Results for 'organisms as machines'

982 found
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  1.  33
    OrganismsMachines.Daniel Nicholson - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (4):669-678.
    The machine conception of the organism (MCO) is one of the most pervasive notions in modern biology. However, it has not yet received much attention by philosophers of biology. The MCO has its origins in Cartesian natural philosophy, and it is based on the metaphorical redescription of the organism as a machine. In this paper I argue that although organisms and machines resemble each other in some basic respects, they are actually very different kinds of systems. I submit (...)
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  2. The Mismeasure of Machine: Synthetic Biology and the Trouble with Engineering Metaphors.Maarten Boudry & Massimo Pigliucci - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences (4):660-668.
    The scientific study of living organisms is permeated by machine and design metaphors. Genes are thought of as the ‘‘blueprint’’ of an organism, organisms are ‘‘reverse engineered’’ to discover their func- tionality, and living cells are compared to biochemical factories, complete with assembly lines, transport systems, messenger circuits, etc. Although the notion of design is indispensable to think about adapta- tions, and engineering analogies have considerable heuristic value (e.g., optimality assumptions), we argue they are limited in several important (...)
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  3.  43
    Kant Vs. Leibniz in the Second Antinomy: Organisms Are Not Infinitely Subtle Machines.Philippe Huneman - 2014 - Kant-Studien 105 (2):155-195.
    This paper interprets the two pages devoted in the Critique of Pure Reason to a critique of Leibniz’s view of organisms as infinitely organized machines. It argues that this issue of organisms represents a crucial test-case for Kant in regard to the conflicting notions of space, continuity and divisibility held by classical metaphysics and by criticism. I first present Leibniz’s doctrine and its justification. In a second step, I explain the general reasoning by which Kant defines the (...)
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  4.  15
    A Biosemiotic Note on Organisms, Animals, Machines, Cyborgs, and the Quasi-Autonomy of Robots.Claus Emmeche - 2007 - Pragmatics and Cognition 15 (3):455-483.
    It is argued in this paper that robots are just quasi-autonomous beings, which must be understood, within an emergent systems view, as intrinsically linked to and presupposing human beings as societal creatures within a technologically mediated world. Biosemiotics is introduced as a perspective on living systems that is based upon contemporary biology but reinterpreted through a qualitative organicist tradition in biology. This allows for emphasizing the differences between an organism as a general semiotic system with vegetative and self-reproductive capacities, an (...)
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  5. A Biosemiotic Note On Organisms, Animals, Machines, Cyborgs, And The Quasi-Autonomy Of Robots.Claus Emmeche - 2007 - Radical Philosophy Review of Books 15 (3):455-483.
    It is argued in this paper that robots are just quasi-autonomous beings, which must be understood, within an emergent systems view, as intrinsically linked to and presupposing human beings as societal creatures within a technologically mediated world. Biosemiotics is introduced as a perspective on living systems that is based upon contemporary biology but reinterpreted through a qualitative organicist tradition in biology. This allows for emphasizing the differences between an organism as a general semiotic system with vegetative and self-reproductive capacities, an (...)
     
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  6. Organisms as Persisters.Subrena E. Smith - 2017 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 9 (14).
    This paper addresses the question of what organisms are and therefore what kinds of biological entities qualify as organisms. For some time now, the concept of organismality has been eclipsed by the notion of individuality. Biological individuals are those systems that are units of selection. I develop a conception of organismality that does not rely on evolutionary considerations, but instead draws on development and ecology. On this account, organismality and individuality can come apart. Organisms, in my view, (...)
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  7.  8
    Model Organisms as Simulators: The Context of Cross-Species Research and Emergence.Sim-Hui Tee - forthcoming - Axiomathes:1-20.
    Model organisms are a living form of scientific models. Despite the widespread use of model organisms in scientific research, the actual representational relationship between model organisms and their target species is often poorly characterized in the context of cross-species research. Many model organisms do not represent the target species adequately, let alone accurately. This is partly due to the complex and emergent life phenomena in the organism, and partly due to the fact that a model organism (...)
