Results for 'physical symbol system hypothesis'

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  1. Incompatible Implementations of Physical Symbol Systems.Peter Beim Graben - 2004 - Mind and Matter 2 (2):29-51.
    Classical cognitive science assumes that intelligently behaving systems must be symbol processors that are implemented in physical systems such as brains or digital computers. By contrast, connectionists suppose that symbol manipulating systems could be approximations of neural networks dynamics. Both classicists and connectionists argue that symbolic computation and subsymbolic dynamics are incompatible, though on different grounds. While classicists say that connectionist architectures and symbol processors are either incompatible or the former are mere implementations of the latter, (...)
     
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  2.  44
    Incompatible Implementations of Physical Symbol Systems.Peter beim Graben - 2004 - Mind and Matter 2 (2):29-51.
    Classical cognitive science assumes that intelligently behaving systems must be symbol processors that are implemented in physical systems such as brains or digital computers. By contrast, connectionists suppose that symbol manipulating systems could be approximations of neural networks dynamics. Both classicists and connectionists argue that symbolic computation and subsymbolic dynamics are incompatible, though on different grounds. While classicists say that connectionist architectures and symbol processors are either incompatible or the former are mere implementations of the latter, (...)
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  3.  52
    Descartes Among the Robots.Graham White - 2011 - Minds and Machines 21 (2):179-202.
    We consider the symbol grounding problem, and apply to it philosophical arguments against Cartesianism developed by Sellars and McDowell: the problematic issue is the dichotomy between inside and outside which the definition of a physical symbol system presupposes. Surprisingly, one can question this dichotomy and still do symbolic computation: a detailed examination of the hardware and software of serial ports shows this.
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    Situated Action, Symbol Systems and Universal Computation.Andrew Wells - 1996 - Minds and Machines 6 (1):33-46.
    Vera & Simon (1993a) have argued that the theories and methods known as situated action or situativity theory are compatible with the assumptions and methodology of the physical symbol systems hypothesis and do not require a new approach to the study of cognition. When the central criterion of computational universality is added to the loose definition of a symbol system which Vera and Simon provide, it becomes apparent that there are important incompatibilities between the two (...)
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  5.  19
    The Acquired Language of Thought Hypothesis.Christopher Viger - 2007 - Interaction Studies 8 (1):125-142.
    I present the symbol grounding problem in the larger context of a materialist theory of content and then present two problems for causal, teleo-functional accounts of content. This leads to a distinction between two kinds of mental representations: presentations and symbols; only the latter are cognitive. Based on Milner and Goodale’s dual route model of vision, I posit the existence of precise interfaces between cognitive systems that are activated during object recognition. Interfaces are constructed as a child learns, and (...)
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  6.  71
    Symbol Grounding and the Symbolic Theft Hypothesis.Angelo Cangelosi, Alberto Greco & Stevan Harnad - 2002 - In A. Cangelosi & D. Parisi (eds.), Simulating the Evolution of Language. Springer Verlag. pp. 191--210.
    Scholars studying the origins and evolution of language are also interested in the general issue of the evolution of cognition. Language is not an isolated capability of the individual, but has intrinsic relationships with many other behavioral, cognitive, and social abilities. By understanding the mechanisms underlying the evolution of linguistic abilities, it is possible to understand the evolution of cognitive abilities. Cognitivism, one of the current approaches in psychology and cognitive science, proposes that symbol systems capture mental phenomena, and (...)
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  7.  27
    How Can a Symbol System Come Into Being?David Lumsden - 2005 - Dialogue 44 (1):87-96.
    One holistic thesis about symbols is that a symbol cannot exist singly, but only as apart of a symbol system. There is also the plausible view that symbol systems emerge gradually in an individual, in a group, and in a species. The problem is that symbol holism makes it hard to see how a symbol system can emerge gradually, at least if we are considering the emergence of a first symbol system. (...)
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    Information, Physics and the Representing Mind.Kathryn Blackmond Laskey - 2014 - Cosmos and History 10 (1):131-139.
    A primary function of mind is to form and manipulate representations to identify and choose survival-enhancing behaviors. Representations are themselves physical systems that can be manipulated to reason about, predict, or plan actions involving the objects they designate. The field of knowledge representation and reasoning turns representation upon itself to study how representations are formed and used by biological and computer systems. Some of the most versatile and successful KRR methods have been imported from computational physics. Features of a (...)
