Results for 'population ethics'

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  1.  71
    Population Ethics and Different‐Number‐Based Imprecision.Gustaf Arrhenius - 2016 - Theoria 82 (2):166-181.
    Recently, in his Rolf Schock Prize Lecture, Derek Parfit has suggested a novel way of avoiding the Repugnant Conclusion by introducing what he calls “imprecision” in value comparisons. He suggests that in a range of important cases, populations of different sizes are only imprecisely comparable. Parfit suggests that this feature of value comparisons opens up a way of avoiding the Repugnant Conclusion without implying other counterintuitive conclusions, and thus solves one of the major challenges in ethics. In this article, (...)
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  2.  51
    Population Ethics and Metaethics.Gustaf Arrhenius - 2012 - Iride: Filosofia e Discussione Pubblica 25 (1):35-44.
    This paper focuses on the relations between population ethics and metaethics. Population ethics gives rise to well-known paradoxes, such as the paradox of mere addition. After presenting a version of this paradox, it is argued that a different way to dismantle it might be by considering it as a way to change our standard view of justification in moral theory. Two possible views are considered: a non-cognitivist approach to justification and to the explanation of inconsistency in (...)
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  3.  50
    Prioritarianism and Population Ethics.Nils Holtug - 2012 - Iride: Filosofia e Discussione Pubblica 25 (1):45-56.
    According to prioritarianism, roughly, it is better to benefit a person, the worse off she is. This seems a plausible principle as long as it is applied only to fixed populations. However, once this restriction is lifted, prioritarianism seems to imply that it is better cause a person to exist at a welfare level of l than to confer l units on a person who already exists and is at a positive welfare level. Thus, prioritarianism seems to assign too much (...)
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  4.  30
    Introductory Note. Population Ethics: The Unavoidability of the Quality of Life and the Ensuing Paradoxes.Gianfranco Pellegrino - 2012 - Iride: Filosofia e Discussione Pubblica 25 (1):27-34.
    Population ethics is defined and presented, and some of the paradoxes it encapsulates are spelled out. It is argued that the concept of the quality of a life or of a life worth living can- not be avoided if inquiry on many relevant ethical and political topics is to be pursued in a theoretically fitting mode. In particular, the article deals with the asymmetry between rea- sons for not creating unhappy lives and reasons for creating happy lives, the (...)
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  5. Incommensurability in Population Ethics.Jacob Nebel - 2015 - Dissertation, University of Oxford
    Values are incommensurable when they cannot be measured on a single cardinal scale. Many philosophers suggest that incommensurability can help us solve the problems of population ethics. I agree. But some philosophers claim that populations bear incommensurable values merely because they contain different numbers of people, perhaps within some range. I argue that mere differences in how many people exist, even within some range, do not suffice for incommensurability. I argue that the intuitive neutrality of creating happy people (...)
     
