Results for 'pandemic'

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  1.  71
    The Duty to Care in a Pandemic.Joint Centre for Bioethics Pandemic - 2008 - American Journal of Bioethics 8 (8):31-33.
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  2. Pandemic Ethics: The Case for Risky Research.Richard Yetter Chappell & Peter Singer - 2020 - Research Ethics 16 (3-4):1-8.
    There is too much that we do not know about COVID-19. The longer we take to find it out, the more lives will be lost. In this paper, we will defend a principle of risk parity: if it is permissible to expose some members of society (e.g. health workers or the economically vulnerable) to a certain level of ex ante risk in order to minimize overall harm from the virus, then it is permissible to expose fully informed volunteers to a (...)
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  3.  27
    The Duty to Care in a Pandemic.Joint Centre for Bioethics Pandemic Ethics Working Group - 2008 - American Journal of Bioethics 8 (8):31 – 33.
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  4. Ethics, Pandemics, and the Duty to Treat.Heidi Malm, Thomas May, Leslie P. Francis, Saad B. Omer, Daniel A. Salmon & Robert Hood - 2008 - American Journal of Bioethics 8 (8):4 – 19.
    Numerous grounds have been offered for the view that healthcare workers have a duty to treat, including expressed consent, implied consent, special training, reciprocity (also called the social contract view), and professional oaths and codes. Quite often, however, these grounds are simply asserted without being adequately defended or without the defenses being critically evaluated. This essay aims to help remedy that problem by providing a critical examination of the strengths and weaknesses of each of these five grounds for asserting that (...)
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  5.  10
    Pandemic Leadership: Sex Differences and Their Evolutionary–Developmental Origins.Severi Luoto & Marco Antonio Correa Varella - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a global societal, economic, and social upheaval unseen in living memory. There have been substantial cross-national differences in the kinds of policies implemented by political decision-makers to prevent the spread of the virus, to test the population, and to manage infected patients. Among other factors, these policies vary with politicians’ sex: early findings indicate that, on average, female leaders seem more focused on minimizing direct human suffering caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, while male leaders (...)
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  6.  37
    Pandemic Influenza Preparedness: An Ethical Framework to Guide Decision-Making. [REVIEW]Alison Thompson, Karen Faith, Jennifer Gibson & Ross Upshur - 2006 - BMC Medical Ethics 7 (1):1-11.
    Background Planning for the next pandemic influenza outbreak is underway in hospitals across the world. The global SARS experience has taught us that ethical frameworks to guide decision-making may help to reduce collateral damage and increase trust and solidarity within and between health care organisations. Good pandemic planning requires reflection on values because science alone cannot tell us how to prepare for a public health crisis. Discussion In this paper, we present an ethical framework for pandemic influenza (...)
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  7.  24
    On Pandemics and the Duty to Care: Whose Duty? Who Cares?Carly Ruderman, C. Shawn Tracy, Cécile M. Bensimon, Mark Bernstein, Laura Hawryluck, Randi Z. Shaul & Ross E. G. Upshur - 2006 - BMC Medical Ethics 7 (1):5.
    BackgroundAs a number of commentators have noted, SARS exposed the vulnerabilities of our health care systems and governance structures. Health care professionals and hospital systems that bore the brunt of the SARS outbreak continue to struggle with the aftermath of the crisis. Indeed, HCPs – both in clinical care and in public health – were severely tested by SARS. Unprecedented demands were placed on their skills and expertise, and their personal commitment to their profession was severely tried. Many were exposed (...)
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  8.  45
    Public Engagement on Social Distancing in a Pandemic: A Canadian Perspective.Joint Centre for Bioethics Pandemic - 2009 - American Journal of Bioethics 9 (11):15-17.
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  9.  45
    On Pandemics and the Duty to Care: Whose Duty? Who Cares? [REVIEW]Carly Ruderman, C. Tracy, Cécile Bensimon, Mark Bernstein, Laura Hawryluck, Randi Zlotnik Shaul & Ross Upshur - 2006 - BMC Medical Ethics 7 (1):1-6.
