Results for 'photographs'

916 found
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  1. The Epistemic Value of Photographs.Catharine Abell - 2010 - In Catharine Abell & Katerina Bantinaki (eds.), Philosophical Perspectives on Depiction. Oxford University Press.
    There is a variety of epistemic roles to which photographs are better suited than non-photographic pictures. Photographs provide more compelling evidence of the existence of the scenes they depict than non-photographic pictures. They are also better sources of information about features of those scenes that are easily overlooked. This chapter examines several different attempts to explain the distinctive epistemic value of photographs, and argues that none is adequate. It then proposes an alternative explanation of their epistemic value. (...)
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  2. What Photographs Are (and What They Are Not).Jiri Benovsky - 2011 - Disputatio 4 (31):239 - 254.
    For the metaphysician, photographs are very puzzling entities indeed. And even from the non-philosopher's intuitive point of view, it is not that clear what sort of thing a photograph is. Typically, if a client wants to purchase a photograph, she can mean very different things by 'buying a photograph' : she can mean to buy a print or a number of prints, or she can mean to buy a negative (when traditional film photographs are concerned) or a file (...)
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  3.  25
    Photographs, Symbolic Images, and the Holocaust: On the (Im)Possibility of Depicting Historical Truth.Judith Keilbach - 2009 - History and Theory 48 (2):54-76.
    Photography has often been scrutinized regarding its relationship to reality or historical truth. This includes not only the indexicality of photography, but also the question of how structures and processes that comprise history and historical events can be depicted. In this context, the Holocaust provides a particular challenge to photography. As has been discussed in numerous publications, this historic event marks the “limits of representation.” Nevertheless there are many photographs “showing” the Holocaust that have been produced in different contexts (...)
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  4.  17
    Visualizing the Phronetic Organization: The Case of Photographs in CSR Reports. [REVIEW]Hans Rämö - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 104 (3):371-387.
    Aspects of phronetic social science and phronetic organization research have been much debated over the recent years. So far, the visual aspects of communicating phronesis have gained little attention. Still organizations try to convey a desirable image of respectability and success, both internally and externally to the public. A channel for such information is corporate reporting, and particularly CSR reporting embrace values like fairness, goodness, and sustainability. This study explores how visual portrayals of supposedly wise and discerning values (phronesis) are (...)
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  5.  22
    Automated Calculation of Symmetry Measure on Clinical Photographs.Mugdha Dabeer, Edward Kim, Gregory P. Reece, Fatima Merchant, Melissa A. Crosby, Elisabeth K. Beahm & Mia K. Markey - 2011 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17 (6):1129-1136.
  6.  11
    The Prediction From Photographs of Success and Vocational Aptitude.C. Landis & L. W. Phelps - 1928 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 11 (4):313.
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    The Prediction of Vocational Aptitude and Success From Photographs.M. S. Viteles & K. R. Smith - 1932 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 15 (6):615.
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    A Study of Estimates of Intelligence From Photographs.D. A. Laird & H. Remmers - 1924 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 7 (6):429.
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  9.  4
    A Note on an Attempt at Judging Ocular Dominance From Photographs.June E. Downey - 1930 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 13 (3):286.
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  10. Are Neuroimages Like Photographs of the Brain?Adina L. Roskies - 2007 - Philosophy of Science 74 (5):860-872.
    Images come in many varieties, but for evidential purposes, photographs are privileged. Recent advances in neuroimaging provide us with a new type of image that is used as scientific evidence. Brain images are epistemically compelling, in part because they are liable to be viewed as akin to photographs of brain activity. Here I consider features of photography that underlie the evidential status we accord it, and argue that neuroimaging diverges from photography in ways that seriously undermine the photographic (...)
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  11. On the Epistemic Value of Photographs.Jonathan Cohen & Aaron Meskin - 2004 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 62 (2):197–210.
    Many have held that photographs give us a firmer epistemic connection to the world than do other depictive representations. To take just one example, Bazin famously claimed that “The objective nature of photography confers on it a quality of credibility absent from all other picture-making” ([Bazin, 1967], 14). Unfortunately, while the intuition in question is widely shared, it has remained poorly understood. In this paper we propose to explain the special epistemic status of photographs. We take as our (...)