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  6.  18
    Temporary Reproductive Suspension: Population Ethics and Climate Change.Marcello Di Paola & Gianfranco Pellegrino - 2012 - Iride: Filosofia e Discussione Pubblica 25 (1):57-78.
    This paper focuses on a specific proposal connected with the issue of mitigating climate change by reducing GHG concentrations in the atmosphere. The idea of campaigning in favour of a temporary reproductive suspension, to be addressed to a range of citizens of developed countries , is explored. Some details of the proposal are specified, and the proposal itself is defended against four objec- tions: 1. that it encroaches reproductive freedom; 2. that it subtracts from the overall value the value of (...)
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  7.  12
    Does Peer Benefit Justify Research on Incompetent Individuals? The Same-Population Condition in Codes of Research Ethics.Mats Johansson & Linus Broström - 2012 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 15 (3):287-294.
    Research on incompetent humans raises ethical challenges, especially when there is no direct benefit to these research subjects. Contemporary codes of research ethics typically require that such research must specifically serve to benefit the population to which the research subjects belong. The article critically examines this “same-population condition”, raising issues of both interpretation and moral justification. Of particular concern is the risk that the way in which the condition is articulated and rationalized in effect disguises or downplays (...)
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  8.  72
    The Population Ethics of Belief: In Search of an Epistemic Theory X.Richard Pettigrew - 2018 - Noûs 52 (2):336-372.
    Consider Phoebe and Daphne. Phoebe has credences in 1 million propositions. Daphne, on the other hand, has credences in all of these propositions, but she's also got credences in 999 million other propositions. Phoebe's credences are all very accurate. Each of Daphne's credences, in contrast, are not very accurate at all; each is a little more accurate than it is inaccurate, but not by much. Whose doxastic state is better, Phoebe's or Daphne's? It is clear that this question is analogous (...)
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  9.  57
    Mere Addition and Two Trilemmas of Population Ethics.Erik Carlson - 1998 - Economics and Philosophy 14 (2):283.
    A principal aim of the branch of ethics called ‘population theory’ or ‘population ethics’ is to find a plausible welfarist axiology, capable of comparing total outcomes with respect to value. This has proved an exceedingly difficult task. In this paper I shall state and discuss two ‘trilemmas’, or choices between three unappealing alternatives, which the population ethicist must face. The first trilemma is not new. It originates with Derek Parfit's well-known ‘Mere Addition Paradox’, and was (...)
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  10.  38
    On the Buddhist Truths and the Paradoxes in Population Ethics.Bruno Contestabile - 2010 - Contemporary Buddhism 11 (1):103-113.
    Starting point The starting point of this paper is the following citation concerning the state of contemporary population ethics: Most discussion in population ethics has concentrated on how to evaluate populations in regard to their goodness, that is, how to order populations by the relations ‘is better than’ and ‘is as good as’. This field has been riddled with paradoxes which purport to show that our considered beliefs are inconsistent in cases where the number of people (...)
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  11.  30
    Sufficiency and Population Ethics.Robert Huseby - 2012 - Ethical Perspectives 19 (2):187-206.
    Climate change highlights the relevance of population ethics. Should we attempt to maximize the combined welfare of future people? Many versions of Utilitarianism hold that we should. However, most Utilitarian theories have quite unpleasant implications when applied to all future generations.In this article, I consider the prospects for a Telic Sufficientarian theory of welfare . According to this theory, shortfalls from a sufficient level of welfare are morally bad, and this is all that matters as far as welfare (...)
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  12. Moral Uncertainty About Population Ethics.Hilary Greaves & Toby Ord - forthcoming - Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy.
    Given the deep disagreement surrounding population axiology, one should remain uncertain about which theory is best. However, this uncertainty need not leave one neutral about which acts are better or worse. We show that as the number of lives at stake grows, the Expected Moral Value approach to axiological uncertainty systematically pushes one towards choosing the option preferred by the Total and Critical Level views, even if one’s credence in those theories is low.
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  13. Ethics and Population.Michael D. Bayles - 1976
     
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  14. The Repugnant Conclusion Essays on Population Ethics.Jesper Ryberg & Torbjèorn Tèannsjèo - 2004
     