    Background As a number of commentators have noted, SARS exposed the vulnerabilities of our health care systems and governance structures. Health care professionals (HCPs) and hospital systems that bore the brunt of the SARS outbreak continue to struggle with the aftermath of the crisis. Indeed, HCPs – both in clinical care and in public health – were severely tested by SARS. Unprecedented demands were placed on their skills and expertise, and their personal commitment to their profession was severely tried. Many (...)
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  10.  13
    Pandemic Surveillance and Racialized Subpopulations: Mitigating Vulnerabilities in COVID-19 Apps.Tereza Hendl, Ryoa Chung & Verina Wild - 2020 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 17 (4):829-834.
    Debates about effective responses to the COVID-19 pandemic have emphasized the paramount importance of digital tracing technology in suppressing the disease. So far, discussions about the ethics of this technology have focused on privacy concerns, efficacy, and uptake. However, important issues regarding power imbalances and vulnerability also warrant attention. As demonstrated in other forms of digital surveillance, vulnerable subpopulations pay a higher price for surveillance measures. There is reason to worry that some types of COVID-19 technology might lead to (...)
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  11.  30
    Pandemic Medical Ethics.Jennifer Blumenthal-Barby, Kenneth Boyd, Brian D. Earp, Lucy Frith, Rosalind J. McDougall, John McMillan & Jesse Wall - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (6):353-354.
    The COVID-19 pandemic will generate vexing ethical issues for the foreseeable future and many journals will be open to content that is relevant to our collective effort to meet this challenge. While the pandemic is clearly the critical issue of the moment, it’s important that other issues in medical ethics continue to be addressed as well. As can be seen in this issue, the Journal of Medical Ethics will uphold its commitment to publishing high quality papers on the (...)
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  12.  32
    Pandemic Ventilator Rationing and Appeals Processes.Daniel Patrone & David Resnik - 2011 - Health Care Analysis 19 (2):165-179.
    In a severe influenza pandemic, hospitals will likely experience serious and widespread shortages of patient pulmonary ventilators and of staff qualified to operate them. Deciding who will receive access to mechanical ventilation will often determine who lives and who dies. This prospect raises an important question whether pandemic preparedness plans should include some process by which individuals affected by ventilator rationing would have the opportunity to appeal adverse decisions. However, the issue of appeals processes to ventilator rationing decisions (...)
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  13.  12
    When Pandemic Hits: Exercise Frequency and Subjective Well-Being During COVID-19 Pandemic.Ralf Brand, Sinika Timme & Sanaz Nosrat - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  14.  95
    Utilitarianism and the Pandemic.Julian Savulescu, Ingmar Persson & Dominic Wilkinson - 2020 - Bioethics 34 (6):620-632.
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  15.  12
    Pandemic Prioritarianism.Lasse Nielsen - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics:medethics-2020-106910.
    Prioritarianism pertains to the generic idea that it matters more to benefit people, the worse off they are, and while prioritarianism is not uncontroversial, it is considered a generally plausible and widely shared distributive principle often applied to healthcare prioritisation. In this paper, I identify social justice prioritarianism, severity prioritarianism and age-weighted prioritarianism as three different interpretations of the general prioritarian idea and discuss them in light of the effect of pandemic consequences on healthcare priority setting. On this analysis, (...)
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  16.  56
    Three Ways in Which Pandemic Models May Perform a Pandemic.Philippe van Basshuysen, Lucie White, Donal Khosrowi & Mathias Frisch - 2021 - Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics 14 (1):110-127.
    Models not only represent but may also influence their targets in important ways. While models’ abilities to influence outcomes has been studied in the context of economic models, often under the label ‘performativity’, we argue that this phenomenon also pertains to epidemiological models, such as those used for forecasting the trajectory of the Covid-19 pandemic. After identifying three ways in which a model by the Covid-19 Response Team at Imperial College London may have influenced scientific advice, policy, and individual (...)
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  17. Privacy During the Pandemic and Beyond.Carissa Vèliz - 2020 - The Philosophers' Magazine 90:107-113.
    This paper is an overview about the state of privacy and power shifts during the pandemic, and the privacy challenges ahead.
