Results for 'personhood'

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  1.  29
    3 Developmental Perspective on the Emergence of Moral Personhood James C. Harris.Moral Personhood - 2010 - In Eva Feder Kittay & Licia Carlson (eds.), Cognitive Disability and its Challenge to Moral Philosophy. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 55.
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  2. Personhood and Neuroscience: Naturalizing or Nihilating?Martha J. Farah & Andrea S. Heberlein - 2007 - American Journal of Bioethics 7 (1):37-48.
    Personhood is a foundational concept in ethics, yet defining criteria have been elusive. In this article we summarize attempts to define personhood in psychological and neurological terms and conclude that none manage to be both specific and non-arbitrary. We propose that this is because the concept does not correspond to any real category of objects in the world. Rather, it is the product of an evolved brain system that develops innately and projects itself automatically and irrepressibly onto the (...)
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  3. Sorting Out Aspects of Personhood.Arto Laitinen - 2007 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 2007 (5-6):248-270.
    This paper examines how three central aspects of personhood — the capacities of individuals, their normative status, and the social aspect of being recognized — are related, and how personhood depends on them. The paper defends first of all a ‘basic view’that while actual recognition is among the constitutive elements of full personhood, it is the individual capacities (and not full personhood) which ground the basic moral and normative demands concerning treatment of persons. Actual recognition depends (...)
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  4. At the Margins of Moral Personhood.Eva Feder Kittay - 2005 - Ethics 116 (1):100-131.
    In this article I examine the proposition that severe cognitive disability is an impediment to moral personhood. Moral personhood, as I understand it here, is articulated in the work of Jeff McMahan as that which confers a special moral status on a person. I rehearse the metaphysical arguments about the nature of personhood that ground McMahan’s claims regarding the moral status of the “congenitally severely mentally retarded” (CSMR for short). These claims, I argue, rest on the view (...)
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  5. The Future of Humanity: Heidegger, Personhood and Technology.Mahon O'Brien - 2011 - Comparative Philosophy 2 (2):23-49.
    This paper argues that a number of entrenched posthumanist positions are seriously flawed as a result of their dependence on a technical interpretive approach that creates more problems than it solves. During the course of our discussion we consider in particular the question of personhood. After all, until we can determine what it means to be a person we cannot really discuss what it means to improve a person. What kinds of enhancements would even constitute improvements? This in turn (...)
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  6.  30
    Personhood and Rights in an African Tradition.Molefe Motsamai - 2017 - Politikon:1-15.
    It is generally accepted that the normative idea of personhood is central to African moral thought, but what has not been done in the literature is to explicate its relationship to the Western idea of rights. In this article, I investigate this relationship between rights and an African normative conception of personhood. My aim, ultimately, is to give us a cursory sense why duties engendered by rights and those by the idea of personhood will tend to clash. (...)
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  7.  5
    Personhood and the Scope of Moral Duty.Dustin Arand - 2017 - Essays in the Philosophy of Humanism 25 (2):119-139.
    In this essay I craft a procedure for evaluating claims of moral personhood that would allow us to answer ethical questions raised by issues like abortion, animal rights, artificial intelligence, etc. I focus specifically on the abortion debate as a case study for applying my procedure. I argue that our moral instincts have evolved to promote group cohesion, a necessary prerequisite of which is reliable identification of other group members. These are “persons” in the moral sense of the word. (...)
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  8.  26
    We ’Re All Infected: Legal Personhood, Bare Life and The Walking Dead‘.Mitchell Travis - 2015 - International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique 28 (4):787-800.
    This article argues that greater theoretical attention should be paid to the figure of the zombie in the fields of law, cultural studies and philosophy. Using The Walking Dead as a point of critical departure concepts of legal personhood are interrogated in relation to permanent vegetative states, bare life and the notion of the third person. Ultimately, the paper recommends a rejection of personhood; instead favouring a legal and philosophical engagement with humanity and embodiment. Personhood, it is (...)
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  9. Free Will Skepticism and Personhood as a Desert Base.Benjamin Vilhauer - 2009 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 39 (3):pp. 489-511.
    In contemporary free will theory, a significant number of philosophers are once again taking seriously the possibility that human beings do not have free will, and are therefore not morally responsible for their actions. Free will theorists commonly assume that giving up the belief that human beings are morally responsible implies giving up all our beliefs about desert. But the consequences of giving up the belief that we are morally responsible are not quite this dramatic. Giving up the belief that (...)