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  12. Factive Pictorial Experience: What's Special About Photographs?Robert Hopkins - 2012 - Noûs 46 (4):709-731.
    What is special about photographs? Traditional photography is, I argue, a system that sustains factive pictorial experience. Photographs sustain pictorial experience: we see things in them. Further, that experience is factive: if suchandsuch is seen in a photograph, then suchandsuch obtained when the photo was taken. More precisely, photographs are designed to sustain factive pictorial experience, and that experience is what we have when, in the photographic system as a whole, everything works as it is supposed to. (...)
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  13. Photographs as Evidence.Aaron Meskin & Jonathan Cohen - 2008 - In Scott Walden (ed.), Photography and Philosophy: Essays on the Pencil of Nature. Blackwell.
    Photographs furnish evidence. This is true in both formal and informal contexts. The use of photographs as legal evidence goes back to the very earliest days of photography, and they have been used in American trials since around the time of the Civil War. Photographs may also serve as historical evidence (for example, about the Civil War). And they serve in informal contexts as evidence about all sorts of things, such as what we and our loved ones (...)
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  14. Three Kinds of Realism About Photographs.Jiri Benovsky - 2011 - Journal of Speculative Philosophy 25 (4):375-395.
    In this paper, I explore the nature of photographs by comparing them to hand-made paintings, as well as by comparing traditional film photography with digital photography, and I concentrate on the question of realism. Several different notions can be distinguished here. Are photographs such that they depict the world in a 'realist' or a 'factive' way ? Do they show us the world as it is with accuracy and reliability other types of pictures don't posses ? Do they (...)
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  15. Transparency and Sensorimotor Contingencies: Do We See Through Photographs?Bence Nanay - 2010 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 91 (4):463-480.
    It has been claimed that photographs are transparent: we see through them; we literally see the photographed object through the photograph. Whether this claim is true depends on the way we conceive of seeing. There has been a controversy about whether localizing the perceived object in one's egocentric space is a necessary feature of seeing, as if it is, then photographs are unlikely to be transparent. I would like to propose and defend another, much weaker, necessary condition for (...)
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  16.  89
    Science in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction: Moral and Epistemic Relations Between Diagrams and Photographs[REVIEW]Michael Lynch - 1991 - Biology and Philosophy 6 (2):205-226.
    Sociologists, philosophers and historians of science are gradually recognizing the importance of visual representation. This is part of a more general movement away from a theory-centric view of science and towards an interest in practical aspects of observation and experimentation. Rather than treating science as a matter of demonstrating the logical connection between theoretical and empirical statements, an increasing number of investigations are examining how scientists compose and use diagrams, graphs, photographs, micrographs, maps, charts, and related visual displays. This (...)
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  17. Experiencing Photographs Qua Photographs: What's so Special About Them?Jiri Benovsky - 2013 - Contemporary Aesthetics.
    Merely rhetorically, and answering in the negative, Kendall Walton has asked: "Isn't photography just another method people have of making pictures, one that merely uses different tools and materials – cameras, photosensitive paper, darkroom equipment, rather than canvas, paint, and brushes? And don't the results differ only contingently and in degree, not fundamentally, from pictures of other kinds?" Contra Walton and others, I wish to defend in this article a resounding "Yes" as being the correct answer to these questions. It (...)
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  18. 'Pickman's Model': Horror and the Objective Purport of Photographs.Aaron Smuts - 2010 - Revue Internationale de Philosophie 4:487-509.
    It is commonly held, even among non-Bazinians, that photographs are typically perceived as more objective than other forms of depiction. The implications of this putative feature of photographic reception for the fiction film have been relatively ignored. If photos do have an objective purport, it would explain the power of a common device used in horror movies where a monster is selectively revealed through a degraded image, usually an amateur video recording. However, I argue that a better explanation is (...)
