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Paul Lodge
Oxford University
  1.  2
    Leibniz’s Justification of the Principle of Sufficient Reason (Mainly) in the Correspondence with Clarke.Paul Lodge - 2018 - History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis 21 (1):69-91.
    The aim of this paper is to shed light on Leibniz’s justification of the Principle of Sufficient Reason. It approaches this issue through a close textual analysis of the correspondence with Samuel Clarke and a more abstruse and lesser-known writing, ‘Leibniz’s Philosophical Dream’.
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  2. Leibniz's Mill Argument Against Mechanical Materialism Revisited.Paul Lodge - 2014 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 1.
    Section 17 of Leibniz’s Monadology contains a famous argument in which considerations of what it would be like to enter a machine that was as large as a mill are offered as reasons to reject materialism about the mental. In this paper, I provide a critical discussion of Leibniz’s mill argument, but, unlike most treatments, my discussion will focus on texts other than the Monadology in which considerations of the mill also appear. I provide a survey of three previous interpretations (...)
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  3.  16
    Leibniz’s Philosophy as a Way of Life?Paul Lodge - 2020 - Metaphilosophy 51 (2-3):259-279.
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  4. Infinite Analysis, Lucky Proof, and Guaranteed Proof in Leibniz.Gonzalo Rodriguez-Pereyra & Paul Lodge - 2011 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 93 (2):222-236.
    According to one of Leibniz's theories of contingency a proposition is contingent if and only if it cannot be proved in a finite number of steps. It has been argued that this faces the Problem of Lucky Proof , namely that we could begin by analysing the concept ‘Peter’ by saying that ‘Peter is a denier of Christ and …’, thereby having proved the proposition ‘Peter denies Christ’ in a finite number of steps. It also faces a more general but (...)
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  5. Theodicy, Metaphysics, and Metaphilosophy in Leibniz.Paul Lodge - 2015 - Philosophical Topics 43 (1-2):27-52.
    In this paper I offer a discussion of chapter 3 of Adrian Moore’s The Evolution of Modern Metaphysics, which is titled “Leibniz: Metaphysics in the Service of Theodicy.” Here Moore discusses the philosophy of Leibniz and comes to a damning conclusion. My main aim is to suggest that such a conclusion might be a little premature. I begin by outlining Moore’s discussion of Leibniz and then raise some problems for the objections that Moore presents. I follow this by raising a (...)
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  6. The Leibniz-De Volder Correspondence.Paul Lodge - 2013 - Yale.
    This volume is a critical edition of the eight-year correspondence between Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz and Burcher de Volder, professor of philosophy and mathematics at Leiden University. Containing the surviving correspondence between Leibniz and De Volder, the volume also presents a generous selection from the letters between Leibniz and his friend Johann Bernoulli, through whose intercession the correspondence began. Bernoulli acted as intermediary throughout, and the often candid discussions between Leibniz and Bernoulli provide illuminating background to the correspondence proper. Each of (...)
     
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  7.  37
    Leibniz on Relativity and the Motion of Bodies.Paul Lodge - 2003 - Philosophical Topics 31 (1/2):277--308.
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  8. Force and the Nature of Body in Discourse on Metaphysics §§17-18.Paul Lodge - 1997 - The Leibniz Review 7:116-124.
    According to Robert Sleigh Jr., “The opening remarks of DM.18 make it clear that Leibniz took the results of DM.17 as either establishing, or at least going a long way toward establishing, that force is not identifiable with any mode characterizable terms of size, shape, and motion.” Sleigh finds this puzzling and suggests that other commentators have generally been insufficiently perplexed by the bearing that the DM.17 has on the metaphysical issue. In this brief paper, I examine the solution that (...)
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  9.  52
    Leibniz's Notion of an Aggregate.Paul Lodge - 2001 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 9 (3):467 – 486.
  10.  79
    Garber’s Interpretations of Leibniz on Corporeal Substance in the ‘Middle Years’.Paul Lodge - 2005 - The Leibniz Review 15:1-26.