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  8. Model Organisms as Models: Understanding the 'Lingua Franca' of the Human Genome Project.Rachel A. Ankeny - 2001 - Proceedings of the Philosophy of Science Association 2001 (3):S251-.
    Through an examination of the actual research strategies and assumptions underlying the Human Genome Project (HGP), it is argued that the epistemic basis of the initial model organism programs is not best understood as reasoning via causal analog models (CAMs). In order to answer a series of questions about what is being modeled and what claims about the models are warranted, a descriptive epistemological method is employed that uses historical techniques to develop detailed accounts which, in turn, help to reveal (...)
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  9.  60
    Organisms as Natural Purposes: The Contemporary Evolutionary Perspective.D. M. Walsh - 2006 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 37 (4):771-791.
    I argue that recent advances in developmental biology demonstrate the inadequacy of suborganismal mechanism. The category of the organism, construed as a ’natural purpose’ should play an ineliminable role in explaining ontogenetic development and adaptive evolution. According to Kant the natural purposiveness of organisms cannot be demonstrated to be an objective principle in nature, nor can purposiveness figure in genuine explain. I attempt to argue, by appeal to recent work on self-organization, that the purposiveness of organisms is a (...)
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  10.  9
    Model Organisms as Models: Understanding the 'Lingua Franca' of the Human Genome Project.Rachel A. Ankeny - 2001 - Philosophy of Science 68 (S3):S251-S261.
    Through an examination of the actual research strategies and assumptions underlying the Human Genome Project, it is argued that the epistemic basis of the initial model organism programs is not best understood as reasoning via causal analog models. In order to answer a series of questions about what is being modeled and what claims about the models are warranted, a descriptive epistemological method is employed that uses historical techniques to develop detailed accounts which, in turn, help to reveal forms of (...)
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  11.  9
    Isolation, Contamination, and Pure Culture: Monomorphism and Polymorphism of Pathogenic Micro-Organisms as Research Problem 1860-1880.Christoph Gradmann - 2001 - Perspectives on Science 9 (2):147-172.
    : This article analyzes German debates on the microbiology of infectious diseases from 1865 to 1875 and asks how and when organic pollution in tissues became noteworthy for aetiology and pathogenesis. It was with Ernst Hallier's pleomorphistic microbiology that the organic character of alien material in tissues came to be regarded as important for pathology. The process that followed saw both vigorous biological critique and a number of medical applications of Hallier's work. Around 1874 contemporaries reached the conclusion that pleomorphous (...)
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  12.  2
    Machines Finies Et Machines Infinies Chez Leibniz.Daniel Schulthess - 1999 - In Dominique Berlioz & Frédéric Nef (eds.), L'actualité de Leibniz: les deux labyrinthes (Studia leibnitiana, Supplementa 34). Stuttgart: F. Steiner. pp. p.633-642..
    The article develops the conception that Leibniz has of organisms as machines of a particular type, differing from artificial machines because 1. all the parts of an organic machine are in turn composed by smaller machines and thus to infinity; and 2. the maintenance of the individual identity in living machines is provided by the fact that they have folds going to infinity which can unfold and fold back, thus allowing infinite transformations of the body. (...)
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  13.  18
    Individuality as a Theoretical Scheme. II. About the Weak Individuality of Organisms and Ecosystems.Philippe Huneman - 2014 - Biological Theory 9 (4):374-381.
    Following a previous elaboration of the concept of weak individuality and some examples of its instances in ecology and biology, the article focuses on general features of the concept, arguing that in any ontological field individuals are understood on the basis of our knowledge of interactions, through the application of these general formulas for extracting individuals from interactions. Then, the specificities of the individuality in the sense of this weak concept are examined in ecology; I conclude by addressing the differences (...)
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  14. Machines as Moral Patients We Shouldn’T Care About : The Interests and Welfare of Current Machines.John Basl - 2014 - Philosophy and Technology 27 (1):79-96.
    In order to determine whether current (or future) machines have a welfare that we as agents ought to take into account in our moral deliberations, we must determine which capacities give rise to interests and whether current machines have those capacities. After developing an account of moral patiency, I argue that current machines should be treated as mere machines. That is, current machines should be treated as if they lack those capacities that would give rise (...)
