Results for 'philosophy of science'

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  1. Evidence: Philosophy of Science Meets Medicine.John Worrall - 2010 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (2):356-362.
    Obviously medicine should be evidence-based. The issues lie in the details: what exactly counts as evidence? Do certain kinds of evidence carry more weight than others? And how exactly should medicine be based on evidence? When it comes to these details, the evidence-based medicine movement has got itself into a mess – or so it will be argued. In order to start to resolve this mess, we need to go 'back to basics'; and that means turning to the philosophy (...)
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  2. Computational Philosophy of Science.Paul Thagard - 1988
  3.  2
    Philosophy of Science: A Unified Approach.Gerhard Schurz - 2013 - Routledge.
    Philosophy of Science: A Unified Approach combines a general introduction to philosophy of science with an integrated survey of all its important subfields. As the book’s subtitle suggests, this excellent overview is guided methodologically by "a unified approach" to philosophy of science: behind the diversity of scientific fields one can recognize a methodological unity of the sciences. This unity is worked out in this book, revealing all the while important differences between subject areas. Structurally, (...)
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  4.  2
    Bayesian Philosophy of Science.Jan Sprenger & Stephan Hartmann - 2019 - Oxford University Press.
    Jan Sprenger and Stephan Hartmann offer a fresh approach to central topics in philosophy of science, including causation, explanation, evidence, and scientific models. Their Bayesian approach uses the concept of degrees of belief to explain and to elucidate manifold aspects of scientific reasoning.
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  5.  75
    Philosophy of Science and the Replicability Crisis.Felipe Romero - 2019 - Philosophy Compass 14 (11).
    Replicability is widely taken to ground the epistemic authority of science. However, in recent years, important published findings in the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences have failed to replicate, suggesting that these fields are facing a “replicability crisis.” For philosophers, the crisis should not be taken as bad news but as an opportunity to do work on several fronts, including conceptual analysis, history and philosophy of science, research ethics, and social epistemology. This article introduces philosophers to these (...)
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  6.  84
    Feminist Philosophy of Science: History, Contributions, and Challenges.Sarah S. Richardson - 2010 - Synthese 177 (3):337-362.
    Feminist philosophy of science has led to improvements in the practices and products of scientific knowledge-making, and in this way it exemplifies socially relevant philosophy of science. It has also yielded important insights and original research questions for philosophy. Feminist scholarship on science thus presents a worthy thought-model for considering how we might build a more socially relevant philosophy of science—the question posed by the editors of this special issue. In this analysis (...)
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  7. Feminist Philosophy of Science: Standpoint Matters.Alison Wylie - 2012 - Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophy Association 86 (2):47-76.
    Standpoint theory is an explicitly political as well as social epistemology. Its central insight is that epistemic advantage may accrue to those who are oppressed by structures of domination and discounted as knowers. Feminist standpoint theorists hold that gender is one dimension of social differentiation that can make such a difference. In response to two longstanding objections I argue that epistemically consequential standpoints need not be conceptualized in essentialist terms, and that they do not confer automatic or comprehensive epistemic privilege (...)
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  8.  61
    Philosophy of Science: A Contemporary Introduction.Alex Rosenberg - 2000 - Routledge.
    This user-friendly text covers key issues in the philosophy of science in an accessible and philosophically serious way. It will prove valuable to students studying philosophy of science as well as science students. Prize-winning author Alex Rosenberg explores the philosophical problems that science raises by its very nature and method. He skilfully demonstrates that scientific explanation, laws, causation, theory, models, evidence, reductionism, probability, teleology, realism and instrumentalism actually pose the same questions that Plato, Aristotle, (...)
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  9. Philosophy of Science and Race.Naomi Zack - 2002 - Routledge.
    First published in 2003. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
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  10.  28
    Empirical Philosophy of Science: Introducing Qualitative Methods Into Philosophy of Science.Hanne Andersen, Nancy Nersessian & Susann Wagenknecht (eds.) - 2015 - Springer International Publishing.
    The book examines the emerging approach of using qualitative methods, such as interviews and field observations, in the philosophy of science. Qualitative methods are gaining popularity among philosophers of science as more and more scholars are resorting to empirical work in their study of scientific practices. At the same time, the results produced through empirical work are quite different from those gained through the kind of introspective conceptual analysis more typical of philosophy. This volume explores the (...)