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  10. Socialization, Reflection, and Personhood.Hanne Jacobs - 2016 - In Harald A. Wiltsche & Sonja Rinofner-Kreidl (eds.), Analytic and Continental Philosophy: Methods and Perspectives. Proceedings of the 37th International Wittgenstein Symposium. De Gruyter. pp. 323-336.
    According to a predominant view, reflection is constitutive of personhood. In this paper I first indicate how it might seem that such an account cannot do justice to the socially embedded nature ofpersonhood. I then present a phenomenologically-inspired account of reflection as critical stance taking and show how it accommodates the social embeddedness of persons. In concluding, I outline how this phenomenological account is also not vulnerable to a number of additional challenges that have been raised against accounts that (...)
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  11.  73
    Legal Personhood for Artificial Intelligences.Lawrence B. Solum - 1992 - North Carolina Law Review 70:1231.
    Could an artificial intelligence become a legal person? As of today, this question is only theoretical. No existing computer program currently possesses the sort of capacities that would justify serious judicial inquiry into the question of legal personhood. The question is nonetheless of some interest. Cognitive science begins with the assumption that the nature of human intelligence is computational, and therefore, that the human mind can, in principle, be modelled as a program that runs on a computer. Artificial intelligence (...)
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  12.  20
    Habits: Bridging the Gap Between Personhood and Personal Identity.Nils-Frederic Wagner & Georg Northoff - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
    In philosophy, the criteria for personhood (PH) at a specific point in time (synchronic), and the necessary and sufficient conditions of personal identity (PI) over time (diachronic) are traditionally separated. Hence, the transition between both timescales of a person's life remains largely unclear. Personal habits reflect a decision-making (DM) process that binds together synchronic and diachronic timescales. Despite the fact that the actualization of habits takes place synchronically, they presuppose, for the possibility of their generation, time in a diachronic (...)
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  13.  40
    The Conceptual Inexhaustibility of Personhood.Andreas Kemmerling - 2015 - Tsinghua Studies in Western Philosophy 1 (1):368-399.
    Some leading neuro-scientists recently proclaimed an obviously false view that a human person is his/her brain. This falsity arises partly from the conceptual difficulties concerning personhood/a person. By revealing inexhaustible richness of the characteristics of this concept of a person, this essay explains why the concept is so utterly puzzling. The author contrasts Descartes’ concept of a person with Locke’s. For Descartes, the concept has four features: (1) it is the concept of the mind/body-union; (2) it is innate and (...)
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  14.  12
    Personhood and Natural Kinds: Why Cognitive Status Need Not Affect Moral Status.Joseph Vukov - 2017 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy: A Forum for Bioethics and Philosophy of Medicine 42 (3):261-277.
    Lockean accounts of personhood propose that an individual is a person just in case that individual is characterized by some advanced cognitive capacity. On these accounts, human beings with severe cognitive impairment are not persons. Some accept this result—I do not. In this paper, I therefore advance and defend an account of personhood that secures personhood for human beings who are cognitively impaired. On the account for which I argue, an individual is a person just in case (...)
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  15.  46
    A Confucian View of Personhood and Bioethics.Erika Yu & Ruiping Fan - 2007 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 4 (3):171-179.
    This paper focuses on Confucian formulations of personhood and the implications they may have for bioethics and medical practice. We discuss how an appreciation of the Confucian concept of personhood can provide insights into the practice of informed consent and, in particular, the role of family members and physicians in medical decision-making in societies influenced by Confucian culture. We suggest that Western notions of informed consent appear ethically misguided when viewed from a Confucian perspective.
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  16.  9
    A Philosophical Defense of the Idea That We Can Hold Each Other in Personhood: Intercorporeal Personhood in Dementia Care. [REVIEW]Kristin Zeiler - 2014 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 17 (1):131-141.
    Since John Locke, regnant conceptions of personhood in Western philosophy have focused on individual capabilities for complex forms of consciousness that involve cognition such as the capability to remember past events and one’s own past actions, to think about and identify oneself as oneself, and/or to reason. Conceptions of personhood such as Locke's qualify as cognition-oriented, and they often fail to acknowledge the role of embodiment for personhood. This article offers an alternative conception of personhood from (...)