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  15.  81
    How Do We Read a Dictionary (as Machines and as Humans)? Kinds of Information in Dictionaries Constructed and Reconstructed.Vincent C. Müller - 2000 - In Evangelos Dermatas (ed.), Proceedings of COMLEX2000: Computational lexicography. Patras University Press. pp. 141-144.
    Two large lexicological projects for the Center for the Greek Language, Thessaloniki, were to be published in print and on the WWW, which meant that two conversions were needed: a near-database file had to be converted to fully formatted file for printing and a fully formatted file had to be converted to a database for WWW access. As it turned out, both conversions could make use of existing clues that indicated the kinds of information contained in each particular piece of (...)
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  16.  31
    Functional Complexity in Organisms: Parts as Proxies. [REVIEW]Daniel W. McShea - 2000 - Biology and Philosophy 15 (5):641-668.
    The functional complexity, or the number of functions, of organisms hasfigured prominently in certain theoretical and empirical work inevolutionary biology. Large-scale trends in functional complexity andcorrelations between functional complexity and other variables, such assize, have been proposed. However, the notion of number of functions hasalso been operationally intractable, in that no method has been developedfor counting functions in an organism in a systematic and reliable way.Thus, studies have had to rely on the largely unsupported assumption thatnumber of functions can (...)
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  17.  8
    The Phenotype as the Level of Selection: Cave Organisms as Model Systems.Thomas C. Kane, Robert C. Richardson & Daniel W. Fong - 1990 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1990:151-164.
    Selection operates at many levels. Robert Brandon has distinguished the question of the level of selection from the unit of selection, arguing that the phenotype is commonly the target of selection, whatever the unit of selection might be. He uses "screening off" as a criterion for distinguishing the level of selection. Cave animals show a common morphological pattern which includes hypertrophy of some structures and reduction or loss of others. In a study of a cave dwelling crustacean, Gammarus minus, we (...)
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  18.  15
    Formal Darwinism as a Tool for Understanding the Status of Organisms in Evolutionary Biology.P. Huneman - 2014 - Biology and Philosophy 29 (2):271-279.
    This paper uses the framework of Formal Darwinism (FD) to evaluate organism-centric critiques of the Modern Synthesis (MS). The first section argues that the FD project reconciles two kinds of selective explanations in biology. Thus it is not correct to say that the MS neglects organisms—instead, it explains organisms’ design, as argued in the second section. In the third section I employ a concept of the organism derived from Kant that has two aspects: the parts presupposing the whole, (...)
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  19.  39
    Is the Secrecy of the Parametric Configuration of Slot Machines Rationally Justified? The Exposure of the Mathematical Facts of Games of Chance as an Ethical Obligation.Catalin Barboianu - 2014 - Journal of Gambling Issues 29 (DOI: 10.4309/jgi.2014.29.6):1-23.
    Slot machines gained a high popularity despite a specific element that could limit their appeal: non-transparency with respect to mathematical parameters. The PAR sheets, exposing the parameters of the design of slot machines and probabilities associated with the winning combinations are kept secret by game producers, and the lack of data regarding the configuration of a machine prevents people from computing probabilities and other mathematical indicators. In this article, I argue that there is no rational justification for this (...)
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  20.  7
    AI and the Path to Envelopment: Knowledge as a First Step Towards the Responsible Regulation and Use of AI-Powered Machines.Scott Robbins - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-10.
    With Artificial Intelligence entering our lives in novel ways—both known and unknown to us—there is both the enhancement of existing ethical issues associated with AI as well as the rise of new ethical issues. There is much focus on opening up the ‘black box’ of modern machine-learning algorithms to understand the reasoning behind their decisions—especially morally salient decisions. However, some applications of AI which are no doubt beneficial to society rely upon these black boxes. Rather than requiring algorithms to be (...)
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  21.  15
    The Landscape as a Semiotic Interface Between Organisms and Resources.Almo Farina - 2008 - Biosemiotics 1 (1):75-83.