    In 1985 Daniel Garber published his highly intluential paper “Leibniz and the Foundations of Physics: The Middle Years”. In two recent articles, Garber returns to these issues with a new position - that we should perhaps conclude that Leibniz did not have a view concerning the ultimate ontology of substance during his middle years. I discuss the viability of this position and consider some more general methodological issues that arise from this discussion.
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  11. Unconscious Conceiving and Leibniz's Argument for Primitive Concepts.Paul Lodge & Stephen Puryear - 2006 - Studia Leibnitiana 38 (2):177-196.
    In a recent paper, Dennis Plaisted examines an important argument that Leibniz gives for the existence of primitive concepts. After sketching a natural reading of this argument, Plaisted observes that the argument appears to imply something clearly inconsistent with Leibniz’s other views. To save Leibniz from contradiction, Plaisted offers a revision. However, his account faces a number of serious difficulties and therefore does not successfully eliminate the inconsistency. We explain these difficulties and defend a more plausible alternative. In the process, (...)
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  12. Heidegger on the Being of Monads: Lessons in Leibniz and in the Practice of Reading the History of Philosophy.Paul Lodge - 2015 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 23 (6):1169-1191.
    This paper is a discussion of the treatment of Leibniz's conception of substance in Heidegger's The Metaphysical Foundations of Logic. I explain Heidegger's account, consider its relation to recent interpretations of Leibniz in the Anglophone secondary literature, and reflect on the ways in which Heidegger's methodology may illuminate what it is to read Leibniz and other figures in the history of philosophy.
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  13.  3
    Leibniz's Notion of an Aggregate.Paul Lodge - 2001 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 9 (3):467-486.
  14. Eternal Punishment, Universal Salvation and Pragmatic Theology in Leibniz.Paul Lodge - 2017 - In Lloyd Strickland, Erik Vynckier & Julia Weckend (eds.), Tercentenary Essays on the Philosophy & Science of G.W. Leibniz. London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 301-24.
    This paper explores the issue of Leibniz's commitment to the doctrines of eternal punishment and universal salvation. I argue against the dominant view that Leibniz was committed to eternal punishment, but rather than defending the minority position that Leibniz believed in universal salvation, I suggest that the evidence for his adherence to each is indicative of the way in which he regards religious doctrine as instrumentally valuable. My hypothesis is that Leibniz thought that the appropriateness of advocating eternal damnation, universal (...)
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  15.  15
    Leibniz on Relativity and the Motion of Bodies.Paul Lodge - 2003 - Philosophical Topics 31 (1/2):277-308.
  16. Locke and Leibniz on Substance.Paul Lodge & Tom Stoneham (eds.) - 2015 - Routledge.
    Locke and Leibniz on Substance gathers together papers by an international group of academic experts, examining the metaphysical concept of substance in the writings of these two towering philosophers of the early modern period. Each of these newly-commissioned essays considers important interpretative issues concerning the role that the notion of substance plays in the work of Locke and Leibniz, and its intersection with other key issues, such as personal identity. Contributors also consider the relationship between the two philosophers and contemporaries (...)
     
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  17.  72
    Stepping Back Inside Leibniz’s Mill.Paul Lodge & Marc Bobro - 1998 - The Monist 81 (4):553-572.
    Leibniz’s reasons for rejecting materialism are complex and often rely on assumptions that are deeply puzzling to contemporary philosophers. However, the discussion of these issues in § 17 of the Monadology has received a lot of attention over the past couple of decades. For it is here that Leibniz presents the most well known version of his “mill argument.”.
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  18.  30
    Leibniz and His Correspondents.Paul Lodge (ed.) - 2004 - Cambridge University Press.
    Unlike most of the other great philosophers Leibniz never wrote a magnum opus, so his philosophical correspondence is essential for an understanding of his views. This collection of essays by pre-eminent figures in the field of Leibniz scholarship is a most thorough account of Leibniz's philosophical correspondencee. It both illuminates Leibniz's philosophical views and pays due attention to the dialectical context in which the relevant passages from the letters occur. The result is a book of enormous value to all serious (...)