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  11. The Philosophy of Science: An Encyclopedia.Sahotra Sarkar & Jessica Pfeifer (eds.) - 2006 - Routledge.
    The philosophy of science is the branch of philosophy that examines the profound philosophical questions that arise from scientific research and theories. A sub-discipline of philosophy that emerged in the twentieth century, the philosophy of science is largely a product of the British and Austrian schools of thought and traditions. The first in-depth reference in the field that combines scientific knowledge with philosophical inquiry, The Philosophy of Science: An Encyclopedia is a two-volume (...)
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  12.  12
    Philosophy of Science Viewed Through the Lense of “Referenced Publication Years Spectroscopy” (RPYS).K. Brad Wray & Lutz Bornmann - 2015 - Scientometrics 102 (3):1987-1996.
    We examine the sub-field of philosophy of science using a new method developed in information science, Referenced Publication Years Spectroscopy (RPYS). RPYS allows us to identify peak years in citations in a field, which promises to help scholars identify the key contributions to a field, and revolutionary discoveries in a field. We discovered that philosophy of science, a sub-field in the humanities, differs significantly from other fields examined with this method. Books play a more important (...)
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  13.  58
    Philosophy of Science in Germany, 1992–2012: Survey-Based Overview and Quantitative Analysis.Matthias Unterhuber, Alexander Gebharter & Gerhard Schurz - 2014 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 45 (1):71-160.
    An overview of the German philosophy of science community is given for the years 1992–2012, based on a survey in which 159 philosophers of science in Germany participated. To this end, the institutional background of the German philosophy of science community is examined in terms of journals, centers, and associations. Furthermore, a qualitative description and a quantitative analysis of our survey results are presented. Quantitative estimates are given for: (a) academic positions, (b) research foci, (c) (...)
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  14.  11
    The Philosophy of Science.Stephen Edelston Toulmin - 1953 - New York: Hutchinson's University Library.
  15.  27
    Philosophy of Science Naturalized? Some Problems with Giere's Naturalism.Harvey Siegel - 1989 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 20 (3):365.
    The main thesis is that the study of science must itself be a science. the only viable philosophy of science is a naturalized philosophy of science.
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  16.  42
    Modern Philosophy of Science: Selected Essays.Hans Reichenbach - 1959 - Greenwood Press.
    The present state of the discussion on relativity -- The theory of motion according to Newton, Leibniz, and Huyghens -- Casualty and probability -- Aims and methods of modern philosophy of nature -- The principle of causality and the possibility of its empirical confirmation -- Rationalism and empiricism -- The freedom of the will -- On the explication of ethical utterances.
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  17. Political Philosophy of Science in Logical Empiricism: The Left Vienna Circle.Thomas Uebel - 2005 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 36 (4):754-773.
  18. Philosophy of Science: What Are the Key Journals in the Field?K. Brad Wray - 2010 - Erkenntnis 72 (3):423-430.
    By means of a citation analysis I aim to determine which scholarly journals are most important in the sub-field of philosophy of science. My analysis shows that the six most important journals in the sub-field are Philosophy of Science , British Journal for the Philosophy of Science , Journal of Philosophy , Synthese , Studies in History and Philosophy of Science , and Erkenntnis . Given the data presented in this study, (...)
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  19. Trust, Expertise, and the Philosophy of Science.Kyle Powys Whyte & Robert Crease - 2010 - Synthese 177 (3):411-425.
    Trust is a central concept in the philosophy of science. We highlight how trust is important in the wide variety of interactions between science and society. We claim that examining and clarifying the nature and role of trust (and distrust) in relations between science and society is one principal way in which the philosophy of science is socially relevant. We argue that philosophers of science should extend their efforts to develop normative conceptions of (...)
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  20.  31
    Philosophy of Science in Estonia.Rein Vihalemm & Peeter Müürsepp - 2007 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 38 (1):167-191.