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  17.  40
    Theory of Personhood in Nishida Kitarō and Mou Zongsan: Reflections on Critical Buddhism's View of the Kyoto School.Tomomi Asakura - 2015 - Taiwan Journal of East Asian Studies 12 (1):41-63.
    This paper attempts to interpret the theory of personhood in the works of Nishida Kitarō (1870-1945) in a way that refutes a certain type of Nishida interpretation that Critical Buddhism offers. According to this type of interpretation, the logic of basho is a modern version of the Qixinlun system. Based on this interpretation, Critical Buddhism denounces Kyoto School philosophy as "topical Buddhism." This paper shows how Nishida himself consciously differentiates his philosophy from the idealistic and monistic system with which (...)
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  18.  54
    Personhood, Potentiality, and Normativity.Michael Gorman - 2011 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 85 (3):483-498.
    The lives of persons are valuable, but are all humans persons? Some humans—the immature, the damaged, and the defective—are not capable, here and now, of engaging in the rational activities characteristic of persons, and for this reason, one might call their personhood into question. A standard way of defendingit is by appeal to potentiality: we know they are persons because we know they have the potentiality to engage in rational activities. In this paper I develop acomplementary strategy based on (...)
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  19.  41
    Artificial Agents - Personhood in Law and Philosophy.Samir Chopra - manuscript
    Thinking about how the law might decide whether to extend legal personhood to artificial agents provides a valuable testbed for philosophical theories of mind. Further, philosophical and legal theorising about personhood for artificial agents can be mutually informing. We investigate two case studies, drawing on legal discussions of the status of artificial agents. The first looks at the doctrinal difficulties presented by the contracts entered into by artificial agents. We conclude that it is not necessary or desirable to (...)
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  20.  47
    Avoiding the Personhood Issue: Abortion, Identity, and Marquis's ‘Future‐Like‐Ours’ Argument.Eric Reitan - 2016 - Bioethics 30 (4):272-281.
    One reason for the persistent appeal of Don Marquis' ‘future like ours’ argument is that it seems to offer a way to approach the debate about the morality of abortion while sidestepping the difficult task of establishing whether the fetus is a person. This essay argues that in order to satisfactorily address both of the chief objections to FLO – the ‘identity objection’ and the ‘contraception objection’ – Marquis must take a controversial stand on what is most essential to being (...)
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  21.  3
    Understanding the Fluid Nature of Personhood – the Ring Theory of Personhood.Lalit Kumar Radha Krishna & Rayan Alsuwaigh - 2015 - Bioethics 29 (3):171-181.
    Familial determination, replete with its frequent usurping of patient autonomy, propagation of collusion, and circumnavigation of direct patient involvement in their own care deliberations, continues to impact clinical practice in many Asian nations. Suggestions that underpinning this practice, in Confucian-inspired societies, is the adherence of the populace to the familial centric ideas of personhood espoused by Confucian ethics, provide a novel means of understanding and improving patient-centred care at the end of life. Clinical experience in Confucian-inspired Singapore, however, suggests (...)
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  22.  88
    Persons, Signs, Animals: A Peircean Account of Personhood.Robert Lane - 2009 - Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 45 (1):pp. 1-26.
    In this essay I describe two of the accounts that Peirce provides of personhood: the semiotic account, on which a person is a sequence of thought-signs, and the naturalistic account, on which a person is an animal. I then argue that these disparate accounts can be reconciled into a plausible view on which persons are numerically distinct entities that are nevertheless continuous with each other in an important way. This view would be agreeable to Peirce in some respects, as (...)
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  23.  49
    Property, Privacy and Personhood in a World of Ambient Intelligence.Niels van Dijk - 2010 - Ethics and Information Technology 12 (1):57-69.
    Profiling technologies are the facilitating force behind the vision of Ambient Intelligence in which everyday devices are connected and embedded with all kinds of smart characteristics enabling them to take decisions in order to serve our preferences without us being aware of it. These technological practices have considerable impact on the process by which our personhood takes shape and pose threats like discrimination and normalisation. The legal response to these developments should move away from a focus on entitlements to (...)
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  24.  58
    Preembryo Personhood: An Assessment of the President's Council Arguments. [REVIEW]Carson Strong - 2006 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 27 (5):433-453.