    Despite an impressive number of investigations and indirect evidence, the mechanisms that link patterns and processes across the landscape remain a debated point. A new definition of landscape as a semiotic interface between resources and organisms opens up a new perspective to a better understanding of such mechanisms. If the landscape is considered a source of signals converted by animal cognition into signs, it follows that spatial configurations, extension, shape and contagion are not only landscape patterns but categories of (...)
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  22.  10
    Texts as Metaphoric Machines and the Challenge of the Digital.Anna Kouppanou - 2016 - Educational Theory 66 (4):499-518.
    In this essay Anna Kouppanou expands the notion of metaphor from its received meaning to refer to an embodied and material process of connectedness that transforms the domains that it brings together. Because of metaphor's reliance on materiality and exteriority Kouppanou turns to literary texts, which she calls “metaphoric machines.” In doing so she sheds light on the specific way texts, as reading/writing technologies, work through metaphorical processes of association. Through the study of print and electronic literary texts Kouppanou (...)
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  23.  6
    Evolution of Signs, Organisms and Artifacts as Phases of Concrete Generalization.Eliseo Fernández - 2015 - Biosemiotics 8 (1):91-102.
    Expanding on the results of previous contributions I advance several hypotheses on the interaction of physical and semiotic processes, both in organisms and in human artifacts. I then proceed to employ these ideas to formulate a general account of evolutionary processes in terms of concrete generalization, where, in analogy with conceptual generalization, novel creations retain antecedent features as special or restricted cases. I argue the following theses: 1) the main point of intersection of physical and semiotic causation is the (...)
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  24.  32
    Machines as Persons?Oswald Hanfling - 1991 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 29:25-34.
    The subject of this symposium is sometimes introduced by asking whether machines could think. This way of introducing it may be misleading, for it may seem as if it were merely about a particular activity, called ‘thinking’. The question would then seem to have the same character as ‘Can machines make a noise?’. But thinking is not something that can be treated in isolation from other personal qualities. What we need to consider is whether, or to what extent, (...)
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  25.  40
    Organisms, Machines, and Societies: From the Vertical Structure of Adaptability to the Management of Information.Michael Conrad - 1997 - World Futures 50 (1):667-687.
    (1997). Organisms, machines, and societies: From the vertical structure of adaptability to the management of information. World Futures: Vol. 50, No. 1-4, pp. 667-687.
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  26.  5
    A Thousand Machines: A Concise Philosophy of the Machine as Social Movement.Aileen Derieg (ed.) - 2010 - Semiotext(E).
    In this "concise philosophy of the machine," Gerald Raunig provides a historical and critical backdrop to a concept proposed forty years ago by the French philosophers Félix Guattari and Gilles Deleuze: the machine, not as a technical device and apparatus, but as a social composition and concatenation. This conception of the machine as an arrangement of technical, bodily, intellectual, and social components subverts the opposition between man and machine, organism and mechanism, individual and community. Drawing from an unusual range of (...)
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  27. Kant on Understanding Organisms as Natural Purposes.Hannah Ginsborg - 2001 - In Eric Watkins (ed.), Kant and the Sciences. Oxford University Press. pp. 231--58.
  28.  7
    Organisms as Natural Purposes: The Contemporary Evolutionary Perspective.D. M. Walsh - 2006 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 37 (4):771-791.
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  29.  5
    Organisms as Ecosystems/Ecosystems as Organisms.Minus van Baalen & Philippe Huneman - 2014 - Biological Theory 9 (4):357-360.
  30.  17
    Materials as Machines.Bernadette Bensaude-Vincent - 2011 - In M. Carrier & A. Nordmann (eds.), Science in the Context of Application. Springer. pp. 101--111.
  31. Nonhumans as Machines.René Descartes & David R. Keller - forthcoming - Environmental Ethics: The Big Questions.
  32. The Psycho-Emotional-Physical Unity of Living Organisms as an Outcome of Quantum Physics.E. del Giudice - 2004 - In Gordon G. Globus, Karl H. Pribram & Giuseppe Vitiello (eds.), Brain and Being. John Benjamins.
  33.  19
    Cells as Machines.Cytomechanics. Edited by J. Bereiter-Hahn, O. R. Anderson and W. E. Reif. Springer-Verlag, 1987. Pp. 294. DM 169. [REVIEW]Linda Amos - 1989 - Bioessays 11 (2-3):77-78.
