Results for 'placebo'

657 found
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  1. HIV-Infected Pregnant Women in Developing Countries. Ethical Imperialism or Unethical Exploitation.Randomised Placebo-Controlled Trials - 2001 - Bioethics 15 (4):289-311.
     
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  2. Placebo Effects and Informed Consent.Mark Alfano - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (10):3-12.
    The concepts of placebos and placebo effects refer to extremely diverse phenomena. I recommend dissolving the concepts of placebos and placebo effects into loosely related groups of specific mechanisms, including (potentially among others) expectation-fulfillment, classical conditioning, and attentional-somatic feedback loops. If this approach is on the right track, it has three main implications for the ethics of informed consent. First, because of the expectation-fulfillment mechanism, the process of informing cannot be considered independently from the potential effects of treatment. (...)
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  3.  15
    Placebo: Theory, Research, and Mechanisms.Leonard White, Bernard Tursky & Gary E. Schwartz - 1985 - Guilford Press.
  4. Psychotherapy, placebos, and informed consent.Garson Leder - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (7):444-447.
    Several authors have recently argued that psychotherapy, as it is commonly practiced, is deceptive and undermines patients’ ability to give informed consent to treatment. This ‘deception’ claim is based on the findings that some, and possibly most, of the ameliorative effects in psychotherapeutic interventions are mediated by therapeutic common factors shared by successful treatments, rather than because of theory-specific techniques. These findings have led to claims that psychotherapy is, at least partly, likely a placebo, and that practitioners of psychotherapy (...)
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  5. The placebo phenomenon and medical ethics: Rethinking the relationship between informed consent and risk–benefit assessment.Franklin G. Miller & Luana Colloca - 2011 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 32 (4):229-243.
    It has been presumed within bioethics that the benefits and risks of treatments can be assessed independently of information disclosure to patients as part of the informed consent process. Research on placebo and nocebo effects indicates that this is not true for symptomatic treatments. The benefits and risks that patients experience from symptomatic treatments can be shaped powerfully by information about these treatments provided by clinicians. In this paper we discuss the implications of placebo and nocebo research for (...)
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  6.  45
    Pain, placebo, and cognitive penetration.Henry Shevlin & Phoebe Friesen - 2021 - Mind and Language 36 (5):771-791.
    There is compelling evidence that pain experience is influenced by cognitive states. We explore one specific form of such influence, namely placebo analgesia, and examine its relevance for the cognitive penetration debate in philosophy of mind. We single out as important a form of influence on experience that we term radical cognitive penetration, and argue that some cases of placebo analgesia constitute compelling instances of this phenomenon. Still, we urge caution in extrapolating from this to broader conclusions about (...)
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  7.  28
    Placebo treatment is effective differently in different diseases — but is it also harmless? A brief synopsis.Prof Dr Thomas R. Weihrauch - 2004 - Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (1):151-155.
    The placebo drug reactions from controlled trials were studied for the first time systematically for efficacy and the safety in drug data pooled from randomized, placebo-controlled, multicentre studies. Results: The efficacy of placebo on clinical symptoms and outcome varied between the therapeutic indications. However, no placebo effects on laboratory values, as e.g. blood glucose or Hb1c in diabetics, were noted. The frequency and type of placebo-induced adverse reactions also varied between indication groups. The placebo (...)
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  8.  88
    Randomised Placebo‐controlled trials and HIV‐infected Pregnant Women in Developing Countries. Ethical Imperialism or Unethical Exploitation.Paquita De Zulueta - 2001 - Bioethics 15 (4):289-311.
    The maternal‐fetal HIV transmission trials, conducted in developing countries in the 1990s, undoubtedly generated one of the most intense, high profile controversies in international research ethics. They sparked off a prolonged acrimonious and public debate and deeply divided the scientific community. They also provided an impetus for the revision of the Declaration of Helsinki – the most widely known guideline for international research. In this paper, I provide a brief summary of the context, outline the arguments for and against the (...)
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  9. Placebo trials without mechanisms: How far can they go?David Teira - 2019 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 77 (C):101177.
    In this paper, Isuggest that placebo effects, as we know them today, should be understood as experimental phenomena, low-level regularities whose causal structure is grasped through particular experimental designs with little theoretical guidance. Focusing on placebo interventions with needles for pain reduction -one of the few placebo regularities that seems to arise in meta-analytical studies- I discuss the extent to which it is possible to decompose the different factors at play through more fine-grained randomized clinical trials. My (...)