    The President’s Council on Bioethics has addressed the moral status of human preembryos in its reports on stem cell research and human therapeutic cloning. Although the Council has been criticized for being hand-picked to favor the right-to-life viewpoint concerning human preembryos, it has embraced the idea that the right-to-life position should be defended in secular terms. This is an important feature of the Council’s work, and it demonstrates a recognition of the need for genuine engagement between opposing sides in the (...)
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  25.  88
    Dimensions of Personhood. Editors' Introduction.Heikki Ikäheimo & Arto Laitinen - 2007 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 14 (5-6):6-16.
    The editors' introduction to a collection on personhood. The collection is organized in three parts, with thematically differentfocuses, but also significant overlap due to the interconnectedness of the discussed issues. The first part discusses and distinguishes spe-cific ontological and conceptual questions concerning personhoodand our fundamental nature; the second part focuses on some of themost fundamental kinds of self-relations of persons, as well as their preconditions; finally, the third part focuses on interpersonal or socialrelations characteristic or constitutive of personhood. (...)
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  26.  56
    Towards an Alternative Approach to Personhood in the End of Life Questions.Sirkku Kristiina Hellsten - 2000 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 21 (6):515-536.
    Within the Western bioethical framework, we make adistinction between two dominant interpretations of the meaning of moral personhood: thenaturalist and the humanist one. While both interpretations of moral personhood claim topromote individual autonomy and rights, they end up with very different normativeviews on the practical and legal measures needed to realize these values in every daylife. Particularly when we talk about the end of life issues it appears that in general thearguments for euthanasia are drawn from the naturalist (...)
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  27.  55
    Split Brains and Singular Personhood.John D. Greenwood - 1993 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 31 (3):285-306.
    In this paper it is argued that the experimental data on commissurotomy patients provide no grounds for denying the singular personhood of commissurotomy patients. This is because, contrary to most philosophical accounts, there is no “unity of consciousness” discriminating condition for singular personhood that is violated in the case of commissurotomy patients, and because no contradictions arise when singular personhood is ascribed to commissurotomy patients.
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  28.  42
    Abortion and Degrees of Personhood: Understanding the Impasse of the Abortion Problem.Hon-Lam Li - 1997 - Public Affairs Quarterly 11 (1):1-19.
    I argue that the personhood of a fetus is analogous to the the heap. If this is correct, then the moral status or intrinsic value of a fetus would be supervenient upon the fetus's biological development. Yet to compare its claim vis-a-vis its mother's, we need to consider not only their moral status, but also the type of claim they each have. Thus we have to give weight to the two factors or variables of the mother's moral status and (...)
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  29.  2
    The Function of “It” in Ifeanyi Menkiti’s Normative Account of Personhood: A Response to Bernard Matolino.Molefe Motsamai & Maraganedzha Mutshidzi - 2017 - Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions 6 (1):90-109.
    This article is a response to Bernard Matolino’s criticisms against Ifeanyi Menkiti’s elucidations on the normative notion of personhood in African philosophy. This article argues that Menkiti’s article is best understood to be ultimately focused on articulating the normative notion of personhood; so understood, Menkiti’s analysis eschews many of the objections made against it by Matolino. We show that the confusion lies in a general failure in African philosophy to distinguish three distinct senses of the notion of a (...)
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  30.  47
    Women's Anger, Epistemic Personhood, and Self-Respect: An Application of Lehrer's Work on Self-Trust.Kristin Borgwald - 2012 - Philosophical Studies 161 (1):69-76.
    I argue in this paper that the work of Keith Lehrer, especially in his book Self-Trust has applications to feminist ethics; specifically care ethics, which has become the leading form of normative sentimentalist ethics. I extend Lehrer's ideas concerning reason and justification of belief beyond what he says by applying the notion of evaluation central to his account of acceptance to the need for evaluation of emotions. The inability to evaluate and attain justification of one's emotions is an epistemic failure (...)
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  31.  24
    Automatic Behavior and Moral Agency: Defending the Concept of Personhood From Empirically Based Skepticism.C. D. Meyers - 2015 - Acta Analytica 30 (2):193-209.
    Empirical evidence indicates that much of human behavior is unconscious and automatic. This has led some philosophers to be skeptical of responsible agency or personhood in the moral sense. I present two arguments defending agency from these skeptical concerns. My first argument, the “margin of error” argument, is that the empirical evidence is consistent with the possibility that our automatic behavior deviates only slightly from what we would do if we were in full conscious control. Responsible agency requires only (...)