    This paper presents a survey of the philosophy of science in Estonia. Topics covered include the historical background (science at the 17th century Academia Gustaviana, in the 19th century, during the Soviet period) and an overview of the current situation and main areas of research (the problem of demarcation, a critique of the traditional understandings of science, φ-science, classical and non-classical science, the philosophy of chemistry, the problem of induction, the sociology of scientific (...)
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  21.  16
    Normative Philosophy of Science: Responding to Special-Interest Science.Kristin Shrader-Frechette - 2018 - Axiomathes 28 (6):679-693.
    This article shows why it is important to do normative or practical philosophy of science, especially philosophy of science that criticizes and evaluates contemporary use of scientific methods to analyze welfare-affecting societal problems. The article introduces the scientific, ethical, and social problem of environmental injustice—disproportionate environmental and pollution threats that are responsible for roughly 40% of all preventable disease and death. Next it explains that many deadly threats continue in part because of “special-interest science”, methodologically (...)
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  22. Philosophy of Science That Ignores Science: Race, IQ and Heritability.Neven Sesardic - 2000 - Philosophy of Science 67 (4):580-602.
    Philosophers of science widely believe that the hereditarian theory about racial differences in IQ is based on methodological mistakes and confusions involving the concept of heritability. I argue that this "received view" is wrong: methodological criticisms popular among philosophers are seriously misconceived, and the discussion in philosophy of science about these matters is largely disconnected from the real, empirically complex issues debated in science.
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  23.  15
    Philosophy of Science and Philosophy of Chemistry.Jaap Van Brakel - 2014 - Hyle: International Journal for Philosophy of Chemistry 20 (1):11-57.
    In this paper I assess the relation between philosophy of chemistry and philosophy of science, focusing on those themes in the philosophy of chemistry that may bring about major revisions or extensions of current philosophy of science. Three themes can claim to make a unique contribution to philosophy of science: first, the variety of materials in the world; second, extending the world by making new stuff; and, third, specific features of the relations (...)
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  24.  18
    The Philosophy of Science an Introduction.Stephen Edelston Toulmin - 1953 - Hutchinson's University Library.
  25.  13
    The Philosophy of Science.Michael Scriven & Stephen Toulmin - 1955 - Philosophical Review 64 (1):124.
  26.  28
    Engineering Philosophy of Science: American Pragmatism and Logical Empiricism in the 1930s.Alan W. Richardson - 2002 - Philosophy of Science 69 (S3):S36-S47.
    This essay examines logical empiricism and American pragmatism, arguing that American philosophy’s embrace of logical empiricism in the 1930s was not a turning away from Dewey’s pragmatism. It places both movements within scientific philosophy and finds two key points on which they agreed: their revolutionary ambitions and their social engineering sensibility. The essay suggests that the disagreement over emotivism in ethics should be placed within the context of a larger issue on which the movements disagreed: demarcationism and imperialism.
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  27. Engineering Philosophy of Science: American Pragmatism and Logical Empiricism in the 1930s.Alan W. Richardson - 2002 - Proceedings of the Philosophy of Science Association 2002 (3):S36-S47.
    This essay examines logical empiricism and American pragmatism, arguing that American philosophy's embrace of logical empiricism in the 1930s was not a turning away from Dewey's pragmatism. It places both movements within scientific philosophy and finds two key points on which they agreed: their revolutionary ambitions and their social engineering sensibility. The essay suggests that the disagreement over emotivism in ethics should be placed within the context of a larger issue on which the movements disagreed: demarcationism and imperialism.
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  28. Naturalized Philosophy of Science with a Plurality of Methods.David Stump - 1992 - Philosophy of Science 59 (3):456-460.
    Naturalism implies unity of method--an application of the methods of science to the methodology of science itself and to value theory. Epistemological naturalists have tried to find a privileged discipline to be the methodological model of philosophy of science and epistemology. However, since science itself is not unitary, the use of one science as a model amounts to a reduction and distorts the philosophy of science just as badly as traditional philosophy (...)
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  29.  19
    A Philosophy of Science for Personality Theory.Joseph F. Rychlak - 1968 - Krieger Pub. Co..
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  30.  33
    Philosophy of Science and the Persistent Narratives of Modernity.Joseph Rouse - 1991 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 22 (1):141-162.
  31.  11
    Philosophy of Science and Information.Ioannis Votsis - 2016 - In Luciano Floridi (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Information. Routledge.