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  19.  37
    Looking Again Through Photographs: A Response to Edwin Martin.Kendall L. Walton - 1986 - Critical Inquiry 12 (4):801-808.
    My great-grandfather died before I was born. He never saw me. But I see him occasionally—when I look at photographs of him. They are not great photographs, by any means, but like most photographs they are transparent. We see things through them.Edwin Martin objects. His response consists largely of citing examples of things which, he thinks, are obviously not transparent, and declaring that he finds no relevant difference between them and photographs: once we slide down the (...)
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  20.  47
    Digital Alteration of Photographs in Consumer Magazines.Shiela Reaves - 1991 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 6 (3):175 – 181.
    Digital manipulation of photographs raises a different set of questions for magazine editors than it does for news.paper editors. Interviews with editors of 13 consumer magazines reveal that digital alteration depends largely on the editorial profile of the magazine. All editors interviewed refused to digitally manipulate news photos; however, opinions varied on the treatment of feature and cover photos.
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  21.  37
    Trophy Shots: Early North American Photographs of Nonhuman Animals and the Display of Masculine Prowess.Matthew Brower - 2005 - Society and Animals 13 (1):13-32.
    This essay examines the relationship between the display of non-human animal trophies and masculinity through an analysis of progressive-era American wildlife photography. In the 1890s, North American animal photographers began circulating their images in sporting journals and describing their practice as a form of hunting. These camera hunters exhibited their photographs as proof of sportsmanship, virility, and hunting prowess.
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  22. Fixing the Image: Re-Thinking the 'Mind-Independence' of Photographs.Dawn M. Phillips - 2009 - Postgraduate Journal of Aesthetics 6 (2):1-22.
    We are told by philosophers that photographs are a distinct category of image because the photographic process is mind-independent. Furthermore, that the experience of viewing a photograph has a special status, justified by a viewer’s knowledge that the photographic process is mind-independent. Versions of these ideas are central to discussions of photography in both the philosophy of art and epistemology and have far-reaching implications for science, forensics and documentary journalism. Mind-independence (sometimes ‘belief independence’) is a term employed to highlight (...)
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  23. Collision: Poverty/Line: Aesthetic and Political Subjects in Santiago Sierra's “Line” Photographs.David W. Janzen - 2014 - Evental Aesthetics 2 (4):56-65.
    This Collision examines photographs of Santiago Sierra’s “Line” installations, discovering in these works a unique formulation of the tension between the social and formal aspects of contemporary art. Developing the philosophical implications of this formulation, this essay connects divergent trajectories embodied by the work (i.e. trajectories initiated by the material elements of the works, the body and the line) to divergent trajectories in contemporary aesthetic theory (i.e. the trajectory that emphasises the socio-political possibilities of artistic representation versus the trajectory (...)
     
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  24.  8
    Presence, Absence, and the Presently-Absent: Ethics and the Pedagogical Possibilities of Photographs.Mark Stern - 2012 - Educational Studies: Journal of the American Educational Studies Association 48 (2):174-198.
    One of the fundamental pedagogical questions in teaching about human rights, war, and global citizenship is how to educate students to care about strangers whom they may never know and whom they may assume they have nothing in common with. At its core, this is an ethical question that highlights a problem in articulating relations between self and other. This article proposes a type of deconstructive literacy that uses photographs depicting suffering to address how viewers can consider their responsibilities (...)
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  25.  3
    What Patients, Students and Doctors Think About Permission to Publish Patient Photographs in Academic Journals: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Croatia.Marija Roguljić, Tina Poklepović Peričić, Andrea Gelemanović, Anita Jukić, Dina Šimunović, Ivan Buljan, Matko Marušić, Ana Marušić & Elizabeth Wager - forthcoming - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-19.
    Use of patient clinical photographs requires specific attention to confidentiality and privacy. Although there are policies and procedures for publishing clinical images, there is little systematic evidence about what patients and health professionals actually think about consent for publishing clinical images. We investigated the opinions of three stakeholder groups at 3 academic healthcare institutions and 37 private practices in Croatia. The questionnaire contained patient photographs with different levels of anonymization. All three respondent groups considered that more stringent forms (...)