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  15.  78
    Critical-Level Utilitarianism and the Population-Ethics Dilemma.Charles Blackorby, Walter Bossert & David Donaldson - 1997 - Economics and Philosophy 13 (2):197-.
    Advances in technology have made it possible for us to take actions that affect the numbers and identities of humans and other animals that will live in the future. Effective and inexpensive birth control, child allowances, genetic screening, safe abortion, in vitro fertilization, the education of young women, sterilization programs, environmental degradation and war all have these effects. Although it is true that a good deal of effort has been devoted to the practical side of population policy, moral theory (...)
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  16. Feldman's Desert-Adjusted Utilitarianism and Population Ethics.Gustaf Arrhenius - 2003 - Utilitas 15 (2):225.
    Fred Feldman has proposed a desert-adjusted version of utilitarianism,, as a plausible population axiology. Among other things, he claims that justicism avoids Derek Parfit's. This paper explains the theory and tries to straighten out some of its ambiguities. Moreover, it is shown that it is not clear whether justicism avoids the repugnant conclusion and that it is has other counter-intuitive implications. It is concluded that justicism is not convincing as a population axiology.
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  17.  90
    Egalitarianism and the Putative Paradoxes of Population Ethics.Torbjörn Tännsjö - 2008 - Utilitas 20 (2):187-198.
    The repugnant conclusion is acceptable from the point of view of total utilitarianism. Total utilitarians do not seem to be bothered with it. They feel that it is in no way repugnant. To me, a hard-nosed total utilitarian, this settles the case. However, if, sometimes, I doubt that total utilitarianism has the final say in ethics, and tend to think that there may be something to some objection to it or another, it is the objection to it brought forward (...)
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  18.  54
    Broome on Moral Goodness and Population Ethics.Peter Vallentyne - 2009 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 78 (3):739 - 746.
    and Overview In an earlier book, Weighing Goods1, John Broome gave a sophisticated defense of utilitarianism for the cases involving a fixed population. In the present book, Weighing Lives, he extends this defense to variable population cases, where different individuals exist depending on which choice is made. Broome defends a version of utilitarianism according to which there is a vague positive level of individual wellbeing such that adding a life with more than that level of wellbeing makes things (...)
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  19.  77
    The Axiomatic Approach to Population Ethics.Charles Blackorby, Walter Bossert & David Donaldson - 2003 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 2 (3):342-381.
    This article examines several families of population principles in the light of a set of axioms. In addition to the critical-level utilitarian, number-sensitive critical-level utilitarian, and number-dampened utilitarian families and their generalized counterparts, we consider the restricted number-dampened family and introduce two new ones: the restricted critical-level and restricted number-dependent critical-level families. Subsets of the restricted families have non-negative critical levels, avoid the `repugnant conclusion' and satisfy the axiom priority for lives worth living, but violate an important independence condition.
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  20.  2
    Cultural Conundrums: The Ethics of Epidemiology and the Problems of Population in Implementing Pre‐Exposure Prophylaxis.Kirk Fiereck - 2015 - Developing World Bioethics 15 (1):27-39.
    The impending implementation of pre-exposure prophylaxis has prompted complicated bioethical and public health ethics concerns regarding the moral distribution of antiretroviral medications to ostensibly healthy populations as a form of HIV prevention when millions of HIV-positive people still lack access to ARVs globally. This manuscript argues that these questions are, in part, concerns over the ethics of the knowledge production practices of epidemiology. Questions of distribution, and their attendant cost-benefit calculations, will rely on a number of presupposed, and (...)
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  21. The Repugnant Conclusion: Essays on Population Ethics.Stuart Rachels - 2004
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  22. Can the Person Affecting Restriction Solve the Problems in Population Ethics?Gustaf Arrhenius - 2009 - In M. A. Roberts & D. T. Wasserman (eds.), Harming Future Persons. Springer Verlag. pp. 289--314.
  23.  88
    A Defence of the Asymmetry in Population Ethics.Per Algander - 2012 - Res Publica 18 (2):145-157.
    A common intuition is that there is a moral difference between ‘making people happy’ and ‘making happy people.’ This intuition, often referred to as ‘the Asymmetry,’ has, however, been criticized on the grounds that it is incoherent. Why is there, for instance, not a corresponding difference between ‘making people unhappy’ and ‘making unhappy people’? I argue that the intuition faces several difficulties but that these can be met by introducing a certain kind of reason that is favouring but non-requiring. It (...)
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  24.  62
    The Ethics of Organizations: A Longitudinal Study of the U.S. Working Population.Muel Kaptein - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 92 (4):601-618.
    The ethics of organizations has received much attention in recent years. This raises the question of whether the ethics of organizations has also improved. In 1999, 2004, and 2008, a survey was conducted of 12,196 U.S. managers and employees. The results show that the ethical culture of organizations improved in the period between 1999 and 2004. Between 2004 and 2008 unethical behavior and its consequences declined and the scope of ethics programs expanded while ethical culture showed no (...)
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  25.  4
    Shared Governance Embedded in Population Ethics Can Enhance Health Equity Research at Both Micro and Macro Levels.Stephen O. Sodeke & Clayton C. Yates - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics 16 (10):64-66.
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  26. Population Ethics.Chuck Blackorby, Walter Bossert & David Donaldson - 2009 - In Paul Anand, Prasanta Pattanaik & Clemens Puppe (eds.), Handbook of Rational and Social Choice. Oxford University Press.
     