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  9. Computationalism Under Attack.Roberto Cordeschi & Marcello Frixione - 2007 - In M. Marraffa, M. De Caro & F. Ferretti (eds.), Cartographies of the Mind: Philosophy and Psychology in Intersection. Springer.
    Since the early eighties, computationalism in the study of the mind has been “under attack” by several critics of the so-called “classic” or “symbolic” approaches in AI and cognitive science. Computationalism was generically identified with such approaches. For example, it was identified with both Allen Newell and Herbert Simon’s Physical Symbol System Hypothesis and Jerry Fodor’s theory of Language of Thought, usually without taking into account the fact ,that such approaches are very different as to their (...)
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  10.  3
    Organic Problem Solving.Stefan Artmann - 2008 - American Journal of Semiotics 24 (1/3):95-105.
    Sign-theoretical concepts have been used in research into the nature of living systems, not only by biologists, semioticians, and philosophers, but also by scientists who analyze organisms from the perspective of Decision Theory. Decision Theory describes both the external behavior and the internal information-processing of any kind of agent in terms of problem solving. Such “problem solving” is considered a complex process of: defining a goal in an environment, selecting the means to reach the defined goal, and controlling the effects (...)
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  11.  26
    The Socratic and Platonic Basis of Cognitivism.Hubert L. Dreyfus - 1988 - AI and Society 2 (2):99-112.
    Artificial Intelligence, and the cognitivist view of mind on which it is based, represent the last stage of the rationalist tradition in philosophy. This tradition begins when Socrates assumes that intelligence is based on principles and when Plato adds the requirement that these principles must be strict rules, not based on taken-for-granted background understanding. This philosophical position, refined by Hobbes, Descartes and Leibniz, is finally converted into a research program by Herbert Simon and Allen Newell. That research program is now (...)
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  12.  78
    The Nervous System as Physical Machine: With Special Reference to the Origin of Adaptive Behaviour.W. R. Ashby - 1947 - Mind 56 (January):44-59.
  13.  1
    Impact of an Educational Intervention on Internal Medicine Residents' Physical Activity Counselling: The Pressure System Model.David L. Katz, Kerem Shuval, Beth P. Comerford, Zubaida Faridi & Valentine Y. Njike - 2008 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 14 (2):294-299.
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  14.  28
    The Mirror System Hypothesis Stands but the Framework is Much Enriched.Michael A. Arbib - 2005 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (2):149-159.
    Challenges for extending the mirror system hypothesis include mechanisms supporting planning, conversation, motivation, theory of mind, and prosody. Modeling remains relevant. Co-speech gestures show how manual gesture and speech intertwine, but more attention is needed to the auditory system and phonology. The holophrastic view of protolanguage is debated, along with semantics and the cultural basis of grammars. Anatomically separated regions may share an evolutionary history.
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  15.  1
    How Can a Symbol System Come Into Being?David Lumsden - 2005 - Dialogue 44 (1):87-96.
    ABSTRACT: One holistic thesis about symbols is that a symbol cannot exist singly, but only as apart of a symbol system. There is also the plausible view that symbol systems emerge gradually in an individual, in a group, and in a species. The problem is that symbol holism makes it hard to see how a symbol system can emerge gradually, at least if we are considering the emergence of a first symbol (...). The only way it seems possible is if being a symbol can be a matter of degree, which is initially problematic. This article explains how being a cognitive symbol can be a matter of degree after all. The contrary intuition arises from the way a process of interpretation forces an all-or-nothing character on symbols, leaving room for underlying material to realize symbols to different degrees in a way that Daniel Dennett’s work can help illuminate. Holism applies to symbols as interpreted, while gradualism applies to how the underlying material realizes symbols.RÉSUMÉ: Selon une thèse holistique sur les symboles, un symbole ne peut exister isolément mais doit faire partie d’un systéme symbolique. Une opinion, elle aussi plausible, veut que les systèmes symboliques émergent graduellement chez un individu, un groupe ou une espèce. Le problème c’est qu’on voit mal, si le holisme des systèmes symboliques tient, comment un système symbolique peut émerger graduellement, du moins pour la première fois. Ce n’est possible, semble-t-il, que si être un symbole est affaire de degré, thèse au départ problématique. Cet article explique comment être un symbole cognitif peut après tout être affaire de degré. L’intuition contraire vient de ce que le processus d’interprétation nous force au tout ou rien, ce qui laisse un jeu dans la façon dont le matériel sous-jacent réalise les symboles à des degrés divers. Les travaux de Daniel Dennett sont à cet égard éclairants. Le holisme vaut pour les symboles tels qu’ils sont interprétés, tandis que le gradualisme vaut pour la façon dont le matériel sous-jacent réalise les symboles. (shrink)
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  16. How Can a Symbol System Come Into Being?David Lumsden - 2005 - Dialogue 44 (1):87-96.