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  26.  29
    Collision: Poverty/Line: Aesthetic and Political Subjects in Santiago Sierra’s “Line” Photographs.David W. Janzen - 2015 - Evental Aesthetics 4 (1):63-70.
    FEATURED IN EVENTAL AESTHETICS RETROSPECTIVE 1. LOOKING BACK AT 10 ISSUES OF EVENTAL AESTHETICS. This Collision examines photographs of Santiago Sierra’s “Line” installations, discovering in these works a unique formulation of the tension between the social and formal aspects of contemporary art. Developing the philosophical implications of this formulation, this essay connects divergent trajectories embodied by the work to divergent trajectories in contemporary aesthetic theory. Developing the socio-political approach, I draw on recent work by Claire Bishop who, emphasizing the (...)
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  27.  15
    Imagination, Perception and Memory. Making Sense of Walton’s View on Photographs and Depiction.Paloma Atencia-Linares - 2017 - Azafea: Revista de Filosofia 19:251-268.
    Walton has controversially claimed that all pictures are fiction because, in seeing a picture one imagines that one is seeing the depicted content in the flesh; and that in seeing a photograph one _literally – _although indirectly – _sees_ the photographed object. Philosophers have found these claims implausible for various reasons: it is not the case that all pictures are fiction; explaining depiction does not require an imaginative engagement and seeing objects in photographs is not tantamount to seeing the (...)
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  28. Can Digital Pictures Qualify As Photographs?Geert Gooskens - 2012 - American Society for Aesthetics Graduate E-Journal 4 (1):17-23.
    Can digital pictures qualify as photographs? The commonsensical answer is that they can. We are happy to call a picture of a scene made with a digital camera a photograph. According to William Mitchell, however, we are wrong to do so. Pictures made with digital cameras would not qualify as photographs, because they lack a certain realism essential to classical, i.e. film-based, photography. In the following, I first present two ways in which film-based photographs are realistic . (...)
     
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  29.  51
    Portrait of the Patient as a Young Man: An Exploration of the Use of Photographs in Hospital. [REVIEW]Peter Lewis - 2007 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 4 (1):51-55.
    The display of personal photographs in hospital is a common practice that has yet to be rigorously examined. The photographs displayed are subject to interpretation by the viewer and may lead to misunderstandings or miscommunication if clarification of meaning is not sought. This paper explores a range of possible meanings that the display of photographs in hospital may hold, based on a case study of a 15 year old boy hospitalised with a life threatening illness. Further research (...)
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  30.  45
    On Photographs and Phonographs: New Techniques of Recording and Their Influence on Mach’s Conception of Knowledge.Sabine Plaud - unknown
    I examine some aspects of Mach’s concern for photographs and phonographs. I start with the phonographs, and I examine in particular Mach’s reference to this device in his account of the development of written language. My second point is a comparison between Mach's reference to phonographs and hieroglyphs and some very similar insights in Wittgenstein’s Tractatus. Lastly, I address some aspects of Mach’s interest in photographical techniques, and I try to draw a parallel between Mach’s conception of mental economical (...)
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  31.  19
    Farm Security Administration Photographs of Greenbelt Towns: Selling Utopia During the Great Depression.Jason Reblando - 2014 - Utopian Studies 25 (1):52-86.
    In this article I argue that the Farm Security Administration (FSA) photographs of the Greenbelt Town program in the late 1930s function beyond the goals for which the FSA photographs are typically known.1 The FSA photographs documented scenes of urban and rural poverty during the Great Depression to make the case for supporting President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal policies. In the midst of the Great Depression, the U.S. government planned and built three Greenbelt towns with a (...)
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  32.  11
    Recalling Trauma: Photographs as Links to a Memory Chain for Survivors of Armed Anti-Communist Resistance in Romania.Ioana Hașu - 2015 - History of Communism in Europe 6:163-180.