    Of all the sub-disciplines of philosophy, the philosophy of science has perhaps the most privileged relationship to information theory. This relationship has been forged through a common interest in themes like induction, probability, confirmation, simplicity, non-ad hocness, unification and, more generally, ontology. It also has historical roots. One of the founders of algorithmic information theory, Ray Solomonoff, produced his seminal work on inductive inference as a direct result of grappling with problems first encountered as a student of (...)
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  32.  21
    Modern Philosophy of Science.Wesley C. Salmon, Hans Reichenbach, Maria Reichenbach & Rudolf Carnap - 1960 - Philosophical Review 69 (3):409.
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  33. Computer Simulation and the Philosophy of Science.Eric Winsberg - 2009 - Philosophy Compass 4 (5):835-845.
    There are a variety of topics in the philosophy of science that need to be rethought, in varying degrees, after one pays careful attention to the ways in which computer simulations are used in the sciences. There are a number of conceptual issues internal to the practice of computer simulation that can benefit from the attention of philosophers. This essay surveys some of the recent literature on simulation from the perspective of the philosophy of science and (...)
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  34.  34
    A Philosophy of Science for Personality Theory. Joseph F. Rychlak.Ruben Ardila - 1970 - Philosophy of Science 37 (2):315-316.
  35. Introduction to the Philosophy of Science.Merrilee H. Salmon, John Earman, Clark Glymour & James G. Lennox (eds.) - 1992 - Hackett Publishing Company.
    A reprint of the Prentice-Hall edition of 1992. Prepared by nine distinguished philosophers and historians of science, this thoughtful reader represents a cooperative effort to provide an introduction to the philosophy of science focused on cultivating an understanding of both the workings of science and its historical and social context. Selections range from discussions of topics in general methodology to a sampling of foundational problems in various physical, biological, behavioral, and social sciences. Each chapter contains a (...)
     
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  36.  22
    Tainted: How Philosophy of Science Can Expose Bad Science.Kristin Shrader-Frechette - 2014 - Oup Usa.
    This is the first book on practical philosophy of science and how to practically evaluate scientific findings that have life-and-death consequences. Showing how to uncover scores of scientific flaws -- typically used by special interests who try to justify their deadly pollution -- this book aims to liberate the many potential victims of environmentally-induced disease and death.
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  37. Karl Popper: Philosophy of Science.Brendan Shea - 2016 - In James Fieser & Bradley Dowden (eds.), Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Karl Popper (1902-1994) was one of the most influential philosophers of science of the 20th century. He made significant contributions to debates concerning general scientific methodology and theory choice, the demarcation of science from non-science, the nature of probability and quantum mechanics, and the methodology of the social sciences. His work is notable for its wide influence both within the philosophy of science, within science itself, and within a broader social context. Popper’s early work (...)
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  38.  22
    Conceptual Change and the Philosophy of Science: Alternative Interpretations of the a Priori.David J. Stump - 2015 - Routledge.
    In this book, David Stump traces alternative conceptions of the a priori in the philosophy of science and defends a unique position in the current debates over conceptual change and the constitutive elements in science. Stump emphasizes the unique epistemological status of the constitutive elements of scientific theories, constitutive elements being the necessary preconditions that must be assumed in order to conduct a particular scientific inquiry. These constitutive elements, such as logic, mathematics, and even some fundamental laws (...)
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  39.  9
    May Philosophy of Science Preach Empiricism and Practice Apriorism?1.A. Wittenberg - 1962 - Dialectica 16 (1):15-24.
  40.  45
    Reductionism in the Philosophy of Science.Christian Sachse - 2007 - Ontos.
    Contrary to a widespread belief, this book establishes that ontological and epistemological reductionism stand or fall together.
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  41. Experiments in History and Philosophy of Science.Friedrich Steinle - 2002 - Perspectives on Science 10 (4):408-432.
    : The increasing attention on experiment in the last two decades has led to important insights into its material, cultural and social dimensions. However, the role of experiment as a tool for generating knowledge has been comparatively poorly studied. What questions are asked in experimental research? How are they treated and eventually resolved? And how do questions, epistemic situations, and experimental activity cohere and shape each other? In my paper, I treat these problems on the basis of detailed studies of (...)