    ABSTRACT: One holistic thesis about symbols is that a symbol cannot exist singly, but only as apart of a symbol system. There is also the plausible view that symbol systems emerge gradually in an individual, in a group, and in a species. The problem is that symbol holism makes it hard to see how a symbol system can emerge gradually, at least if we are considering the emergence of a first symbol (...). The only way it seems possible is if being a symbol can be a matter of degree, which is initially problematic. This article explains how being a cognitive symbol can be a matter of degree after all. The contrary intuition arises from the way a process of interpretation forces an all-or-nothing character on symbols, leaving room for underlying material to realize symbols to different degrees in a way that Daniel Dennett’s work can help illuminate. Holism applies to symbols as interpreted, while gradualism applies to how the underlying material realizes symbols.RÉSUMÉ: Selon une thèse holistique sur les symboles, un symbole ne peut exister isolément mais doit faire partie d’un systéme symbolique. Une opinion, elle aussi plausible, veut que les systèmes symboliques émergent graduellement chez un individu, un groupe ou une espèce. Le problème c’est qu’on voit mal, si le holisme des systèmes symboliques tient, comment un système symbolique peut émerger graduellement, du moins pour la première fois. Ce n’est possible, semble-t-il, que si être un symbole est affaire de degré, thèse au départ problématique. Cet article explique comment être un symbole cognitif peut après tout être affaire de degré. L’intuition contraire vient de ce que le processus d’interprétation nous force au tout ou rien, ce qui laisse un jeu dans la façon dont le matériel sous-jacent réalise les symboles à des degrés divers. Les travaux de Daniel Dennett sont à cet égard éclairants. Le holisme vaut pour les symboles tels qu’ils sont interprétés, tandis que le gradualisme vaut pour la façon dont le matériel sous-jacent réalise les symboles. (shrink)
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  17. Physical Symbol Systems.Allen Newell - 1980 - Cognitive Science 4 (2):135-83.
  18. The Mathematical Description of a Generic Physical System.Federico Zalamea - 2015 - Topoi 34 (2):339-348.
    When dealing with a certain class of physical systems, the mathematical characterization of a generic system aims to describe the phase portrait of all its possible states. Because they are defined only up to isomorphism, the mathematical objects involved are “schematic structures”. If one imposes the condition that these mathematical definitions completely capture the physical information of a given system, one is led to a strong requirement of individuation for physical states. However, we show there (...)
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  19.  40
    Concrete Digital Computation: What Does It Take for a Physical System to Compute? [REVIEW]Nir Fresco - 2011 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 20 (4):513-537.
    This paper deals with the question: what are the key requirements for a physical system to perform digital computation? Time and again cognitive scientists are quick to employ the notion of computation simpliciter when asserting basically that cognitive activities are computational. They employ this notion as if there was or is a consensus on just what it takes for a physical system to perform computation, and in particular digital computation. Some cognitive scientists in referring to digital (...)
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  20.  9
    The Determination of the Past and the Future of a Physical System in Quantum Mechanics.Paul Busch & Pekka J. Lahti - 1989 - Foundations of Physics 19 (6):633-678.
    The determination of the past and the future of a physical system are complementary aims of measurements. An optimal determination of the past of a system can be achieved by an informationally complete set of physical quantities. Such a set is always strongly noncommutative. An optimal determination of the future of a physical system can be obtained by a Boolean complete set of quantities. The two aims can be reconciled to a reasonable degree with (...)