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  27. Population Ethics.W. Robert Pulvertaft - 1991 - Danish Yearbook of Philosophy 26:33.
     
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  28.  6
    The Ethics of General Population Preventive Genomic Sequencing: Rights and Social Justice.Clair Morrissey & Rebecca L. Walker - 2018 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 43 (1):22-43.
    Advances in DNA sequencing technology open new possibilities for public health genomics, especially in the form of general population preventive genomic sequencing. Such screening programs would sit at the intersection of public health and preventive health care, and thereby at once invite and resist the use of clinical ethics and public health ethics frameworks. Despite their differences, these ethics frameworks traditionally share a central concern for individual rights. We examine two putative individual rights—the right not to (...)
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  29.  6
    How Can Ethics Support Innovative Health Care for an Aging Population?Katherine Wayne - 2019 - Ethics and Behavior 29 (3):227-253.
    The rapidly expanding aging population presents an urgent global challenge cutting through just about every dimension of worldly life, including the social, political, cultural, and economic. Developing innovations in health and assistive technology are poised to support effective and sustainable health care in the face of this challenge, yet there is scant discussion of the ethical issues surrounding AT for older persons with dementia. Demands for ethical frameworks that can respond to frontline dilemmas regarding AT development and provision, and (...)
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  30.  4
    Population Genomics and Research Ethics with Socially Identifable Groups.Joan L. McGregor - 2007 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 35 (3):356-370.
    In this paper, the author questions whether the research ethics guidelines and procedures are robust enough to protect groups when conducting genetics research with socially identifiable populations, particularly with Native American groups. The author argues for a change in the federal guidelines in substance and procedures of conducting genetic research with socially identifiable groups.
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  31.  1
    Ethics of Population-Based Research.Holly A. Taylor & Summer Johnson - 2007 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 35 (2):295-299.
    This paper considers the morally relevant ways in which population-based research is a distinct type of human subjects research that have unique moral considerations relevant for public health practitioners and researchers. By defining population-based research, the authors distinguish it from public health practice and then consider, in more detail, the ways in which population-based research differs from clinical human subjects research. Based upon the distinctions between these types of research and practice, they identify five important issues that (...)
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  32.  12
    Commonsense Morality and the Ethics of Killing in War: An Experimental Survey of the Israeli Population.Yitzhak Benbaji, Amir Falk & Yuval Feldman - 2015 - Law and Ethics of Human Rights 9 (2):195-227.
    Journal Name: The Law & Ethics of Human Rights Issue: Ahead of print.
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  33.  5
    Perceptions of a Mental Health Questionnaire: The Ethics of Using Population-Based Controls.P. J. Surkan, G. Steineck & U. Kreicbergs - 2008 - Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (7):545-547.
    Mental health surveys are used extensively in epidemiological research worldwide. The ethical questions that arise regarding their risk of causing psychological distress or other potential harm have not been studied in the general population. We have investigated how study participants serving as controls in a population-based study perceived an anonymous postal questionnaire focusing on mental health and wellbeing. Parents were contacted from the Swedish Census Bureau as part of a larger follow-up study on palliative care conducted in 2001. (...)
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  34. Population Issues in Social Choice Theory, Welfare Economics, and Ethics.Charles Blackorby, Walter Bossert & David J. Donaldson - 2005 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book presents an exploration of the idea of the common or social good, extended so that alternatives with different populations can be ranked. The approach is, in the main, welfarist, basing rankings on the well-being, broadly conceived, of those who are alive. The axiomatic method is employed, and topics investigated include: the measurement of individual well-being, social attitudes toward inequality of well-being, the main classes of population principles, principles that provide incomplete rankings, principles that rank uncertain alternatives, best (...)
     