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  10.  52
    Placebo Orthodoxy in Clinical Research II: Ethical, Legal, and Regulatory Myths.Benjamin Freedman, Kathleen Cranley Glass & Charles Weijer - 1996 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 24 (3):252-259.
    Placebo-controlled trials are held by many, including regulators at agencies like the United States Food and Drug Administration, to be the gold standard in the assessment of new medical interventions. Yet the use of placebo controls in clinical trials has been the focus of considerable controversy. In this two-part article, we challenge a number of common beliefs concerning the value of placebo controls. Part I critiques statistical and other scientific justifications for the use of placebo controls (...)
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  11.  50
    Placebo effects and racial and ethnic health disparities: an unjust and underexplored connection.Phoebe Friesen & Charlotte Blease - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics Recent Issues 44 (11):774-781.
    While a significant body of bioethical literature considers how the placebo effect might introduce a conflict between autonomy and beneficence, the link between justice and the placebo effect has been neglected. Here, we bring together disparate evidence from the field of placebo studies and research on health inequalities related to race and ethnicity, and argue that, collectively, this evidence may provide the basis for an unacknowledged route by which health disparities are exacerbated. This route is constituted by (...)
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  12. Placebo Use in the United Kingdom: Results from a National Survey of Primary Care Practitioners.Jeremy Howick - 2013 - PLoS 8 (3).
    Objectives -/- Surveys in various countries suggest 17% to 80% of doctors prescribe ‘placebos’ in routine practice, but prevalence of placebo use in UK primary care is unknown. Methods -/- We administered a web-based questionnaire to a representative sample of UK general practitioners. Following surveys conducted in other countries we divided placebos into ‘pure’ and ‘impure’. ‘Impure’ placebos are interventions with clear efficacy for certain conditions but are prescribed for ailments where their efficacy is unknown, such as antibiotics for (...)
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  13.  25
    Placebo Orthodoxy in Clinical Research I: Empirical and Methodological Myths.Benjamin Freedman, Charles Weijer & Kathleen Cranley Glass - 1996 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 24 (3):243-251.
    The use of statistics in medical research has been compared to a religion: it has its high priests, supplicants, and orthodoxy. Although the comparison may be more unfair to religion than to research, a useful lesson can nonetheless be drawn: the practice of clinical research may benefit—as does the spirit—from critical self-examination. Arguably, no aspect of the conduct of clinical trials is currently more controversial—and thus in as dire need of critical examination—than the use of placebo controls. The ethical (...)
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  14.  15
    Placebo Orthodoxy in Clinical Research I: Empirical and Methodological Myths.Benjamin Freedman, Charles Weijer & Kathleen Cranley Glass - 1996 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 24 (3):243-251.
    The use of statistics in medical research has been compared to a religion: it has its high priests, supplicants, and orthodoxy. Although the comparison may be more unfair to religion than to research, a useful lesson can nonetheless be drawn: the practice of clinical research may benefit—as does the spirit—from critical self-examination. Arguably, no aspect of the conduct of clinical trials is currently more controversial—and thus in as dire need of critical examination—than the use of placebo controls. The ethical (...)
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  15.  17
    Placebos and the philosophy of medicine: clinical, conceptual, and ethical issues.Howard Brody - 1980 - Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  16.  46
    Placebo orthodoxy and the double standard of care in multinational clinical research.Maya J. Goldenberg - 2015 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 36 (1):7-23.
    It has been almost 20 years since the field of bioethics was galvanized by a controversial series of multinational AZT trials employing placebo controls on pregnant HIV-positive women in the developing world even though a standard of care existed in the sponsor countries. The trove of ethical investigations that followed was thoughtful and challenging, yet an important and problematic methodological assumption was left unexplored. In this article, I revisit the famous “double standard of care” case study in order to (...)
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  17. Prescribing placebos ethically: the appeal of negatively informed consent.David Shaw - 2009 - Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (2):97-99.
    Kihlbom has recently argued that a system of seeking negatively informed consent might be preferable in some cases to the ubiquitous informed consent model. Although this theory is perhaps not powerful enough to supplant informed consent in most settings, it lends strength to Evans’ and Hungin’s proposal that it can be ethical to prescribe placebos rather than "active" drugs. This paper presents an argument for using negatively informed consent for the specific purpose of authorising the use of placebos in clinical (...)