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  21.  60
    The Emergence of Symbol-Based Communication in a Complex System of Artificial Creatures.Angelo Loula, Ricardo Gudwin, Charbel El-Hani & João Queiroz - unknown
    We present here a digital scenario to simulate the emergence of self-organized symbol-based communication among artificial creatures inhabiting a virtual world of predatory events. In order to design the environment and creatures, we seek theoretical and empirical constraints from C.S.Peirce Semiotics and an ethological case study of communication among animals. Our results show that the creatures, assuming the role of sign users and learners, behave collectively as a complex system, where self-organization of communicative interactions plays a major role (...)
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  22.  12
    A Bio-Physical Basis of Mathematics in Synaptic Function of the Nervous System: A Theory.John Dempsher - 1980 - Acta Biotheoretica 29 (3-4):119-127.
    The purpose of this paper is to present a bio-physical basis of mathematics. The essence of the theory is that function in the nervous system is mathematical. The mathematics arises as a result of the interaction of energy (a wave with a precise curvature in space and time) and matter (a molecular or ionic structure with a precise form in space and time). In this interaction, both energy and matter play an active role. That is, the interaction results (...)
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  23.  10
    Beyond the Limits of the Brain as a Physical System.V. K. Jirsa & J. A. S. Kelso - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (3):405-406.
    Nunez's description of the brain as a medium capable of wave propagation has provided some fundamental insights into its dynamics. This approach soon reaches the descriptive limits of the brain as a physical system, however. We point out some biological constraints which differentiate the brain from physical systems and we elaborate on its consequences for future research.
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  24.  45
    Quantum Physical Symbol Systems.Kathryn Blackmond Laskey - 2006 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 15 (1-2):109-154.
    Because intelligent agents employ physically embodied cognitive systems to reason about the world, their cognitive abilities are constrained by the laws of physics. Scientists have used digital computers to develop and validate theories of physically embodied cognition. Computational theories of intelligence have advanced our understanding of the nature of intelligence and have yielded practically useful systems exhibiting some degree of intelligence. However, the view of cognition as algorithms running on digital computers rests on implicit assumptions about the physical world (...)
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  25.  5
    The Two Visual System Hypothesis Loses a Supporter.Ralph Norman Haber - 1983 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (3):453.
  26.  8
    The Neurobiology of Sign Language and the Mirror System Hypothesis.Karen Emmorey - 2013 - Language and Cognition 5 (2).
  27.  6
    Reconstructing Physical Symbol Systems.David S. Touretzky & Dean A. Pomerleau - 1994 - Cognitive Science 18 (2):345-353.
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  28. Reply to Touretzky and Pomerleau: Reconstructing Physical Symbol Systems.Alonso H. Vera & Herbert A. Simon - 1994 - Cognitive Science 18 (2):355-360.
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  29.  7
    Grounding the Mirror System Hypothesis for the Evolution of the Language-Ready Brain.Michael A. Arbib - 2002 - In A. Cangelosi & D. Parisi (eds.), Simulating the Evolution of Language. Springer Verlag. pp. 229--254.
  30.  16
    Life After the Symbol System Metaphor.Karl F. MacDorman - 2007 - Interaction Studies 8 (1):143-158.
  31.  6
    Précis of How the Brain Got Language: The Mirror System Hypothesis.Michael A. Arbib - forthcoming - Language and Cognition.
  32.  1
    Afterword: Life After the Symbol System Metaphor.Karl F. MacDorman - 2007 - Interaction Studiesinteraction Studies Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systems 8 (1):143-158.
  33. Also Psychology Consciousness, 56-59, 83-84 as Meaning, 84-85 as Ordered Symbol System, 84-85 Realist Conception of, 56-59. [REVIEW]Pragmatism Deconstruction - 1990 - In Richard A. Cherwitz (ed.), Rhetoric and Philosophy. L. Erlbaum Associates. pp. 191--309.
  34. Quantum Physical Symbol Systems. Submitted to Special Issue Of.K. Laskey - forthcoming - Minds and Machines.
     
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  35.  14
    Why the Dynamical Hypothesis Cannot Qualify as a Law of Qualitative Structure.Nick Braisby, Richard Cooper & Bradley Franks - 1998 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (5):630-631.