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  18.  24
    COVID-19 Pandemic: A Litmus Test of Trust in the Health System.Vijayaprasad Gopichandran, Sudharshini Subramaniam & Maria Jusler Kalsingh - 2020 - Asian Bioethics Review 12 (2):213-221.
    The pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV2 novel coronavirus is creating a global crisis. There is a global ambience of uncertainty and anxiety. In addition, nations have imposed strict and restrictive public health measures including lockdowns. In this heightened time of vulnerability, public cooperation to preventive measures depends on trust and confidence in the health system. Trust is the optimistic acceptance of the vulnerability in the belief that the health system has best intentions. On the other hand, confidence is assessed (...)
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  19.  13
    Pandemic Influenza: Public Health Preparedness for the Next Global Health Emergency.Lawrence O. Gostin - 2004 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 32 (4):565-573.
    The threat posed by avian influenza appears to be rising, yet global and national health programs are preparing only fitfully. A lethal form of avian flu has rooted itself deeply into the poultry flocks of poor Asian countries that will have a hard time eradicating it. Every so often a sick bird infects a human, who usually dies from the encounter, and on rare occasions the virus seems to have spread from one person to another before the chain of infection (...)
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  20.  23
    Pandemic Influenza: Public Health Preparedness for the Next Global Health Emergency.Lawrence O. Gostin - 2004 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 32 (4):565-573.
    The threat posed by avian influenza appears to be rising, yet global and national health programs are preparing only fitfully. A lethal form of avian flu has rooted itself deeply into the poultry flocks of poor Asian countries that will have a hard time eradicating it. Every so often a sick bird infects a human, who usually dies from the encounter, and on rare occasions the virus seems to have spread from one person to another before the chain of infection (...)
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  21.  5
    Pandemic Dreams: Network Analysis of Dream Content During the COVID-19 Lockdown.Anu-Katriina Pesonen, Jari Lipsanen, Risto Halonen, Marko Elovainio, Nils Sandman, Juha-Matti Mäkelä, Minea Antila, Deni Béchard, Hanna M. Ollila & Liisa Kuula - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  22.  21
    Pandemic Vaccine Trials: Expedite, but Don’T Rush.Angus Dawson - 2020 - Research Ethics 16 (3-4):1-12.
    It has been proposed that the urgency of having a vaccine as a response to SARS-CoV-2 is so great, given the potential health, economic and social benefits that we should override the established s...
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  23.  28
    Pandemic Management and Developing World Bioethics: Bird Flu in West Bengal.Chhanda Chakraborti - 2009 - Developing World Bioethics 9 (3):161-166.
    This paper examines the case of a recent H5N1virus (avian influenza) outbreak in West Bengal, an eastern state of India, and argues that poorly executed pandemic management may be viewed as a moral lapse. It further argues that pandemic management initiatives are intimately related to the concept of health as a social 'good' and to the moral responsibility of protection from foreseeable social harm from an infectious disease. The initiatives, therefore, have to be guided by special moral obligations (...)
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  24.  31
    Following the Science: Pandemic Policy Making and Reasonable Worst-Case Scenarios.Richard Bradley & Joe Roussos - 2021 - LSE Public Policy Review 1 (4):6.
    The UK has been ‘following the science’ in response to the COVID-19 pandemic in line with the national framework for the use of scientific advice in assessment of risk. We argue that the way in which it does so is unsatisfactory in two important respects. Firstly, pandemic policy making is not based on a comprehensive assessment of policy impacts. And secondly, the focus on reasonable worst-case scenarios as a way of managing uncertainty results in a loss of decision-relevant (...)
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  25.  6
    Pandemics, Protocols, and the Plague of Athens: Insights From Thucydides.Joseph J. Fins - 2020 - Hastings Center Report 50 (3):50-53.
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  26.  35
    The COVID-19 Pandemic: Healthcare Crisis Leadership as Ethics Communication.Matti Häyry - 2021 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 30 (1):42-50.