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  18.  53
    Placebo and Deception: A Commentary.Anne Barnhill & Franklin G. Miller - 2015 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 40 (1):69-82.
    In a recent article in this Journal, Shlomo Cohen and Haim Shapiro introduce the concept of “comparable placebo treatments” —placebo treatments with biological effects similar to the drugs they replace—and argue that doctors are not being deceptive when they prescribe or administer CPTs without revealing that they are placebos. We critique two of Cohen and Shapiro’s primary arguments. First, Cohen and Shapiro argue that offering undisclosed placebos is not lying to the patient, but rather is making a self-fulfilling (...)
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  19.  42
    Placebo treatment is effective differently in different diseases — but is it also harmless? A brief synopsis.Thomas R. Weihrauch - 2004 - Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (1):151-155.
    The placebo drug reactions from controlled trials were studied for the first time systematically for efficacy and the safety in drug data pooled from randomized, placebo-controlled, multicentre studies. Results: The efficacy of placebo on clinical symptoms and outcome varied between the therapeutic indications. However, no placebo effects on laboratory values, as e.g. blood glucose or Hb1c in diabetics, were noted. The frequency and type of placebo-induced adverse reactions also varied between indication groups. The placebo (...)
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  20.  61
    The placebo effect in popular culture.Mary Faith Marshall - 2004 - Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (1):37-42.
    This paper gives an overview of the placebo effect in popular culture, especially as it pertains to the work of authors Patrick O’Brian and Sinclair Lewis. The beloved physician as placebo, and the clinician scientist as villain are themes that respectively inform the novels, The Hundred Days and Arrowsmith. Excerpts from the novels, and from film show how the placebo effect, and the randomized clinical trial, have emerged into popular culture, and evolved over time.
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  21. The placebo effect: What's interesting for scholars of religion?Anne Harrington - 2011 - Zygon 46 (2):265-280.
    Abstract. The placebo effect these days is no longer merely the insubstantial, subjective response that some patients have to a sham treatment, like a sugar pill. It has been reconceived as a powerful mind-body phenomenon. Because of this, it has also emerged as a complex reference point in a number of high-stakes conversations about the metaphysical significance of experiences of religious healing, the possible health benefits of being religious, and the feasibility of using double-blind placebo-controlled trials to investigate (...)
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  22.  11
    Randomised placebo-controlled trials of surgery: ethical analysis and guidelines.Julian Savulescu, Karolina Wartolowska & Andy Carr - 2016 - Journal of Medical Ethics 42 (12):776-783.
    Use of a placebo control in surgical trials is a divisive issue. We argue that, in principle, placebo controls for surgery are necessary in the same way as for medicine. However, there are important differences between these types of trial, which both increase justification and limit application of surgical studies. We propose that surgical randomised placebo-controlled trials are ethical if certain conditions are fulfilled: the presence of equipoise, defined as a lack of unbiased evidence for efficacy of (...)
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  23.  33
    Placebos and the UK medical research council — and the consumer perspective.Joan Box - 2004 - Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (1):95-101.
    The UK Medical Research Council, in order to further its mission of maintaining and improving human health, supports a substantial number of clinical trials on a wide variety of medical questions; some of these trials involve the use of placebos as controls or to maintain blinding. Before providing support, proposed trials are carefully reviewed to assess scientific quality, and to determine whether a placebo is required and is ethical — in addition to ethics review by independent Research Ethics Committees. (...)
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  24.  83
    The Placebo Effect: How the Subconscious Fits in.J. L. Mommaerts & Dirk Devroey - 2012 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 55 (1):43-58.
    A much-cited definition of placebo is from Shapiro and Shapiro :"any therapy that is intentionally or knowingly used for its nonspecific, psychological, or psychophysiological, therapeutic effect, or that is used for a presumed specific therapeutic effect on a patient, symptom, or illness but is without specific activity for the condition being treated". What nonspecific means and how it relates to the psyche has been written about extensively yet inconclusively. In the end, the term nonspecific doesn't say anything about the (...)
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  25.  32
    The Placebo Effect and Its Implications.Dawson Hedges & Colin Burchfield - 2005 - Journal of Mind and Behavior 26 (3):161-180.