    Van Gelder presents the dynamical hypothesis as a novel law of qualitative structure to compete with Newell and Simon's (1976) physical symbol systems hypothesis. Unlike Newell and Simon's hypothesis, the dynamical hypothesis fails to provide necessary and sufficient conditions for cognition. Furthermore, imprecision in the statement of the dynamical hypothesis renders it unfalsifiable.
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  36.  28
    Symbol Grounding: A Bridge From Artificial Life to Artificial Intelligence.Evan Thompson - 1997 - Brain and Cognition 34 (1):48-71.
    This paper develops a bridge from AL issues about the symbol–matter relation to AI issues about symbol-grounding by focusing on the concepts of formality and syntactic interpretability. Using the DNA triplet-amino acid specification relation as a paradigm, it is argued that syntactic properties can be grounded as high-level features of the non-syntactic interactions in a physical dynamical system. This argu- ment provides the basis for a rebuttal of John Searle’s recent assertion that syntax is observer-relative (1990, (...)
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  37. The Fundamental Principles of Existence and the Origin of Physical Laws.Attila Grandpierre - 2002 - Ultimate Reality and Meaning 25 (2):127-147.
    Our concept of the universe and the material world is foundational for our thinking and our moral lives. In an earlier contribution to the URAM project I presented what I called 'the ultimate organizational principle' of the universe. In that article (Grandpierre 2000, pp. 12-35) I took as an adversary the wide-spread system of thinking which I called 'materialism'. According to those who espouse this way of thinking, the universe consists of inanimate units or sets of material such as (...)
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  38. From Arbuthnot to Boltzmann: The Past Hypothesis, the Best System, and the Special Sciences.Mathias Frisch - 2011 - Philosophy of Science 78 (5):1001-1011.
    In recent work on the foundations of statistical mechanics and the arrow of time, Barry Loewer and David Albert have developed a view that defends both a best system account of laws and a physicalist fundamentalism. I argue that there is a tension between their account of laws, which emphasizes the pragmatic element in assessing the relative strength of different deductive systems, and their reductivism or funda- mentalism. If we take the pragmatic dimension in their account seriously, then the (...)
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  39.  99
    Natural World Physical, Brain Operational, and Mind Phenomenal Space-Time.Andrew A. Fingelkurts, Alexander A. Fingelkurts & Carlos F. H. Neves - 2010 - Physics of Life Reviews 7 (2):195-249.
    Concepts of space and time are widely developed in physics. However, there is a considerable lack of biologically plausible theoretical frameworks that can demonstrate how space and time dimensions are implemented in the activity of the most complex life-system – the brain with a mind. Brain activity is organized both temporally and spatially, thus representing space-time in the brain. Critical analysis of recent research on the space-time organization of the brain’s activity pointed to the existence of so-called operational space-time (...)
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  40.  2
    Hypercomputation and the Physical Church‐Turing Thesis.Paolo Cotogno - 2003 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 54 (2):181-223.
    A version of the Church-Turing Thesis states that every effectively realizable physical system can be simulated by Turing Machines (‘Thesis P’). In this formulation the Thesis appears to be an empirical hypothesis, subject to physical falsification. We review the main approaches to computation beyond Turing definability (‘hypercomputation’): supertask, non-well-founded, analog, quantum, and retrocausal computation. The conclusions are that these models reduce to supertasks, i.e. infinite computation, and that even supertasks are no solution for recursive incomputability. This (...)
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  41.  96
    Is the Relativity Principle Consistent with Electrodynamics? Towards a Logico-Empiricist Reconstruction of a Physical Theory.Marton Gomori & Laszlo E. Szabo - manuscript
    It is common in the literature on electrodynamics and relativity theory that the transformation rules for the basic electrodynamical quantities are derived from the hypothesis that the relativity principle (RP) applies for Maxwell's electrodynamics. As it will turn out from our analysis, these derivations raise several problems, and certain steps are logically questionable. This is, however, not our main concern in this paper. Even if these derivations were completely correct, they leave open the following questions: (1) Is (RP) a (...)
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  42.  5
    Quality Spaces: Mental and Physical.Joshua Gert - 2017 - Philosophical Psychology 30 (5):525-544.