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  19.  26
    True and False Mysticism in Leibniz.Paul Lodge - 2015 - The Leibniz Review 25:55-87.
    The question of Leibniz’s relationship to mysticism has been a topic of some debate since the early part of the 20th Century. An initial wave of scholarship led by Jean Baruzi presented Leibniz mystic. However, later in the 20th Century the mood turned against this view and this negative appraisal holds sway today. In this paper I aim to do two things: First I provide a detailed account of the ways in which Leibniz is critical of mysticism; second, I argue (...)
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  20.  52
    The Failure of Leibniz’s Correspondence with De Volder.Paul Lodge - 1998 - The Leibniz Review 8:47-67.
  21.  52
    Leibniz, Bayle, and Locke on Faith and Reason.Paul Lodge & Ben Crowe - 2002 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 76 (4):575-600.
    This paper illuminates Leibniz’s conception of faith and its relationship to reason. Given Leibniz’s commitment to natural religion, we might expect his view of faith to be deflationary. We show, however, that Leibniz’s conception of faith involves a significant non-rational element. We approach the issue by considering the way in which Leibniz positions himself between the views of two of his contemporaries, Bayle and Locke. Unlike Bayle, but like Locke, Leibniz argues that reason and faith are in conformity. Nevertheless, in (...)
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  22.  84
    Leibniz on Divisibility, Aggregates, and Cartesian Bodies.Paul Lodge - 2002 - Studia Leibnitiana 34 (1):59 - 80.
    Seine Kritik an Descartes' Auffassung vom Körper gründet Leibniz bekanntlich auf Erörterungen zur Teilbarkeit und Ausdehnung. Obgleich jene Argumentation im Fokus einer Auseinandersetzung mit Leibniz' Metaphysik angesiedelt werden muss, ist sie bisher nicht recht verstanden worden. Mein Anliegen hier ist im Kern, Leibniz' Gedankengang zu explizieren und dessen Stichhaltigkeit auszuleuchten. Das Argument, um das es geht, ist wohl am ehesten aus der Darlegung in Leibniz' Korrespondenz mit Antoine Arnauld bekannt, findet sich jedoch zudem im späteren Briefwechsel mit De Volder. Neben (...)
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  23.  35
    Leibniz and the Two Sophies: The Philosophical Correspondence.Paul Lodge - 2012 - The Leibniz Review 22:179-190.
  24.  42
    Force and the Nature of Body in Discourse on Metaphysics §§17-18.Paul Lodge - 1997 - The Leibniz Review 7:116-124.
    According to Robert Sleigh Jr., “The opening remarks of DM.18 make it clear that Leibniz took the results of DM.17 as either establishing, or at least going a long way toward establishing, that force is not identifiable with any mode characterizable terms of size, shape, and motion.” Sleigh finds this puzzling and suggests that other commentators have generally been insufficiently perplexed by the bearing that the DM.17 has on the metaphysical issue. He notes that §17 of the Discourse is a (...)
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  25.  41
    Leibniz’s Commitment to the Pre-Established Harmony in the Late 1670s and Early 1680s.Paul Lodge - 1998 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 80 (3):292-320.
  26.  37
    The Debate Over Extended Substance in Leibniz's Correspondence with de Volder.Paul Lodge - 2001 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 15 (2):155 – 165.
    Between 1698 and 1706 Leibniz was engaged in one of his most interesting correspondences, with the Dutch philosopher and physicist Burcher de Volder. The two men were concerned primarily with the question of how the motion of bodies can be explained without appeal to the direct intervention of God. Leibniz presented a naturalistic account of motion to De Volder, but failed to convince him of its adequacy. I shall examine one reason for this failure - the disagreement that arose over (...)