    Governmental reactions to crises like the COVID-19 pandemic can be seen as ethics communication. Governments can contain the disease and thereby mitigate the detrimental public health impact; allow the virus to spread to reach herd immunity; test, track, isolate, and treat; and suppress the disease regionally. An observation of Sweden and Finland showed a difference in feasible ways to communicate the chosen policy to the citizenry. Sweden assumed the herd immunity strategy and backed it up with health utilitarian arguments. (...)
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  27.  5
    A Pandemic Refocuses Bioethics on “The Big Questions”.Brian M. Cummings & John J. Paris - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (12):51-54.
    To paraphrase Lewis Carroll’s poem “The Walrus and the Carpenter” from his Through the Looking Glass, “The time has come to talk of many things.” Not as the Walrus did in the nursery rhyme, “of sho...
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  28.  21
    The COVID-19 Pandemic: A Month of Bioethics in Finland.Matti Häyry - 2021 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 30 (1):114-122.
    The role of bioethicists amidst crises like the COVID-19 pandemic is not well defined. As professionals in the field, they should respond, but how? The observation of the early days of pandemic confinement in Finland showed that moral philosophers with limited experience in bioethics tended to apply their favorite theories to public decisions, with varying results. Medical ethicists were more likely to lend support to the public authorities by soothing or descriptive accounts of the solutions assumed. These are (...)
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  29. Compulsory Medical Intervention Versus External Constraint in Pandemic Control.Thomas Douglas, Lisa Forsberg & Jonathan Pugh - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics.
    Would compulsory treatment or vaccination for Covid-19 be justified? In England, there would be significant legal barriers to it. However, we offer a conditional ethical argument in favour of allowing compulsory treatment and vaccination, drawing on an ethical comparison with external constraints—such as quarantine, isolation and ‘lockdown’—that have already been authorised to control the pandemic. We argue that, if the permissive English approach to external constraints for Covid-19 has been justified, then there is a case for a similarly permissive (...)
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  30.  22
    Public Engagement on Social Distancing in a Pandemic: A Canadian Perspective.Joint Centre for Bioethics Pandemic Ethics Working Group - 2009 - American Journal of Bioethics 9 (11):15-17.
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  31.  18
    Prioritising Access to Pandemic Influenza Vaccine: A Review of the Ethics Literature. [REVIEW]Jane H. Williams & Angus Dawson - 2020 - BMC Medical Ethics 21 (1):1-8.
    Background The world is threatened by future pandemics. Vaccines can play a key role in preventing harm, but there will inevitably be shortages because there is no possibility of advance stockpiling. We therefore need some method of prioritising access. Main text This paper reports a critical interpretative review of the published literature that discusses ethical arguments used to justify how we could prioritise vaccine during an influenza pandemic. We found that the focus of the literature was often on proposing (...)
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  32.  32
    Black Lives in a Pandemic: Implications of Systemic Injustice for End‐of‐Life Care.Alan Elbaum - 2020 - Hastings Center Report 50 (3):58-60.
    In recent months, Covid‐19 has devastated African American communities across the nation, and a Minneapolis police officer murdered George Floyd. The agents of death may be novel, but the phenomena of long‐standing epidemics of premature black death and of police violence are not. This essay argues that racial health and health care disparities, rooted as they are in systemic injustice, ought to carry far more weight in clinical ethics than they generally do. In particular, this essay examines palliative and end‐of‐life (...)
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  33.  13
    Rationing in a Pandemic: Lessons From Italy.Lucia Craxì, Marco Vergano, Julian Savulescu & Dominic Wilkinson - 2020 - Asian Bioethics Review 12 (3):325-330.
    In late February and early March 2020, Italy became the European epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite increasingly stringent containment measures enforced by the government, the health system faced an enormous pressure, and extraordinary efforts were made in order to increase overall hospital beds’ availability and especially ICU capacity. Nevertheless, the hardest-hit hospitals in Northern Italy experienced a shortage of ICU beds and resources that led to hard allocating choices. At the beginning of March 2020, the Italian Society of (...)
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  34.  5
    A Post-Truth Pandemic?Taylor Shelton - 2020 - Big Data and Society 7 (2).