    Perceptual-role theories of mental qualities hold that we can discover the nature of a being’s mental qualities by investigating that being’s capacity to make perceptual discriminations. Many advocates of perceptual-role theories hold that the best explanation of these capacities is that mental quality spaces are homomorphic to the spaces of the physical properties that they help to discriminate. This paper disputes this thesis on largely empirical grounds, and offers an alternative. The alternative explains interesting patterns in our perception of (...)
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  43.  21
    Hominin Infant Decentration Hypothesis: Mirror Neurons System Adapted to Subserve Mother-Centered Participation.Stein Braten - 2004 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (4):508-509.
    Falk's hominin mother-infant model presupposes an emerging infant capacity to perceive and learn from afforded gestures and vocalizations. Unlike back-riding offspring of other primates, who were in no need to decenter their own body-centered perspective, a mirror neurons system may have been adapted in hominin infants to subserve the kind of (m)other-centered mirroring we now see manifested by human infants soon after birth.
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  44. The Paraphenomenal Hypothesis.David Pitt - manuscript
    Gilbert Ryle accused Descartes of advancing what he called the “paramechanical hypothesis,” according to which the structure and operations of the mind can be understood on the model of the structure and operations of a physical system. The body is a complex machine – “a bit of clockwork” – that operates according to laws governing the mechanical interactions of material things. The mind, on the other hand, according to Descartes (according to Ryle), is an immaterial machine that (...)
     
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  45.  17
    Perceptual Symbol Systems and Emotion.Louis C. Charland - 1999 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (4):612-613.
    In his target article, Barsalou cites current work on emotion theory but does not explore its relevance for this project. The connection is worth pursuing, since there is a plausible case to be made that emotions form a distinct symbolic information processing system of their own. On some views, that system is argued to be perceptual: a direct connection with Barsalou's perceptual symbol systems theory. Also relevant is the hypothesis that there may be different modular subsystems (...)
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  46.  22
    The Diffuse Organism as the First Biological System.Nikolay P. Kolomiytsev & Nadezhda Ya Poddubnaya - 2010 - Biological Theory 5 (1):67-78.
    This article presents a new hypothesis on the origin of life on Earth. According to this hypothesis, life arose within the limits of a particular material system representing a set of specific local environments integrated by a common circulating liquid medium where relatively short RNA molecules, viroid-like particles, are replicated with great accuracy. In each of the local environments, the synthesis of certain substances that are required for accurate replication and survival of the RNAs is carried out. (...)
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  47.  5
    Is an Electron a Charge Cloud? A Reexamination of Schrödinger’s Charge Density Hypothesis.Shan Gao - forthcoming - Foundations of Science:1-13.
    This article re-examines Schrödinger’s charge density hypothesis, according to which the charge of an electron is distributed in the whole space, and the charge density in each position is proportional to the modulus squared of the wave function of the electron there. It is shown that the charge distribution of a quantum system can be measured by protective measurements as expectation values of certain observables, and the results as predicted by quantum mechanics confirm Schrödinger’s original hypothesis. Moreover, (...)
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  48.  4
    The City as a Mediating Device and as a Symbol in Finnish Poetry of the 1960s.Harri Veivo - 2012 - Sign Systems Studies 40 (3/4):514-527.
    In Finnish poetry of the 1960s, the city, and above all the capital Helsinki, is the scene where the metamorphosis of Finland from an agrarian into an urban society is staged, analysed and commented. It is also a symbol that serves to situate the country in the global context, with all the contradictions that were characteristic of the position of Finland in the cold war system. Writing about the city was a means to reflect on the transformations of (...)
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  49.  9
    Differences That Make a Difference: Do Locus Equations Result From Physical Principles Characterizing All Mammalian Vocal Tracts?W. Tecumseh Fitch & Marc D. Hauser - 1998 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (2):264-265.
    Sussman and colleagues provide no evidence supporting their claim that the human vocal production system is specialized to produce locus equations with high correlations and linearity. We propose the alternative null hypothesis that these features result from physical and physiological factors common to all mammalian vocal tracts and we recommend caution in assuming that human speech production mechanisms are unique.
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  50.  55
    Why Rejection Hurts: A Common Neural Alarm System for Physical and Social Pain.Naomi I. Eisenberger & Matthew D. Lieberman - 2004 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8 (7):294-300.
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