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  27.  30
    Primitive and Derivative Forces in Leibnizian Bodies.Paul Lodge - 2001 - In H. Poser (ed.), Nihil Sine Ratione: Mensch, Natur und Technik im Wirken von G. W. Leibniz. pp. 720-727.
    It is well known that Leibniz believes that the motion of bodies is caused by an internal force.1 Moreover, he distinguishes between two kinds of force that are associated with bodies, which he calls primitive and derivative forces respectively. My aim is to explain Leibniz’s account of the relation between these two kinds of force, and to address a puzzle that arises in connection with this relation. In fact Leibniz speaks of two different kinds of derivative force. The first, and (...)
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  28.  9
    The Failure of Leibniz’s Correspondence with De Volder.Paul Lodge - 1998 - The Leibniz Review 8:47-67.
  29.  40
    Past Masters Electronic Texts in Philosophy.Paul Lodge - 2001 - The Leibniz Review 11:51-57.
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  30. Leibniz's Close Encounter with Cartesianism in the Correspondence with De Volder.Paul Lodge - 2004 - In Leibniz and His Correspondents. Cambridge: Uk ;Cambridge University Press. pp. 162--192.
     
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  31.  32
    Leibniz Microfilms at the University of Pennsylvania.Paul Lodge - 1996 - The Leibniz Review 6:164-169.
    Thanks to the efforts of Paul Schrecker and John W. Nason some half century ago, the University of Pennsylvania is home to microfilm reproductions of over one hundred thousand hand-written pages drawn from the collection of Leibniz’s papers presently housed in the Niedersächsische Landesbibliothek, Hannover. The microfilms are to be found on the mezzanine floor of the reference section in the Van Pelt Library and are readily accessible to visitors. Xerox copies may be made, although the Van Pelt Library stresses (...)
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  32.  47
    When Did Leibniz Adopt the Pre-Established Harmony?Paul Lodge - 1996 - The Leibniz Review 6:170-171.
    It has become something of a received view among contemporary scholars that Leibniz first adopted the pre-established harmony around the time of the Discourse on Metaphysics and Correspondence with Arnauld, i.e., 1686-87. However, in their recent contribution to the Cambridge Companion to Leibniz, Christia Mercer and Robert Sleigh Jr. have challenged this orthodoxy by claiming that Leibniz was committed to the doctrine, in all but name, by April 1676. In the present paper, I argue that the evidence that Mercer and (...)
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  33.  44
    The Empirical Grounds for Leibniz’s ‘Real Metaphysics’.Paul Lodge - 2010 - The Leibniz Review 20:13-36.
    In discussion of Leibniz’s philosophical methodology Donald Rutherford defends the view that Leibniz regarded metaphysics as an a priori demonstrative science. In the course of this discussion Rutherford isolates and tries to deflect a significant challenge for his view, namely the observation that in many of his mature writings on metaphysics Leibniz appears to defend his views by means of a posteriori arguments. I present some prima facie difficulties with Rutherford’s position and then offer an alternative account of how Leibniz (...)
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  34. Leibniz's Heterogeneity Argument Against the Cartesian Conception of Body.Paul Lodge - 1998 - Studia Leibnitiana 30 (1):83-102.
    Schon in seinen frühen Jahren war Leibniz ein Gegner der Cartesischen Naturphilosophie, ca. 1697 zeigt sich in seinen Texten dann ein Argument gegen Descartes, das ich im folgenden behandle und als ,heterogeneity argument‘ bezeichnen möchte - eingangs wird hier dargestellt, wie Leibniz es im Paragraphen 13 seiner Schrift De ipsa natura expliziert, anschließend diskutiere ich zwei frühere Ansätze, die sich um das Thema drehen und die darin einig sind, daß Leibniz Descartes' Auffassung von der materiellen Welt aus a priori - (...)
     
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  35.  2
    Past Masters Electronic Texts in Philosophy: Leibniz: Philosophische Schriften, Œuvres Complètes de René Descartes, and The Continental Rationalists. [REVIEW]Paul Lodge - 2001 - The Leibniz Review 11:51-58.