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  32.  63
    “Other Selves”: Moral and Legal Proposals Regarding the Personhood of Cryopreserved Human Embryos.E. Christian Brugger - 2009 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 30 (2):105-129.
    This essay has two purposes. The first is to argue that our moral duties towards human embryos should be assessed in light of the Golden Rule by asking the normative question, “how would I want to be treated if I were an embryo?” Some reject the proposition “I was an embryo” on the basis that embryos should not be recognized as persons. This essay replies to five common arguments denying the personhood of human embryos: (1) that early human embryos (...)
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  33.  24
    Brain Simulation and Personhood: A Concern with the Human Brain Project.Daniel Lim - 2014 - Ethics and Information Technology 16 (2):77-89.
    The Human Brain Project (HBP) is a massive interdisciplinary project involving hundreds of researchers across more than eighty institutions that seeks to leverage cutting edge information and communication technologies to create a multi-level brain simulation platform (BSP). My worry is that some brain models running on the BSP will be persons. If this is right then not only will the in silico experiments the HBP envisions being carried on the BSP be unethical the mere termination of certain brain models running (...)
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  34.  54
    Humanizing Personhood.Adam Kadlac - 2010 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 13 (4):421 - 437.
    This paper explores the debate between personists, who argue that the concept of a person if of central importance for moral thought, and personists, who argue that the concept of a human being is of greater moral significance. On the one hand, it argues that normative naturalism, the most ambitious defense of the humanist position, fails to identify moral standards with standards of human behavior and thereby fails to undermine the moral significance of personhood. At the same time, it (...)
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  35.  10
    How Psychology Erodes Personhood.Philip Cushman - 2002 - Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 22 (2):103-113.
    For the purposes of addressing some of our most pressing dilemmas and deficiencies today, in both our society and the field of psychology, it is helpful to think of the last 115 years or so as an evolution, in many quarters, from Victorian character to a painful kind of "empty self" to an even more devastating kind of fragmentation I dub "multiple self." I explore ways in which the DSM is a more or less witting carrier of these troubling forms (...)
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  36. On the Notion of Moral Status and Personhood in Biomedical Ethics.Azam Golam - 2010 - The Dhaka Univrsity Studies 67 (1):83-96.
    Personhood argument is important in moral philosophy specially to determine the moral status of a being (human or non-human) and organism. Justifying moral status of these is significant and necessary because without knowing whether those substances have moral status, it is difficult to sketch a moral considering framework for moral action towards them. There are a number of standards e.g. sentience, higher cognitive capacities, the capacity to flourish, sociability, the possession of life, viability, personhood etc, to determine moral (...)
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  37.  15
    Excavating Foundations of Legal Personhood: Fichte on Autonomy and Self-Consciousness.Susanna Lindroos-Hovinheimo - 2015 - International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique 28 (3):687-702.
    Law functions on the basis of some presuppositions of what a person is. The purposes and tasks that are projected on a legal system depend on an understanding of personhood. Also, courts continuously find themselves in situations where they have to define the person or the legal subject, at times with surprising consequences. However, legal theory lacks clear criteria for personhood. We do not know who or what a legal person is, nor do we know what kind of (...)
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  38.  18
    Rituals of Infant Death: Defining Life and Islamic Personhood.Alison Shaw - 2014 - Bioethics 28 (2):84-95.
    This article is about the recognition of personhood when death occurs in early life. Drawing from anthropological perspectives on personhood at the beginnings and ends of life, it examines the implications of competing religious and customary definitions of personhood for a small sample of young British Pakistani Muslim women who experienced miscarriage and stillbirth. It suggests that these women's concerns about the lack of recognition given to the personhood of their fetus or baby constitute a challenge (...)
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  39.  23
    From Psychologism to Personhood: Honneth, Recognition, and the Making of Persons.Renante Pilapil - 2012 - Res Publica 18 (1):39-51.
    The paper explores the philosophical anthropology and the moral grammar of recognition. It does so by examining how the formation of the self is informed by social recognition, the result of which can motivate individuals and groups to engage in struggles for recognition. To pursue this task, the discussion focuses on the insights of Honneth, who grounds his theory of recognition in the intersubjective relations between persons. The idea that recognition impacts the formation of personal identity is regarded as susceptible (...)