    Often regarded simply as a nuisance in clinical drug trials in which the aim is to separate drug response from placebo response in a statistically significant manner, the placebo response has important implications. These implications relate to the nature of illness, the study of non-specific factors in the treatment setting that are related to clinical improvement, methods of enhancing these non-specific sources of benefit, and the neurobiology that is associated with the placebo response. Specific sources of clinical (...)
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  26.  29
    Placebo: Its action and place in health research today* — summary and conclusions.Raymond E. Spier - 2004 - Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (1):189-197.
    The material presented at this conference pointed to a new dimension in the prosecution of activities that seek to relieve people of disease. While the simple instrument of the placebo may show those interested in the efficacy of physiologically active chemicals the extent to which the chemical of interest is actually active, the surprising outcome of such studies is that the placebo per se is worthy of more general study. This, when taken further, points to the ways in (...)
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  27.  64
    ‘Placebos’ and the logic of placebo comparison.Andrew Turner - 2012 - Biology and Philosophy 27 (3):419-432.
    Robin Nunn has argued that we should stop using the terms ‘placebo’ and ‘placebo effect’. I argue in support of Nunn’s position by considering the logic of why we perform placebo comparisons. Like all comparisons, placebo comparison is just a case of comparing one thing with another, but it is a mistake, I argue, to think of placebo comparison as a case where something is compared to ‘a placebo’. Rather, placebo comparison should be (...)
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  28.  12
    The Placebo Effect.Emrys Westacott - 2006 - Philosophy Now 55:50-54.
    A humorous short story about a company that tries marketing a placebo as a more expensive drug on the grounds that doing this will both maximize their profits and benefit the greatest number, since research shows the placebo to be highly effective if marketed as something else.
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  29.  10
    Placebos in clinical practice and research.P. P. De Deyn & R. D'Hooge - 1996 - Journal of Medical Ethics 22 (3):140-146.
    The main current application of placebo is in clinical research. The term placebo effect refers to diverse non-specific, desired or non-desired effects of substances or procedures and interactions between patient and therapist. Unpredictability of the placebo effect necessitates placebo-controlled designs for most trials. Therapeutic and diagnostic use of placebo is ethically acceptable only in few well-defined cases. While "therapeutic" application of placebo almost invariably implies deception, this is not the case for its use in (...)
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  30.  39
    Placebos that harm: Sham surgery controls in clinical trials.Alex London - unknown
    Recent debates over the use of sham surgery as a control for studies of fetal tissue transplantation for Parkinson’s disease have focused primarily on rival interpretations of the US federal regulations governing human-subjects research. Using the core ethical and methodological considerations that underwrite the equipoise requirement, we nd strong prima facie reasons against using sham surgery as a control in studies of cellular-based therapies for Parkinson’s disease and more broadly in clinical research. Additionally, we believe that these reasons can be (...)
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  31.  28
    Exploiting Placebo Effects for Therapeutic Benefit.Colin Cheyne - 2005 - Health Care Analysis 13 (3):177-188.
    It is widely believed that medically inert treatments (“placebos”) can bring about therapeutic benefits. There is also evidence that medically active treatments may also have “placebo” effects. Since anything that has the potential to benefit patients ought to be exploited, subject to appropriate ethical standards, it has been suggested that more should be done to investigate and exploit the power of the placebo for therapeutic benefit. I explore the acute epistemic and ethical constraints that such exploitation is likely (...)
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  32.  97
    The placebo concept in medicine and psychiatry.A. Grunbaum - 1986 - Psychological Medicine 16 (1):19-38.
  33.  29
    Placebo controls and epistemic control in orthodox medicine.Mark D. Sullivan - 1993 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 18 (2):213-231.
    American orthodox medicine consolidated its professional authority in the early 20th Century on the basis of its unbiased scientific method. The centerpiece of such a method is a strategy for identifying truly effective new therapies, i.e., the randomized clinical trial (RCT). A crucial component of the RCT in illnesses without established treatment is the placebo control. Placebo effects must be identified and distinguished from pharmacological effects because placebos produce actual but unexplained therapeutic successes. The blinding necessary for a (...)
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  34.  41
    Impure placebo is a useless concept.Pekka Louhiala, Harri Hemilä & Raimo Puustinen - 2015 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 36 (4):279-289.