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  35.  2
    Population Genomics and Research Ethics with Socially Identifiable Groups.Joan L. McGregor - 2007 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 35 (3):356-370.
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  36.  4
    Discourse Ethics as an Ethics of Responsibility: Comparison and Evaluation of Citizen Involvement in Population Genomics.Éric Racine - 2003 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 31 (3):390-397.
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  37.  1
    Ethics of Population-Based Research.Holly A. Taylor & Summer Johnson - 2007 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 35 (2):295-299.
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  38. Discourse Ethics as an Ethics of Responsibilty: Comparison and Evaluation of Citizen Involvement in Population Genomics.Éric Racine - 2003 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 31 (3):390-397.
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  39.  55
    Book Review : Six Billion and More: Human Population Regulation and Christian Ethics, by Susan Power Bratton. Louisville, Kentucky, Westminster/John Knox Press, 1992. X + 225 Pp. [REVIEW]N. P. Harvey - 1993 - Studies in Christian Ethics 6 (2):85-87.
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  40.  10
    Ethical Principles for the Conduct of Human Subject Research: Population-Based Research and Ethics.Larry Gostin - 1991 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 19 (3-4):191-201.
  41.  11
    Commonsense Morality and the Ethics of Killing in War: An Experimental Survey of the Israeli Population.Yitzhak Benbaji, Amir Falk & Yuval Feldman - 2015 - The Law and Ethics of Human Rights 9 (2):195-227.
  42.  6
    Ethical Principles for the Conduct of Human Subject Research: Population-Based Research and Ethics.Larry Gostin - 1991 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 19 (3-4):191-201.
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  43. Public Health Research Ethics: Is Non-Exploitation the New Principle for Population-Based Research Ethics?J. McMillan & A. Dawson - forthcoming - Public Health Ethics: Key Concepts and Issues in Policy and Practice:174--190.
  44. Six Billion & More: Human Population and Christian Ethics[REVIEW]John B. Cobb Jr - 1994 - Environmental Ethics 16 (1):103-106.
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  45.  9
    Population Axiology and the Possibility of a Fourth Category of Absolute Value.Johan E. Gustafsson - forthcoming - Economics and Philosophy.
    Critical-Range Utilitarianism is a variant of Total Utilitarianism which can avoid both the Repugnant Conclusion and the Sadistic Conclusion in population ethics. Yet Standard Critical-Range Utilitarianism entails the Weak Sadistic Conclusion, that is, it entails that each population consisting of lives at a bad well-being level is not worse than some population consisting of lives at a good well-being level. In this paper, I defend a version of Critical-Range Utilitarianism which does not entail the Weak Sadistic (...)
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  46. Too Many Children? The Ethics of Population Control.Thomas Cook - 2001 - Quodlibet 3.
     
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  47. The Ethics of Robot Servitude.Stephen Petersen - 2007 - Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence 19 (1):43-54.
    Assume we could someday create artificial creatures with intelligence comparable to our own. Could it be ethical use them as unpaid labor? There is very little philosophical literature on this topic, but the consensus so far has been that such robot servitude would merely be a new form of slavery. Against this consensus I defend the permissibility of robot servitude, and in particular the controversial case of designing robots so that they want to serve human ends. A typical objection to (...)
     
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  48.  95
    Population and Third World Assistance – A Comment on Hardin’s Lifeboat Ethics.Jesper Ryberg - 1997 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 14 (3):207–219.
  49. Pt. VI. Genetics and Enhancement. Population Genetic Research and Screening: Conceptual and Ethical Issues / Eric Juengst ; Enhancement / Thomas Murray ; Genetic Interventions and the Ethics of Enhancement of Human Beings / Julian Savulescu ; Pharmacogenomics: Ethical and Regulatory Issues. [REVIEW]Matthew DeCamp & Allen Buchanan - 2007 - In Bonnie Steinbock (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Bioethics. Oxford University Press.
  50.  56
    Ethics and Population.Daniel Callahan - 2009 - Hastings Center Report 39 (3):11-13.
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