Results for 'phlogiston'

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  1. Structural Realism Versus Standard Scientific Realism: The Case of Phlogiston and Dephlogisticated Air.James Ladyman - 2011 - Synthese 180 (2):87 - 101.
    The aim of this paper is to revisit the phlogiston theory to see what can be learned from it about the relationship between scientific realism, approximate truth and successful reference. It is argued that phlogiston theory did to some extent correctly describe the causal or nomological structure of the world, and that some of its central terms can be regarded as referring. However, it is concluded that the issue of whether or not theoretical terms successfully refer is not (...)
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  2.  68
    The Hidden History of Phlogiston: How Philosophical Failure Can Generate Historiographical Refinement.Hasok Chang - 2010 - Hyle 16 (2):47 - 79.
    Historians often feel that standard philosophical doctrines about the nature and development of science are not adequate for representing the real history of science. However, when philosophers of science fail to make sense of certain historical events, it is also possible that there is something wrong with the standard historical descriptions of those events, precluding any sensible explanation. If so, philosophical failure can be useful as a guide for improving historiography, and this constitutes a significant mode of productive interaction between (...)
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  3. Structural Correspondence, Indirect Reference, and Partial Truth: Phlogiston Theory and Newtonian Mechanics.Gerhard Schurz - 2011 - Synthese 180 (2):103-120.
    This paper elaborates on the following correspondence theorem (which has been defended and formally proved elsewhere): if theory T has been empirically successful in a domain of applications A, but was superseded later on by a different theory T* which was likewise successful in A, then under natural conditions T contains theoretical expressions which were responsible for T’s success and correspond (in A) to certain theoretical expressions of T*. I illustrate this theorem at hand of the phlogiston versus oxygen (...)
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  4. Hysteria, Race, and Phlogiston. A Model of Ontological Elimination in the Human Sciences.David Ludwig - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 45 (1):68-77.
    Elimination controversies are ubiquitous in philosophy and the human sciences. For example, it has been suggested that human races, hysteria, intelligence, mental disorder, propositional attitudes such as beliefs and desires, the self, and the super-ego should be eliminated from the list of respectable entities in the human sciences. I argue that eliminativist proposals are often presented in the framework of an oversimplified “phlogiston model” and suggest an alternative account that describes ontological elimination on a gradual scale between criticism of (...)
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  5. Lavoisier’s "Reflections on Phlogiston" I: Against Phlogiston Theory.Nicholas W. Best - 2015 - Foundations of Chemistry 17 (2):137-151.
    This seminal paper, which marks a turning point of the chemical revolution, is presented for the first time in a complete English translation. In this first half Lavoisier undermines phlogiston chemistry by arguing that his French contemporaries had replaced Stahl’s original theory with radically different systems that conceptualised the phlogiston principle in completely incompatible ways. He refutes their claims by showing that these later models were riddled with inconsistencies as to phlogiston’s weight, its ability to penetrate glass (...)
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  6.  62
    Hysteria, Race, Phlogiston. A Model of Ontological Elimination in the Human Sciences.David Ludwig - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences (1):68-77.
    Elimination controversies are ubiquitous in philosophy and the human sciences. For example, it has been suggested that human races, hysteria, intelligence, mental disorder, propositional attitudes such as beliefs and desires, the self, and the super-ego should be eliminated from the list of respectable entities in the human sciences. I argue that eliminativist proposals are often presented in the framework of an oversimplified “phlogiston model” and suggest an alternative account that describes ontological elimination on a gradual scale between criticism of (...)
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  7.  10
    The Reality of Phlogiston in Great Britain.John Stewart - 2012 - Hyle 18 (2):175 - 194.
    Mi Gyung Kim (2008) has challenged the historiographical assumption that phlogiston was the paradigmatic concept in eighteenth century chemistry. Her analysis of the operational, theoretical, and philosophical identities of phlogiston demonstrates how Stahlian phlogiston was appropriated into the burgeoning field of affinity theory. However, this new French conception of phlogiston was destabilized by the introduction of Boerhaave's thermometrics. By extending this story through 1790, I will show that British pneumatic chemists integrated new understandings of heat with (...)
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  8.  8
    Scientific Rationality: Phlogiston as a Case Study.Jonathon Hricko - 2017 - In Timothy Joseph Lane & Tzu-Wei Hung (eds.), Rationality: Constraints and Contexts. London, UK: pp. 37-59.