    As the coronavirus pandemic continues apace in the United States, the dizzying amount of data being generated, analyzed and consumed about the virus has led to calls to proclaim this the first ‘data-driven pandemic’. But at the same time, it seems that this plethora of data has not meant a better grasp on the reality of the pandemic and its effects. Even as we have the potential to digitally track and trace nearly every single individual who has (...)
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  35.  7
    COVID-19 Pandemic on Fire: Evolved Propensities for Nocturnal Activities as a Liability Against Epidemiological Control.Marco Antonio Correa Varella, Severi Luoto, Rafael Bento da Silva Soares & Jaroslava Varella Valentova - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Humans have been using fire for hundreds of millennia, creating an ancestral expansion toward the nocturnal niche. The new adaptive challenges faced at night were recurrent enough to amplify existing psychological variation in our species. Night-time is dangerous and mysterious, so it selects for individuals with higher tendencies for paranoia, risk-taking, and sociability. During night-time, individuals are generally tired and show decreased self-control and increased impulsive behaviors. The lower visibility during night-time favors the partial concealment of identity and opens more (...)
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  36.  52
    Planning for an Influenza Pandemic: Social Justice and Disadvantaged Groups.Lori Uscher-Pines, Patrick S. Duggan, Joshua P. Garoon, Ruth A. Karron & Ruth R. Faden - 2007 - Hastings Center Report 37 (4):32-39.
    : Because an influenza pandemic would create the most serious hardships for those who already face most serious hardships, countries should take special measures to mitigate the effect of a pandemic on existing social inequalities. Unfortunately, there is little evidence that anybody is thinking about that.
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  37.  49
    Ethical Challenges Arising in the COVID-19 Pandemic: An Overview From the Association of Bioethics Program Directors (ABPD) Task Force.Amy L. McGuire, Mark P. Aulisio, F. Daniel Davis, Cheryl Erwin, Thomas D. Harter, Reshma Jagsi, Robert Klitzman, Robert Macauley, Eric Racine, Susan M. Wolf, Matthew Wynia & Paul Root Wolpe - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (7):15-27.
    The COVID-19 pandemic has raised a host of ethical challenges, but key among these has been the possibility that health care systems might need to ration scarce critical care resources. Rationing p...
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  38.  10
    The 2020 Coronavirus Pandemic as a Change-Event in Sport Performers’ Careers: Conceptual and Applied Practice Considerations.Roy David Samuel, Gershon Tenenbaum & Yair Galily - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  39.  31
    Pandemic Influenza and the Duty to Treat: The Importance of Solidarity and Loyalty.Mitchell L. Klopfenstein - 2008 - American Journal of Bioethics 8 (8):41 – 43.
  40.  20
    Ethical Reasoning in Pandemic Preparednes Plans – Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific.Simon Derpmann - 2011 - Bioethics 25 (8):445-450.
    The emergence of H1N1 in 2009 shows that it is a mistake to regard the scenario of having to implement pandemic plans as merely hypothetical. This recent experience provides an opportunity to inquire into the current state of pandemic preparedness plans with regard to their ethical adequacy. One aspect that deserves consideration in this context is the disclosure of ethical reasoning. Accordingly, the following is an analysis of examples of pandemic plans and drafts of plans from Southeast (...)
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  41.  37
    Preparing for an Influenza Pandemic: Ethical Issues.Jaro Kotalik - 2005 - Bioethics 19 (4):422–431.
    In the near future, experts predict, an influenza pandemic will likely spread throughout the world. Many countries have been creating a contingency plan in order to mitigate the severe health and social consequences of such an event. Examination of the pandemic plans of Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States, from an ethical perspective, raises several concerns. One: scarcity of human and material resources is assumed to be severe. Plans focus on prioritization but do not identify resources (...)
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  42. The Toughest Triage — Allocating Ventilators in a Pandemic.Robert D. Truog, Christine Mitchell & George Q. Daley - 2020 - New England Journal of Medicine.