    Using the concept of postmemory—coined by Mariane Hirsch—this paper explores the role of photographs in recalling past trauma in two families who participated in the anticommunist armed resistance in Romania. Members of these families were executed and the survivors had to endure further persecution. The interviews revealed that some pictures offer the frame for remembering suppressed memories. The images have peculiar meanings for different generations of the same family. For the participants in this study, seeing the photographs equates (...)
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  33.  13
    Santu Mofokeng, Photographs: “The Violence is in the Knowing”.Patricia Hayes - 2009 - History and Theory 48 (4):34-51.
    Born in 1956, Santu Mofokeng formed part of the Afrapix Collective that engaged in exposé and documentary photography of anti-apartheid resistance and social conditions during the 1980s in South Africa. However, Mofokeng was an increasingly important internal critic of mainstream photojournalism, and of the ways black South Africans were represented in the bigger international picture economy during the political struggle. Eschewing scenes of violence and the third-party view of white-on-black brutality in particular, he began his profound explorations of the everyday (...)
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  34.  12
    Imaging Extinction: Disclosure and Revision in Photographs of the Thylacine (Tasmanian Tiger).Carol Freeman - 2007 - Society and Animals 15 (3):241-256.
    The thylacine was a shy and elusive nonhuman animal who survived in small numbers on the island of Tasmania, Australia, when European settlers arrived in 1803. After a deliberate campaign of eradication, the species disappeared 130 years later. Visual and verbal constructions in the nineteenth century labeled the thylacine a ferocious predator, but photographs of individuals in British and American zoos that were used to illustrate early twentieth-century zoological works presented a very different impression of the animal. The publication (...)
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  35.  4
    Enhanced Recall of Disgusting Relative to Frightening Photographs is Not Due to Organisation.Hanah A. Chapman - 2017 - Cognition and Emotion 32 (6):1220-1230.
    ABSTRACTPrevious research has shown that disgusting photographs are better remembered than frightening photographs, even when the two image types have equivalent valence and arousal. However, this work did not control for potential differences in organisation between the disgusting and frightening stimuli that could account for enhanced memory for disgusting photographs. The current research therefore tested whether differences in recall between disgusting and frightening photographs persist when differences in organisation are eliminated. Using a set of disgusting and (...)
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  36. Naked Children, Moral Philosophy and Photographs.Peter Bowden - 2008 - On Line Opinion.
    The debate about children in art and the surrounding morality started with Bill Henson's photographs of naked pubescent children. It is wider now, extending in several directions. In particular, into freedom of speech , and its association with freedom in art This article explores these issues with particular regard to Hensons photographs; and the application of several of the moral theories to this issue.
     
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  37.  17
    In Focus: Manuel Alvarez Bravo: Photographs From the J. Paul Getty Museum.Manuel Bravo - 2001 - J. Paul Getty Museum.
    An exhibition catalog presents fifty photographs taken from the J. Paul Getty Museum along with informaton on the life and career of Manual Alvarez Bravo.
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  38. Edward Bibring Photographs the Psychoanalysts of His Time.Sanford Gifford, Daniel Jacobs & Vivien Goldman (eds.) - 2006 - Routledge.
    _Edward Bibring Photographs the Psychoanalysts of His Time_ provides us with a unique pictorial window into a fascinating period of psychoanalytic history. It is the gift of Edward Bibring, a passionate photographer who, Rolleiflex in hand, chronicled international psychoanalytic congresses from 1932 to 1938. The period in question spans the ascendancy of Hitler, the great exodus of analysts to England and the U.S., and the Anschluss of 1938. A year after the Paris Congress, the last meeting photographed by Bibring, (...)
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  39. Accommodating Nature: The Photographs of Frank Gohlke.Frank =Gohlke & Rebecca =Solnit (eds.) - 2007 - Center for American Places.
    Wind, water, and molten rock constantly tear apart and resculpt the natural world we live in, and people have always struggled to create structures that will permanently establish their existence on the land. Frank Golhke has committed his camera lens to documenting that fraught relationship between people and place, and this retrospective collection of his work by John Rohrbach reveals how people carve out their living spaces in the face of constant natural disruption. An acclaimed master of landscape photography, Golhke (...)