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  34. 'Our Posthuman Future': Biotechnology as a Threat to Human Nature.Francis Fukuyama - 2002 - fsgbooks.
    In a sense, all technology is biotechnology: machines interacting with human organisms. Technology is designed to overcome the frailties and limitations of human beings in a state of nature -- to make us faster, stronger, longer-lived, smarter, happier. And all technology raises questions about its real contribution to human welfare: are our lives really better for the existence of the automobile, television, nuclear power? These questions are ethical and political, as well as medical; and they even reach to (...)
     
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  35.  71
    Cells as Irreducible Wholes: The Failure of Mechanism and the Possibility of an Organicist Revival.Michael J. Denton, Govindasamy Kumaramanickavel & Michael Legge - 2013 - Biology and Philosophy 28 (1):31-52.
    According to vitalism, living organisms differ from machines and all other inanimate objects by being endowed with an indwelling immaterial directive agency, ‘vital force,’ or entelechy . While support for vitalism fell away in the late nineteenth century many biologists in the early twentieth century embraced a non vitalist philosophy variously termed organicism/holism/emergentism which aimed at replacing the actions of an immaterial spirit with what was seen as an equivalent but perfectly natural agency—the emergent autonomous activity of the (...)
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  36. Reflections on a Theory of Organisms: Holism in Biology.Walter M. Elsasser - 1987 - Published for the Johns Hopkins Dept. Of Earth and Planetary Sciences by the Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Are living organisms--as Descartes argued--just machines? Or is the nature of life such that it can never be fully explained by mechanistic models? In this thought-provoking and controversial book, eminent geophysicist Walter M. Elsasser argues that the behavior of living organisms cannot be reduced to physico-chemical causality. Suggesting that molecular biology today is at the same point as Newtonian physics on the eve of the quantum revolution, Elsasser lays the foundation for a theoretical biology that points the (...)
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  37.  44
    Clinical Trials as Nomological Machines: Implications for Evidence-Based Medicine.Robyn Bluhm - 2007 - In Harold Kincaid Jennifer McKitrick (ed.), Establishing Medical Reality: Essays In The Metaphysics And Epistemology Of Biomedical Science. Springer.
  38.  38
    An Object-Oriented View on Problem Representation as a Search-Efficiency Facet: Minds Vs. Machines[REVIEW]Reza Zamani - 2010 - Minds and Machines 20 (1):103-117.
    From an object-oriented perspective, this paper investigates the interdisciplinary aspects of problem representation as well the differences between representation of problems in the mind and that in the machine. By defining an object as a combination of a symbol-structure and its associated operations, it shows how the representation of problems can become related to control, which conducts the search in finding a solution. Different types of representation of problems in the machine are classified into four categories, and in a similar (...)
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  39.  4
    Agricultural Technologies as Living Machines: Toward a Biomimetic Conceptualization of Smart Farming Technologies.Vincent Blok & Bart Gremmen - 2018 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 21 (2):246-263.
    ABSTRACTSmart Farming Technologies raise ethical issues associated with the increased corporatization and industrialization of the agricultural sector. We explore the concept of biomimicry to conceptualize smart farming technologies as ecological innovations which are embedded in and in accordance with the natural environment. Such a biomimetic approach of smart farming technologies takes advantage of its potential to mitigate climate change, while at the same time avoiding the ethical issues related to the industrialization of the agricultural sector. We explore six principles of (...)
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  40. Early-Connectionism Machines.Roberto Cordeschi - 2000 - AI and Society 14 (3-4):314-330.
    In this paper I put forward a reconstruction of the evolution of certain explanatory hypotheses on the neural basis of association and learning that are the premises of connectionism in the cybernetic age and of present-day connectionism. The main point of my reconstruction is based on two little-known case studies. The first is the project, published in 1913, of a hydraulic machine through which its author believed it was possible to simulate certain essential elements of the plasticity of nervous connections. (...)
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  41.  70
    How to Confuse Organisms with Mousetraps: Machine Metaphors and Intelligent Design.Doren Recker - 2010 - Zygon 45 (3):647-664.