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  36.  35
    American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly, 76:4 (2002), Pp.575-600.Paul Lodge - manuscript
    contemporaries, Bayle and Locke. Unlike Bayle, but like Locke, Leibniz argues that reason and faith are in conformity. Nevertheless, in contrast to the account that he finds in Locke’s Essay, Leibniz does not reduce faith to a species of reasonable belief. Instead, he insists that, while faith must be grounded in reason, true or divine faith also requires a supernatural infusion of grace.
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  37.  16
    Leibniz and the "Vinculum Substantiale" by Brandon Look. [REVIEW]Paul Lodge - 2001 - Isis 92 (2):392-393.
  38.  26
    Leibniz Society Review 7 (1997), 116-24.Paul Lodge - manuscript
    Page 116 According to Robert Sleigh Jr., “The opening remarks of DM.18 make it clear that Leibniz took the results of DM.17 as either establishing, or at least going a long way toward establishing, that force is not identifiable with any mode characterizable terms of size, shape, and motion.”†2 Sleigh finds this puzzling and suggests that other commentators have generally been insufficiently perplexed by the bearing that the DM.17 has on the metaphysical issue. He notes that §17 of the Discourse (...)
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  39.  8
    The Empirical Grounds for Leibniz’s ‘Real Metaphysics’.Paul Lodge - 2010 - The Leibniz Review 20:13-36.
    In discussion of Leibniz’s philosophical methodology Donald Rutherford defends the view that Leibniz regarded metaphysics as an a priori demonstrative science. In the course of this discussion Rutherford isolates and tries to deflect a significant challenge for his view, namely the observation that in many of his mature writings on metaphysics Leibniz appears to defend his views by means of a posteriori arguments. I present some prima facie difficulties with Rutherford’s position and then offer an alternative account of how Leibniz (...)
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  40.  25
    (New Orleans).Paul Lodge - manuscript
    It is well known that Leibniz believes that the motion of bodies is caused by an internal force.1 Moreover, he distinguishes between two kinds of force that are associated with bodies, which he calls primitive and derivative forces respectively. My aim is to explain Leibniz’s account of the relation between these two kinds of force, and to address a puzzle that arises in connection with this relation.
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  41.  7
    When Did Leibniz Adopt the Pre-Established Harmony?Paul Lodge - 1996 - The Leibniz Review 6:170-171.
    It has become something of a received view among contemporary scholars that Leibniz first adopted the pre-established harmony around the time of the Discourse on Metaphysics and Correspondence with Arnauld, i.e., 1686-87. However, in their recent contribution to the Cambridge Companion to Leibniz, Christia Mercer and Robert Sleigh Jr. have challenged this orthodoxy by claiming that Leibniz was committed to the doctrine, in all but name, by April 1676. In the present paper, I argue that the evidence that Mercer and (...)
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  42.  5
    Leibniz Microfilms at the University of Pennsylvania.Paul Lodge - 1996 - The Leibniz Review 6:164-169.
    Thanks to the efforts of Paul Schrecker and John W. Nason some half century ago, the University of Pennsylvania is home to microfilm reproductions of over one hundred thousand hand-written pages drawn from the collection of Leibniz’s papers presently housed in the Niedersächsische Landesbibliothek, Hannover. The microfilms are to be found on the mezzanine floor of the reference section in the Van Pelt Library and are readily accessible to visitors. Xerox copies may be made, although the Van Pelt Library stresses (...)
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  43.  1
    Leibniz and the Two Sophies: The Philosophical Correspondence. [REVIEW]Paul Lodge - 2012 - The Leibniz Review 22:179-190.
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  44.  1
    Past Masters Electronic Texts in Philosophy. [REVIEW]Paul Lodge - 2001 - The Leibniz Review 11:51-57.
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  45. Leibniz’s Key Philosophical Writings: A Guide.Paul Lodge & Lloyd Strickland - forthcoming - Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.