    The Covid-19 pandemic has led to severe shortages of many essential goods and services, from hand sanitizers and N-95 masks to ICU beds and ventilators. Although rationing is not unprecedented, never before has the American public been faced with the prospect of having to ration medical goods and services on this scale.
     
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  43.  20
    The COVID-19 Pandemic: New Concerns and Connections Between eHealth and Digital Inequalities.Aneka Khilnani, Jeremy Schulz & Laura Robinson - 2020 - Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society 18 (3):393-403.
    Purpose Telemedicine has been advancing for decades and is more indispensable than ever in this unprecedented time of the COVID-19 pandemic. As shown, eHealth appears to be effective for routine management of chronic conditions that require extensive and repeated interactions with healthcare professionals, as well as the monitoring of symptoms and diagnostics. Yet much needs to be done to alleviate digital inequalities that stand in the way of making the benefits of eHealth accessible to all. The purpose of this (...)
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  44.  4
    Ethics, Pandemic Planning and Communications.Wendy A. Rogers & Connal Lee - 2006 - Monash Bioethics Review 25 (4):9-18.
    In this article we examine the role and ethics of communications in planning for an influenza pandemic. We argue that ethical communication must not only he effective, so that pandemic plans can be successfully implemented, communications should also take specific account of the needs of the disadvantaged, so that they are not further disenfranchised. This will require particular attention to the role of the mainstream media which may disadvantage the vulnerable through misrepresentation and exclusion.
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  45.  9
    COVID-19 Pandemic, the Scarcity of Medical Resources, Community-Centred Medicine and Discrimination Against Persons with Disabilities.Nicola Panocchia, Viola D'ambrosio, Serafino Corti, Eluisa Lo Presti, Marco Bertelli, Maria Luisa Scattoni & Filippo Ghelma - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (6):362-366.
    This research aims to examine access to medical treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic for people living with disabilities. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the practical and ethical problems of allocating limited medical resources such as intensive care unit beds and ventilators became critical. Although different countries have proposed different guidelines to manage this emergency, these proposed criteria do not sufficiently consider people living with disabilities. People living with disabilities are therefore at a higher risk of exclusion from medical treatments (...)
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  46.  22
    The COVID-19 Pandemic: Critical Care Allocated in Extremis.Susan Dorr Goold - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (7):6-8.
    Volume 20, Issue 7, July 2020, Page 6-8.
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  47. Epistemic Ignorance, Poverty and the COVID-19 Pandemic.Cristian Timmermann - 2020 - Asian Bioethics Review 12.
    In various responses to the COVID-19 pandemic, we can observe insufficient sensitivity towards the needs and circumstances of poorer citizens. Particularly in a context of high inequality, policy makers need to engage with the wider public in debates and consultations to gain better insights in the realities of the worst-off within their jurisdiction. When consultations involve members of traditionally underrepresented groups, these are not only more inclusive, which is in itself an ethical aim, but pool ideas and observations from (...)
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  48.  20
    Ethics for Pandemics Beyond Influenza: Ebola, Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis, and Anticipating Future Ethical Challenges in Pandemic Preparedness and Response.Maxwell J. Smith & Diego S. Silva - 2015 - Monash Bioethics Review 33 (2-3):130-147.
    The unprecedented outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa has raised several novel ethical issues for global outbreak preparedness. It has also illustrated that familiar ethical issues in infectious disease management endure despite considerable efforts to understand and mitigate such issues in the wake of past outbreaks. To improve future global outbreak preparedness and response, we must examine these shortcomings and reflect upon the current state of ethical preparedness. To this end, we focus our efforts in this article on (...)
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  49.  51
    Pandemic Influenza and Utilitarianism.Martin Peterson - 2011 - Bioethics 25 (5):290-291.
  50.  26
    Identity, Politics, and the Pandemic: Why is COVID-19 a Disaster for Feminism(S)?Suze G. Berkhout & Lisa Richardson - 2020 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 42 (4):1-6.
    COVID-19 has been called “a disaster for feminism” for numerous reasons. In this short piece, we make sense of this claim, drawing on intersectional feminism to understand why an analysis that considers gender alone is inadequate to address both the risks and consequences of COVID-19.
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