    I argue that it was rational for chemists to eliminate phlogiston, but that it also would have been rational for them to retain it. I do so on the grounds that a number of prominent phlogiston theorists identified phlogiston with hydrogen in the late 18th century, and this identification became fairly well entrenched by the early 19th century. In light of this identification, I critically evaluate Hasok Chang’s argument that chemists should have retained phlogiston, and that (...)
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  9.  59
    From Phlogiston to Caloric: Chemical Ontologies. [REVIEW]Mi Gyung Kim - 2011 - Foundations of Chemistry 13 (3):201-222.
    The ‘triumph of the anti-phlogistians’ is a familiar story to the historians and philosophers of science who characterize the Chemical Revolution as a broad conceptual shift. The apparent “incommensurability” of the paradigms across the revolutionary divide has caused much anxiety. Chemists could identify phlogiston and oxygen, however, only with different sets of instrumental practices, theoretical schemes, and philosophical commitments. In addition, the substantive counterpart to phlogiston in the new chemistry was not oxygen, but caloric. By focusing on the (...)
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  10.  17
    How and How Not to Be Whiggish About 'Phlogiston'.Jonathon Hricko - manuscript
    Understanding the semantics of theoretical terms from past science involves determining what, if anything, they referred to. Some ways of assigning referents to such terms are Whiggish, in the sense that they introduce anachronisms that distort the past, while others are not. My aim in this paper is to develop a non-Whiggish semantic theory, one that avoids Whiggish reference assignments. In order to do so, I make use of the example of 'phlogiston.' I argue that it would be Whiggish (...)
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  11.  18
    Phlogiston as a Case Study of Scientific Rationality.Jonathon Hricko - manuscript
    A number of prominent defenders of the phlogiston theory identified phlogiston with hydrogen in the late eighteenth century, and I argue that this identification was fairly well-entrenched by the early nineteenth century. In light of this identification, I examine the ways in which retaining phlogiston could have retarded scientific progress, and also the ways in which it could have benefited science. I argue that it was rational for chemists to eliminate phlogiston, but that it also would (...)
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  12.  76
    A Structural Analysis of the Phlogiston Case.Maria Caamaño - 2009 - Erkenntnis 70 (3):331-364.
    The incommensurability thesis, as introduced by T.S. Kuhn and P.K. Feyerabend, states that incommensurable theories are conceptually incompatible theories which share a common domain of application. Such claim has often been regarded as incoherent, since it has been understood that the determination of a common domain of application at least requires a certain degree of conceptual compatibility between the theories. The purpose of this work is to contribute to the defense of the notion of local or gradual incommensurability, as proposed (...)
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  13.  18
    The ‘Absolute Existence’ of Phlogiston: The Losing Party's Point of View.Victor D. Boantza & Ofer Gal - 2011 - British Journal for the History of Science 44 (3):317-342.
    Long after its alleged demise, phlogiston was still presented, discussed and defended by leading chemists. Even some of the leading proponents of the new chemistry admitted its ‘absolute existence’. We demonstrate that what was defended under the title ‘phlogiston’ was no longer a particular hypothesis about combustion and respiration. Rather, it was a set of ontological and epistemological assumptions and the empirical practices associated with them. Lavoisier's gravimetric reduction, in the eyes of the phlogistians, annihilated the autonomy of (...)
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  14. Mental Illness: Psychiatry's Phlogiston.Thomas Szasz - 2001 - Journal of Medical Ethics 27 (5):297-301.
    In physics, we use the same laws to explain why airplanes fly, and why they crash. In psychiatry, we use one set of laws to explain sane behaviour, which we attribute to reasons (choices), and another set of laws to explain insane behaviour, which we attribute to causes (diseases). God, man's idea of moral perfection, judges human deeds without distinguishing between sane persons responsible for their behaviour and insane persons deserving to be excused for their evil deeds. It is hubris (...)
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  15.  38
    Lavoisier’s “Reflections on Phlogiston” II: On the Nature of Heat.Nicholas Best - 2016 - Foundations of Chemistry 18 (1):3-13.
    Having refuted the phlogiston theory, Lavoisier uses this second portion of his essay to expound his new theory of combustion, based on the oxygen principle. He gives a mechanistic account of thermodynamic phenomena in terms of a subtle fluid and its ability to penetrate porous bodies. He uses this hypothetical fluid to explain volume changes, heat capacity and latent heat. Beyond the three types of combustion that he distinguishes and defines, Lavoisier also explains other chemical sources of heat, such (...)
