and the open society: the future of Karl Popper's philosophy.Mark Amadeus Notturno - 2000 - New York, N.Y.: Central European University Press.
    A Clearly argued and easy to read defense of Karl Popper's philosophy.
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  47.  5
    Openness and Secrecy in Science: Some Notes on Early History.Ernan McMullin - 1985 - Science, Technology and Human Values 10 (2):14-22.
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  48. Open Problems in DAOs: Political Science and Philosophy.Eliza R. Oak, Woojin Lim, Danielle Allen & Helene Landemore - 2023 - Arxiv.
    Decentralized autonomous organizations (DAOs) are a new, rapidly-growing class of organizations governed by smart contracts. Here we describe how researchers can contribute to the emerging science of DAOs and other digitally-constituted organizations. From granular privacy primitives to mechanism designs to model laws, we identify high-impact problems in the DAO ecosystem where existing gaps might be tackled through a new data set or by applying tools and ideas from existing research fields such as political science, computer science, economics, (...)
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  49.  8
    Science as a commodity: threats to the open community of scholars.Michael Gibbons & Björn Wittrock (eds.) - 1985 - Harlow, Essex, UK: Longman.
  50.  18
    The governance of science: ideology and the future of the open society.Steve Fuller - 2000 - Philadelphia: Open University Press.
    This ground-breaking text offers a fresh perspective on the governance of science from the standpoint of social and political theory. Science has often been seen as the only institution that embodies the elusive democratic ideal of the 'open society'. Yet, science remains an elite activity that commands much more public trust than understanding, even though science has become increasingly entangled with larger political and economic issues.
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