    Why do design arguments—particularly those emphasizing machine metaphors such as “Organisms and/or their parts are machines”—continue to be so convincing to so many people after they have been repeatedly refuted? In this essay I review various interpretations and refutations of design arguments and make a distinction between rationally refuting such arguments (RefutingR) and rendering them psychologically unconvincing (RefutingP). Expanding on this distinction, I provide support from recent work on the cognitive power of metaphors and developmental psychological work indicating (...)
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  42. Persons as Proper Parts of Organisms.David B. Hershenov - 2005 - Theoria 71 (1):29-37.
    Defenders of the Psychological Approach to Personal Identity (PAPI) insist that the possession of some kind of mind is essential to us. We are essentially thinking beings, not living creatures. We would cease to exist if our capacity for thought was irreversibly lost due to a coma or permanent vegetative state. However, the onset of such conditions would not mean the death of an organism. It would survive in a mindless state. But this would appear to mean that before the (...)
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  43.  6
    Agricultural Technologies as Living Machines: Toward a Biomimetic Conceptualization of Technology.V. Blok & H. G. J. Gremmen - 2018 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 21 (2):246-263.
    Smart Farming Technologies raise ethical issues associated with the increased corporatization and industrialization of the agricultural sector. We explore the concept of biomimicry to conceptualize smart farming technologies as ecological innovations which are embedded in and in accordance with the natural environment. Such a biomimetic approach of smart farming technologies takes advantage of its potential to mitigate climate change, while at the same time avoiding the ethical issues related to the industrialization of the agricultural sector. We explore six principles of (...)
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  44.  10
    Machines as Persons?: Christopher Cherry.Christopher Cherry - 1991 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 29:11-24.
    I begin, as I shall end, with fictions. In a well-known tale, The Sandman , Hoffmann has a student, Nathaniel, fall in love with a beautiful doll, Olympia, whom he has spied upon as she sits at a window across the street from his lodgings. We are meant to suppose that Nathaniel mistakes an automaton for a human being . The mistake is the result of an elaborate but obscure deception on the part of the doll's designer, Professor Spalanzani. Nathaniel (...)
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  45.  13
    Ethics as Rule Systems: The Case of Genetically Engineered Organisms.Carlo C. Jaeger & Alois J. Rust - 1994 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 37 (1):65 – 84.
    Like every major new technology, genetic engineering is affecting the hopes and fears of many people. The risks involved are perceived differently by different groups. One group regards genetic engineering as a simple extension of older techniques with no special risks, e.g. traditional breeding. This conservative denial of special risks is confronted with a different kind of conservatism from a group which, in the name of the preservation of nature, opposes any kind of genetic engineering. A third group, rooted in (...)
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  46.  5
    Towards a Science of Life as creaTive Organisms.Norman Fred Hirst - 2008 - Cosmos and History 4 (1-2):78-98.
    There is a paradigm shift occurring. The transition underway is from a rigid, mechanistic, and materialistic worldview to a process organismic worldview supporting a foundation of interconnectedness, cooperation, and the intersection of science and spirituality. A new paradigm must start with abductive hypotheses. I present the following as a presentation of abductive hypotheses. In semiotics abduction is a kind of reverse deduction to discover a law or some factor that would render some phenomenon intelligible. The importance of abduction is that (...)
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  47.  14
    Machines as the Measure of Men: Science, Technology, and Ideologies of Western Dominance.Michael Adas - 1993 - Philosophy East and West 43 (2):344-346.
  48. A Thousand Machines: A Concise Philosophy of the Machine as Social Movement.Gerald Raunig - 2010 - Semiotext(E).
  49.  11
    Organisms, Machines, and Thunderstorms: A History of Self-Organization (I).Evelyn Fox Keller - 2008 - Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences 38 (1):45-75.
  50. Collective and Individual Rationality in the History of Economic Thought: The Early Marx's Theory of States as Organisms.Andy Denis - manuscript
    This paper forms part of a research project investigating conceptions of the relationship between micro-level selfseeking agent behaviour and the desirability or otherwise of the resulting macro-level social outcomes in the history of economics.
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