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  42. Instrumental Rationality and Naturalized Philosophy of Science.Harvey Siegel - 1996 - Philosophy of Science 63 (3):124.
    In two recent papers, I criticized Ronald N. Giere's and Larry Laudan's arguments for 'naturalizing' the philosophy of science (Siegel 1989, 1990). Both Giere and Laudan replied to my criticisms (Giere 1989, Laudan 1990b). The key issue arising in both interchanges is these naturalists' embrace of instrumental conceptions of rationality, and their concomitant rejection of non-instrumental conceptions of that key normative notion. In this reply I argue that their accounts of science's rationality as exclusively instrumental fail, and (...)
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  43.  17
    Philosophy of Science and Its Rational Reconstructions: Remarks on the VPI Program for Testing Philosophies of Science.Alan W. Richardson - 1992 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1992:36 - 46.
    In this paper I argue that the program of L. Laudan et al for empirically testing historiographical philosophies of science ("the VPI program") does not succeed in providing a consistent naturalist program in philosophy of science. In particular, the VPI program endorses a nonnaturalist metamethodology that insists on a hypothetico-deductive structure to scientific testing. But hypothetico-deductivism seems to be both inadequate as an account of scientific theory testing in general and fundamentally at odds with most of the (...)
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  44.  12
    The Philosophy of Science: An Introduction.Erwin Biser - 1957 - Philosophy of Science 24 (4):359-360.
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  45.  39
    How the Cold War Transformed Philosophy of Science: To the Icy Slopes of Logic.George A. Reisch - 2005 - Cambridge University Press.
    This intriguing and ground-breaking book is the first in-depth study of the development of philosophy of science in the United States during the Cold War. It documents the political vitality of logical empiricism and Otto Neurath's Unity of Science Movement when these projects emigrated to the US in the 1930s and follows their de-politicization by a convergence of intellectual, cultural and political forces in the 1950s. Students of logical empiricism and the Vienna Circle treat these as strictly (...)
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  46.  27
    The Philosophy of Science: A Collection of Essays.Lawrence Sklar (ed.) - 2000 - Garland.
    About the Series Contemporary philosophy of science combines a general study from a philosophical perspective of the methods of science, with an inquiry, again from the philosophical point of view, into foundational issues that arise in the various special sciences. Methodological philosophy of science has deep connections with issues at the center of pure philosophy. It makes use of important results, for example, in traditional epistemology, metaphysics and the philosophy of language. It also (...)
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  47.  48
    Kant's Philosophy of Science.Eric Watkins & Marius Stan - 2014 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  48. The Politics of Postmodern Philosophy of Science.Joseph Rouse - 1991 - Philosophy of Science 58 (4):607-627.
    Modernism in the philosophy of science demands a unified story about what makes an inquiry scientific (or a successful science). Fine's "natural ontological attitude" (NOA) is "postmodern" in joining trust in local scientific practice with suspicion toward any global interpretation of science to legitimate or undercut that trust. I consider four readings of this combination of trust and suspicion and their consequences for the autonomy and cultural credibility of the sciences. Three readings take respectively Fine's trusting (...)
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  49.  26
    Philosophy of Science in Hungary.Gabriella Ujlaki - 1994 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 25 (1):157 - 175.
    The report gives a survey of the Hungarian philosophy of science after 1973. The report throws some light on the history of Hungarian philosophy in the context of the political circumstances of the late sixties and seventies. It starts with the not so well-known history of 'persecution of philosophers' in 1973. Then it treats the emergence of the philosophy of science focussing on the most significant representatives of this branch of philosophy, which was up (...)
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  50.  27
    Philosophy of Science, Logic, and Mathematics in the Twentieth Century.Stuart Shanker (ed.) - 1996 - Routledge.
    Volume 9 of the Routledge History of Philosophy surveys ten key topics in the Philosophy of Science, Logic and Mathematics in the Twentieth Century. Each article is written by one of the world's leading experts in that field. The papers provide a comprehensive introduction to the subject in question, and are written in a way that is accessible to philosophy undergraduates and to those outside of philosophy who are interested in these subjects. Each chapter contains (...)
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