    Placebos are allegedly used widely in general practice. Surveys reporting high level usage, however, have combined two categories, ‘pure’ and ‘impure’ placebos. The wide use of placebos is explained by the high level usage of impure placebos. In contrast, the prevalence of the use of pure placebos has been low. Traditional pure placebos are clinically ineffective treatments, whereas impure placebos form an ambiguous group of diverse treatments that are not always ineffective. In this paper, we focus on the impure (...) concept and demonstrate problems related to it. We also show that the common examples of impure placebos are not meaningful from the point of view of clinical practice. We conclude that the impure placebo is a scientifically misleading concept and should not be used in scientific or medical literature. The issues behind the concept, however, deserve serious attention in future research. (shrink)
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  35.  15
    The placebo puzzle: examining the discordant space between biomedical science and illness/healing.Shawn Pohlman, Nancy J. Cibulka, Janice L. Palmer, Rebecca A. Lorenz & Lee SmithBattle - 2013 - Nursing Inquiry 20 (1):71-81.
    POHLMAN S, CIBULKA NJ, PALMER JL, LORENZ RA and SMITHBATTLE L. Nursing Inquiry 2013; 20: 71–81 The placebo puzzle: examining the discordant space between biomedical science and illness/healingThe placebo response presents an enigma to biomedical science: how can ‘inert’ or ‘sham’ procedures reduce symptoms and produce physiological changes that are comparable to prescribed treatments? In this study, we examine this puzzle by explicating the discordant space between the prevailing biomedical paradigm, which focuses on a technical understanding of diagnosis (...)
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  36.  26
    Placebo-controlled clinical trials: how trial documents justify the use of randomisation and placebo.Tapani Keränen, Arja Halkoaho, Emmi Itkonen & Anna-Maija Pietilä - 2015 - BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):2.
    Randomised clinical trials involve procedures such as randomisation, blinding, and placebo use, which are not part of standard medical care. Patients asked to participate in RCTs often experience difficulties in understanding the meaning of these and their justification.
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  37.  26
    Placebo-Controlled Trials and the Logic of Scientific Purpose.Benjamin Freedman - 1990 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 12 (6):5.
  38.  47
    Placebo and criminal law.Jan C. Joerden - 2004 - Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (1):65-72.
    This article considers issues concerning cases where the use of placebo is lawful or is not lawful under aspects of German criminal law. It will differentiate between cases of individual therapy and cases of supervised experiments within the scope of medical tests. Thereby, it reveals that a medication of placebo with regard to an individual patient seems to be lawful if there is no alternative possibility of a better treatment using a chemically effective medicine and if the limits (...)
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  39.  30
    Placebo in the investigation of psychotropic drugs, especially antidepressants.Stanisław Pużyński - 2004 - Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (1):135-142.
    The paper presents major ethical, legal and methodological problems related to the use of placebo in mental disorders, especially in depression. It is pointed out that although authoritative groups of experts and numerous publications in the field of psychopharmacology indicate advisability of the double blind design with placebo in clinical trials of antidepressants, in recent years there have been more and more voices questioning legitimacy of this method. Objections of an ethical nature are raised, and reliability of this (...)
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  40.  25
    Placebo: Deception and the notion of autonomy.Evangelos D. Protopapadakis - 2018 - In George Arabatzis & Evangelos D. Protopapadakis (eds.), Thinking in Action. Athens, Greece: pp. 103-115.
    In this short essay I intent to discuss the moral standing of autonomy in the field of Medical Ethics and the way it affects individual decision making as well as health care policies. To this purpose I will employ a real life scenario, namely administering placebo medication to a patient without letting him know, by means of which I will challenge not only the effectiveness and the feasibility of autonomy in the Kantian sense, but also its desirability. I will (...)
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  41.  34
    A Duty to Deceive: Placebos in Clinical Practice.Bennett Foddy - 2009 - American Journal of Bioethics 9 (12):4-12.
    Among medical researchers and clinicians the dominant view is that it is unethical to deceive patients by prescribing a placebo. This opinion is formalized in a recent policy issued by the American Medical Association (AMA [Chicago, IL]). Although placebos can be shown to be always safe, often effective, and sometimes necessary, doctors are now effectively prohibited from using them in clinical practice. I argue that the deceptive administration of placebos is not subject to the same moral objections that face (...)