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  16.  13
    The Phlogistic Role of Heat in the Chemical Revolution and the Origins of Kirwan's 'Ingenious Modifications… Into the Theory of Phlogiston'.Victor Boantza - 2008 - Annals of Science 65 (3):309-338.
    Summary Contrary to common belief, Lavoisier's greatest phlogistic rival was not Joseph Priestley but Richard Kirwan, a fact that was firmly recognized by both the Lavoisians as well as Priestley himself. During the 1780s, which saw the unprecedented rise of the chemistry of air(s), Kirwan's ?ingenious modifications?into the theory of phlogiston?, in Mme. Lavoisier's words, became the most dominant alternative to the revisionist pneumatic interpretations of the French. A genealogical contextualization of Kirwan's phlogistic contributions, the circumstances of their emergence (...)
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  17.  20
    Fermentation, Phlogiston and Matter Theory: Chemistry and Natural Philosophy in Georg Ernst Stahl's Zymotechnia Fundamentalis.Ku-Ming Chang - 2002 - Early Science and Medicine 7 (1):31-64.
    This paper examines Georg Ernst Stahl's first book, the Zymotechnia Fundamentalis, in the context of contemporary natural philosophy and the author's career. I argue that the Zymotechnia was a mechanical theory of fermentation written consciously against the influential "fermentational program" of Joan Baptista van Helmont and especially Thomas Willis. Stahl's theory of fermentation introduced his first conception of phlogiston, which was in part a corpuscular transformation of the Paracelsian sulphur principle. Meanwhile some assumptions underlying this theory, such as the (...)
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  18.  20
    James Hutton and Phlogiston.Douglas Allchin - 1994 - Annals of Science 51 (6):615-635.
    James Hutton defended the doctrine of phlogiston in two lengthy dissertations 1792 and 1794. Empirical, biographical and disciplinary contexts jointly explain his position. Observationally, Hutton based his argument on facts about heat, light and the storage of energy, explicitly contrasting them to concerns about weight relationships. Hutton's intellectual development shows how he found these particular problems centrally relevant, and focusing on phlogiston indicates how his better known geology fits into more fundamental thinking about the natural economy. The resonance (...)
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  19.  72
    The Purloined Referent: Lavoisier and the Disappearance of Phlogiston.Lucía Lewowicz - unknown
    In this paper, I challenge the long-established view that the term phlogiston fails to refer. After a close examination of the reference of phlogiston during Lavoisier’s Chemical Revolution, I show that it referred throughout to a natural substance, fire matter. I state that Lavoisier eliminated the term but not its referent, which he renamed caloric, and I claim that it is in the historical and cultural context of the Chemical Revolution that the Lavoisier’s intentions can be understood.
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  20.  59
    Phlogiston, Fluid Intelligence, and the Lynn–Flynn Effect.Martin Voracek - 2006 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (2):142-143.
    Blair's assertion that fluid intelligence (gF) is distinct from general intelligence (g) is contradictory to cumulative evidence from intelligence research, including extant and novel evidence about generational IQ gains (Lynn–Flynn effect). Because of the near unity of gF and g, his hypothetical concept of gF' (gF “purged” of g variance) may well be a phlogiston theory. (Published Online April 5 2006).
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  21.  51
    A Preliminary Application of Frame-Theory to the Philosophy of Science: The Phlogiston-Oxygen Case.Gerhard Schurz & Ioannis Votsis - unknown
    In the first part of this paper we investigate how scientific theories can be represented by frames. Different kinds of scientific theories can be distinguished in terms of the systematic power of their frames. In the second part we outline the central questions and goals of our research project. In the third and final part of this paper we show that frame-representation is a useful tool in the comparison of the theories of phlogiston and oxygen, despite those theories being (...)
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  22.  11
    The Term Phlogiston and the Notion of "Failure to Refer".Lucía Lewowicz - unknown
    Finding out which terms – scientific or otherwise— fail to refer is an extremely complex business since both felicitous reference and failure to refer must be negotiated. Causal theories of reference –even so-called hybrid theories – posit that in order to refer to something, we need the regulative idea of an ontological reference, which operates even when we refer to impossibilia or inconceivable objects. Evidently, this is not the case of the referent of phlogiston, which is neither inconceivable nor (...)