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  40.  3
    3. Personhood as Strongly Valued: A Strong Evaluator as an End in Itself.Arto Laitinen - 2008 - In Strong Evaluation Without Moral Sources: On Charles Taylor's Philosophical Anthropology and Ethics. Berlin & New York: Walter de Gruyter.
    In this chapter I pursue the connection between humans as strong evaluators and humans as strongly valued. The connection is, quite simply, that strong evaluators are valued because they are strong evaluators. Yet, this valuing is of two kinds: someone’s achievements as a strong evaluator can be esteemed, or he can be respected as a person. Personhood is a specific kind of moral status, but it is based on personhood in the descriptive sense. Taylor’s views on persons can (...)
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  41.  3
    Property, Privacy and Personhood in a World of Ambient Intelligence.Niels Dijk - 2010 - Ethics and Information Technology 12 (1):57-69.
    Profiling technologies are the facilitating force behind the vision of Ambient Intelligence in which everyday devices are connected and embedded with all kinds of smart characteristics enabling them to take decisions in order to serve our preferences without us being aware of it. These technological practices have considerable impact on the process by which our personhood takes shape and pose threats like discrimination and normalisation. The legal response to these developments should move away from a focus on entitlements to (...)
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  42. Humanism for Personhood: Against Human-Racism.James Hughes - 2004 - Free Inquiry 24.
    To the degree that we succeed in our campaign for personhood over human-racism we will fulfill the dreams of our humanist forebears.
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  43. Shadow People: Relational Personhood, Extended Diachronic Personal Identity, and Our Moral Obligations Toward Fragile Persons.Bartlomiej Lenart - 2014 - Dissertation, University of Alberta
    This Dissertation argues for a care-centrically grounded account of relational personhood and widely realized diachronic personal identity. The moral distinction between persons and non-persons is arguably one of the most salient ethical lines we can draw since many of our most fundamental rights are delineated via the bounds of personhood. The problem with drawing such morally salient lines is that the orthodox, rationalistic definition of personhood, which is widespread within philosophical, medical, and colloquial spheres, excludes, and thereby (...)
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  44. Personhood and Partialism in African Philosophy.Molefe Motsamai - forthcoming - African Studies.
    This article ascertains what philosophical implications can be drawn from the moral idea of personhood dominant in African philosophy. This article aims to go beyond the oft-made submission that this moral idea of personhood is definitive of African moral thought. It does so by advancing discourse with regards to personhood by exploring its relationship with another under-explored idea in African ethics, the idea of partialism. This article ultimately argues that the idea of personhood can be associated (...)
     
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  45. Artificial Intelligence and Personhood.Robert K. Garcia - 2002 - In John Kilner, Diane Uustal & Christopher Hook (eds.), Cutting Edge Bioethics: A Christian Exploration of Technology and Trends.
  46. Narrative Unity as a Condition of Personhood.John P. Christman - 2004 - Metaphilosophy 35 (5):695-713.
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  47.  12
    Interdisciplinary Workshop Report: Methodology and 'Personhood and Identity in Medicine'.Elselijn Kingma & Mary Margaret McCabe - 2012 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (5):1057-1063.
  48. Against "Humanism": Speciesism, Personhood, and Preference.Simon Cushing - 2003 - Journal of Social Philosophy 34 (4):556–571.
    Article responds to the criticism of speciesism that it is somehow less immoral than other -isms by showing that this is a mistake resting on an inadequate taxonomy of the various -isms. Criticizes argument by Bonnie Steinbock that preference to your own species is not immoral by comparison with racism of comparable level.
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  49.  15
    Valuing Life as Necessary for Moral Status: A Noteon Depression and Personhood.Joshua Stein - 2016 - Neuroethics 9 (1):45-51.
    Many contemporary accounts of moral status consider an individual's status to be grounded in some cognitive capacity, e.g. the capacity to experience certain states, to reason morally, etc. One proposed cognitive capacity significant particularly to killing, i.e. having a status that precludes being killed absent cause, is the capacity to value one's own life. I argue that considering this a condition for moral status is a mistake, as it would lead to the exclusion of some individuals with mental health problems (...)
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    The Evolution of Animal Play, Emotions, and Social Morality: On Science, Theology, Spirituality, Personhood, and Love.Marc Bekoff - 2001 - Zygon 36 (4):615-655.
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