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  42.  8
    Undisclosed Placebo Trials in Clinical Practice: Undercover Beneficence or Unwarranted Deception?Daniel Edward Callies - forthcoming - Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics.
    A placebo is an intervention that is believed to lack specific pharmacological or physiological efficacy for a patient’s condition. While placebo-controlled trials are considered the gold standard when it comes to researching and testing new pharmacological treatments, the use of placebos in clinical practice is more controversial. The focus of this case study is an undisclosed placebo trial used as an attempt to diagnose a patient’s complex and unusual symptomology. In this case, the placebo was used (...)
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  43.  12
    Placebo and the helsinki declaration — What to do?Professor Bozidar Vrhovac - 2004 - Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (1):81-93.
    The Helsinki Declaration is the ‘gold standard’ — a directive, not a law, on how to conduct controlled studies in humans in conformity with ethical principles. In spite of many discussions about their unsuitability some articles have remained unchanged in the most recent (sixth) revision of the Declaration. The demand to use “the best treatment” excludes use of placebo in the control group and presents an obstacle to the scientific evaluation of a number of drugs and treatments in general. (...)
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  44.  26
    Placebo Surgery for Parkinson's Disease: Do the Benefits Outweigh the Risks?Peter A. Clark - 2002 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 30 (1):58-68.
    In April 1999, Dr. Curt Freed of the University of Colorado in Denver and Dr. Stanley Fahn of Columbia Presbyterian Center in New York presented the results of a four-year, $5.7 million government-financed study using tissue from aborted fetuses to treat Parkinson’s disease at a conference of the American Academy of Neurology. The results of the first government-financed, placebo-controlled clinical study using fetal tissue showed that the symptoms of some Parkinson’s patients had been relieved. This research study involved forty (...)
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  45.  8
    Placebos and HIV: Lessons Learned.Levine Carol - 2012 - Hastings Center Report 28 (6):43-48.
  46.  55
    An enactive account of placebo effects.Giulio Ongaro & Dave Ward - 2017 - Biology and Philosophy 32 (4):507-533.
    Placebos are commonly defined as ineffective treatments. They are treatments that lack a known mechanism linking their properties to the properties of the condition on which treatment aims to intervene. Given this, the fact that placebos can have substantial therapeutic effects looks puzzling. The puzzle, we argue, arises from the relationship placebos present between culturally meaningful entities, our intentional relationship to the environment and bodily effects. How can a mere attitude toward a treatment result in appropriate bodily changes? We argue (...)
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  47.  24
    “Comparable Placebo Treatment” and the Ethics of Deception.Shlomo Cohen & Haim Shapiro - 2013 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 38 (6):696-709.
    Recent research, especially with functional brain imaging, demonstrated cases where the administration of a placebo produces objective effects in tissues that are indistinguishable from those of the real therapeutic agents. This phenomenon has been shown in treatments of pain, depression, Parkinsonism, and more. The main ethical complaint against placebo treatment is that it is a kind of deception, where supposedly we substitute what works just psychologically for a real drug that actually works on the tissue level. We claim (...)
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  48. Placebo: A Clinically Significant Quantum Effect.Henry P. Stapp - unknown
    His words effectively assert, within a scientific context, that the mental realities that comprise a person’s stream of conscious experiences can influence the state of that person’s physically described body. That claim neither follows naturally from, nor meshes rationally with, the basic physical theory that, in 1799, had prevailed in science for more than a century---since the 1687 publication of Isaac Newton’s Principia---and that would continue to prevail for an additional century, until its replacement during the twentieth century by quantum (...)
     
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  49.  32
    Placebo use in council of europe biomedical research instruments.Pēteris Zilgalvis - 2004 - Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (1):15-22.
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  50.  17
    Placebo-controlled Trials in Schizophrenia: Are They Ethical? Are They Necessary?Charles Weijer - unknown
    The current controversy as to the proper role of the placebo control in the evaluation of new treatments for schizophrenia requires an analysis that is sensitive to both ethical and scientific issues. Clinical equipoise, widely regarded as the moral foundation of the randomized controlled trial (RCT), requires the use of best available treatment as the control in RCT. Scientific criticisms of the use of an active control are examined and none present an insuperable barrier to the use of an (...)
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