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  23.  10
    Joseph Black and the Absolute Levity of Phlogiston.Carleton E. Perrin - 1983 - Annals of Science 40 (2):109-137.
    For some fifteen years in his chemistry lectures in Edinburgh, Joseph Black taught that phlogiston possesses absolute levity. It was not an aberration on Black's part: he justified the notion on experimental grounds. Moreover, the existence of a nongravitating substance capable of entering the composition of bodies raised intriguing possibilities for uniting physical and chemical phenomena. The doctrine became something of a tradition in Edinburgh, but was subject to growing criticism, particulary with the growth of pneumatic chemistry. By the (...)
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  24.  22
    The Development of Problems Within the Phlogiston Theories, 1766–1791.Geoffrey Blumenthal & James Ladyman - 2017 - Foundations of Chemistry 19 (3):241-280.
    This is the first of a pair of papers. It focuses on the development of the most notable phlogistic theories during the period 1766–1791, including the main experiments that their proponents proposed them to interpret. There was a rapid proliferation of late phlogistic theories, particularly from 1784, and the accounts of composition and important implications of the main theories are set out and their issues analysed. Each of them either reached impasses due to internal problems, or included features that made (...)
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  25. Farewell to the Phlogiston Theory of Conditionals.Jonathan Bennett - 1988 - Mind 97 (388):509-527.
  26.  26
    Phlogiston, Lavoisier and the Purloined Referent.Lucía Lewowicz - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (3):436-444.
  27.  27
    Rekindling Phlogiston: From Classroom Case Study to Interdisciplinary Relationships.Douglas Allchin - 1997 - Science & Education 6 (5):473-509.
  28.  44
    Historical Studies on the Phlogiston Theory.—I. The Levity of Phlogiston.J. R. Partington & Douglas McKie - 1937 - Annals of Science 2 (4):361-404.
  29. The Problem of 'Darwinizing' Culture (or Memes as the New Phlogiston).Timothy Taylor - 2012 - In Martin H. Brinkworth & Friedel Weinert (eds.), Evolution 2.0: Implications of Darwinism in Philosophy and the Social and Natural Sciences. Springer.
     
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  30.  28
    Historical Studies on the Phlogiston Theory.—IV. Last Phases of the Theory.J. R. Partington & Douglas McKie - 1939 - Annals of Science 4 (2):113-149.
  31.  22
    Historical Studies on the Phlogiston Theory.—III. Light and Heat in Combustion.J. R. Partington & Douglas McKie - 1938 - Annals of Science 3 (4):337-371.
  32.  14
    Madame Lavoisier Et la Traduction Française de l'Essay on Phlogiston de Kirwan / Madame Lavoisier and the French Translation of Kirwan's Essay on Phlogiston.Keiko Kawashima - 2000 - Revue d'Histoire des Sciences 53 (2):235-264.
  33.  10
    Historical Studies on the Phlogiston Theory.—II. The Negative Weight of Phlogiston.J. R. Partington M. B. E. D. Sc & Douglas McKie D. Sc PhD - 1938 - Annals of Science 3 (1):1-58.
  34.  5
    Historical Studies on the Phlogiston Theory.—II. The Negative Weight of Phlogiston.J. Partington & Douglas Mckie - 1938 - Annals of Science 3 (1):1-58.
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  35.  15
    History of Chemistry An Essay on Phlogiston and the Constitution of Acids. By R. Kirwan. Pp. Xxiii + 317 + Index. London: F. Cass. [1789]. 1968. 90s. [REVIEW]Maurice Crosland - 1969 - British Journal for the History of Science 4 (3):293-293.
  36. This Social Phlogiston, ‘Justice’.Matti Eklund - manuscript
    There is a vexed question in the literature on Marx of whether Marx was somehow anti-morality or if on the contrary he was instead defending a particular, perhaps rather radical, conception of morality. This question will be my starting point. But I will have nothing to contribute to the scholarly question of what Marx’s view was. Rather my aim will be this. Whatever in the end is the correct interpretation of Marx, it is undeniable that there are passages in Marx (...)
     
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  37.  12
    Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries Chemistry Transformed: The Paradigmatic Shift From Phlogiston to Oxygen. By H. Oilman McCann. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing, 1978. Pp. X + 179. $14.95. [REVIEW]Nicholas Fisher - 1981 - British Journal for the History of Science 14 (2):214-216.