     
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  40.  13
    Real Likenesses: Representation in Paintings, Photographs, and Novels.Michael Morris - forthcoming - Oxford University Press.
    This book offers a new approach to artistic representation, worked out in detail for the cases of paintings, photographs, and novels. It presents a paradox in the case of each of the three art forms, and argues for a thesis about the relation between medium and content. It then argues that the dominant theories of representation in the three art forms are incompatible with that thesis. Fresh light is thereby cast on familiar topics: the supposed phenomenon of ‘twofoldedness’, in (...)
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  41.  3
    Carleton Watkins: The Complete Mammoth Photographs.Weston Naef & Christine Hult-Lewis - 2011 - J. Paul Getty Museum.
    Discusses the life and work of the nineteenth century landscape photographer, presenting a selection of photographs of the American West taken between 1858 and 1891.
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  42.  10
    Issues in the Conservation of Photographs.Debra Norris & Jennifer Jae Gutierrez (eds.) - 2010 - Getty Conservation Institute.
    "In seventy-two essential texts from the nineteenth century to the present day, this anthology collects key writings that have influenced both the philosophical and the practical aspects of conserving photographs"--P. [4] of cover.
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  43.  10
    Photo Provocations: Thinking in, with, and About Photographs.Brian C. O'Connor & Roger B. Wyatt - 2004 - Scarecrow Press.
    O'Connor and Wyatt use more than 250 color photographs and illustrations to help us break out of the linear mode and see the world differently.
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  44.  13
    Twentieth-Century Color Photographs: Identification and Care.Sylvie Penichon - 2013 - Getty Conservation Institute.
    This book will interest instructors and students in classroom settings; conservators, registrars, curators, archivists, and collection caretakers; and anyone else concerned with the long-term preservation of color photographs.
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  45.  4
    The Tree in Photographs.FranCoise Reynaud - 2011 - J. Paul Getty Museum.
    This surprising selection of photographs by Ansel Adams, Eugène Atget, Alfred Stieglitz, Carleton Watkins, and others, focuses on the tree as subject matter.
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  46. Photographs and the Ontology of the Real.Guy Rohrbaugh - 1999 - Dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles
    This essay begins with a puzzle in metaphysics, the unity dilemma . The enduring debate between monists and pluralists can be understood in terms of a single problem, the supposed impossibility of including the bulk of our naive ontology in a single, all-embracing ontological category. Either one insists, as the monist does, on a unified ontology at the cost of surrendering much of our naive ontology to reduction or non-existence, or one accommodates the bulk of our naive ontology by accepting (...)
     
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  47.  4
    The Landscape in Black and White: Oliver Schuchard Photographs, 1967-2005.Oliver A. Schuchard - 2005 - University of Missouri.
    More than sixty-five black-and-white photographs as well as explanations on the aesthetic rationale and techniques used in order to produce these artworks, are featured in a representative collection of the author's thirty-eight years of ...
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  48.  22
    When Representations Conflict with Reality: The Preschooler's Problem with False Beliefs and “False” Photographs.D. Zaitchik - 1990 - Cognition 35 (1):41-68.
  49.  22
    Warsaw Set of Emotional Facial Expression Pictures: A Validation Study of Facial Display Photographs.Michal Olszanowski, Grzegorz Pochwatko, Krzysztof Kuklinski, Michal Scibor-Rylski, Peter Lewinski & Rafal K. Ohme - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  50.  89
    Sontag on Impertinent Sympathy and Photographs of Evil.Sean T. Murphy - forthcoming - In Colin Marshall (ed.), Comparative Metaethics: Neglected Perspectives on the Foundations of Morality. Routledge.
    This chapter corrects for Susan Sontag's undeserved neglect by contemporary ethical philosophers by bringing awareness to some of the unique metaethical insights born of her reflections on photographic representations of evil. I argue that Sontag's thought provides fertile ground for thinking about: (1) moral perception and its relation to moral knowledge; and (2) the epistemic and moral value of our emotional responses to the misery and suffering of others. I show that, contrary to standard moral perception theory (e.g. Blum 1994), (...)
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