  38.  6
    An Attempt in the United States to Resolve the Differences Between the Oxygen and the Phlogiston Theories.Robert Siegfried - 1955 - Isis 46 (4):327-336.
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  39.  9
    Chemistry Transformed: The Paradigmatic Shift From Phlogiston to Oxygen. H. Gilman McCann.Jean-Claude Guédon - 1980 - Isis 71 (3):495-497.
  40.  9
    Equivalent Weights From Bergman's Data on Phlogiston Content of Metals.J. A. Schufle & George Thomas - 1971 - Isis 62 (4):499-506.
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  41.  7
    Equivalent Weights From Bergman's Data on Phlogiston Content of Metals.J. Schuffe & George Thomas - 1971 - Isis 62:499-506.
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  42.  8
    Chemistry in Rozier's Journal. II. The Phlogiston Theory.E. W. J. Neave - 1951 - Annals of Science 7 (1):101-106.
  43.  3
    Resurrecting Lorenz's Hydraulic Model: Phlogiston Explained by Quantum Mechanics.C. H. F. Rowell - 1984 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (3):397-398.
  44. Water, Phlogiston, Brains, and Vats.Jussi Haukioja - 2002 - Sorites 14:16-20.
    Ted Warfield has presented a new version of the Putnamian argument for the conclusion that we are not brains in a vat. This version is intended to avoid reliance on some questionable background assumptions which other versions have made. It seems that Warfield's argument fails, for reasons pointed out by Anthony Brueckner. However, in this paper I present a new version of the argument -- my version relies on assumptions no more objectionable than Warfield's, yet it is immune to Brueckner's (...)
     
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  45. Madame Lavoisier and the French Translation of Kirwan's Essay on Phlogiston.Keiko Kawashima - 2000 - Revue d'Histoire des Sciences 53 (2):235-264.
     
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  46. Intentionality is Phlogiston.P. Resnick - 1994 - In Eric Dietrich (ed.), Thinking Computers and Virtual Persons. Academic Press.
     
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  47.  63
    Best Theory Scientific Realism.Gerald Doppelt - 2014 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 4 (2):271-291.
    The aim of this essay is to argue for a new version of ‘inference-to-the-best-explanation’ scientific realism, which I characterize as Best Theory Realism or ‘BTR’. On BTR, the realist needs only to embrace a commitment to the truth or approximate truth of the best theories in a field, those which are unique in satisfying the highest standards of empirical success in a mature field with many successful but falsified predecessors. I argue that taking our best theories to be true is (...)
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  48.  98
    Partial Reference, Scientific Realism and Possible Worlds.Anders Landig - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 47:1-9.
    Theories of partial reference have been developed in order to retrospectively interpret rather stubborn past scientific theories like Newtonian dynamics and the phlogiston theory in a realist way, i.e., as approximately true. This is done by allowing for a term to refer to more than one entity at the same time and by providing semantic structures that determine the truth values of sentences containing partially referring terms. Two versions of theories of partial reference will be presented, a conjunctive (by (...)
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  49. Georg Ernst Stahl (1659-1734) in wissenschaftshistorischer Sicht.Dietrich von Engelhardt & Alfred Gierer (eds.) - 2000 - Acta Historica Leopoldina 30.
    Georg Ernst Stahl (1659-1734) was a German physician and chemist. The book (in German) documents a symposium of the Academy Leopoldina on his works and thoughts that contributed to the Enlightenment. Der weite Horizont seines Denkens und seiner Arbeiten umfasst die Phlogiston-Theorie der Verbrennung, die später mit der Entdeckung des Sauerstoffs widerlegt wurde, aber dennoch wichtige Erkenntnisse zur Reversibilität von Reaktionen und zur unsichtbaren Persistenz der beteiligten chemischen Komponenten beitrug. Seine Gedanken zur Rolle der „Anima“, die heute überholt erscheinen, (...)
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  50.  66
    Scientific Realism Bit by Bit: Part I. Kitcher on Reference.Christina McLeish - 2005 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 36 (4):668-686.
    In this paper, I consider Kitcher’s account of reference for the expressions of past science. Kitcher’s case study is of Joseph Priestley and his expression ‘dephlogisticated air’. There is a strong intuitive case that ‘dephlogisticated air’ referred to oxygen, but it was underpinned by very mistaken phlogiston theory, so concluding either that dephlogisticated air referred straightforwardly or that it failed to refer both have unpalatable consequences. Kitcher argues that the reference of such terms is best considered relative to each (...)
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