Results for 'population genetics'

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  1.  23
    What is the Status of the Hardy-Weinberg Law Within Population Genetics?Pablo Lorenzano - 2014 - Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook 17:159-172.
    The aim of this paper is to further develop van Fraassen’s diagnosis, expanding a previous analysis of the fundamental law of classical genetics and the status of the so-called ‘Mendel’s laws’.6 According to this diagnosis the Hardy-Weinberg law: 1) cannot be considered as axiom (or fundamental law) for classical population genetics, since it is a law that describes an equilibrium that 2) holds only under certain special conditions, and 3) only determines a subclass of models, 4) whose (...)
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  2.  23
    Localized Past, Globalized Future: Towards an Effective Bioethical Framework Using Examples From Population Genetics and Medical Tourism.Heather Widdows - 2011 - Bioethics 25 (2):83-91.
    This paper suggests that many of the pressing dilemmas of bioethics are global and structural in nature. Accordingly, global ethical frameworks are required which recognize the ethically significant factors of all global actors. To this end, ethical frameworks must recognize the rights and interests of both individuals and groups (and the interrelation of these). The paper suggests that the current dominant bioethical framework is inadequate to this task as it is over-individualist and therefore unable to give significant weight to the (...)
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  3. Exploring the Status of Population Genetics: The Role of Ecology.Roberta L. Millstein - 2013 - Biological Theory 7 (4):346-357.
    The status of population genetics has become hotly debated among biologists and philosophers of biology. Many seem to view population genetics as relatively unchanged since the Modern Synthesis and have argued that subjects such as development were left out of the Synthesis. Some have called for an extended evolutionary synthesis or for recognizing the insignificance of population genetics. Yet others such as Michael Lynch have defended population genetics, declaring "nothing in evolution makes (...)
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  4.  38
    Righteous Modeling: The Competence of Classical Population Genetics[REVIEW]Peter Gildenhuys - 2011 - Biology and Philosophy 26 (6):813-835.
    In a recent article, “Wayward Modeling: Population Genetics and Natural Selection,” Bruce Glymour claims that population genetics is burdened by serious predictive and explanatory inadequacies and that the theory itself is to blame. Because Glymour overlooks a variety of formal modeling techniques in population genetics, his arguments do not quite undermine a major scientific theory. However, his arguments are extremely valuable as they provide definitive proof that those who would deploy classical population (...) over natural systems must do so with careful attention to interactions between individual population members and environmental causes. Glymour’s arguments have deep implications for causation in classical population genetics. (shrink)
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  5.  50
    Classical Population Genetics and the Semantic Approach to Scientific Theories.Peter Gildenhuys - 2013 - Synthese 190 (2):273-291.
    In what follows, I argue that the semantic approach to scientific theories fails as a means to present the Wright—Fisher formalism (WFF) of population genetics. I offer an account of what population geneticist understand insofar as they understand the WFF, a variation on Lloyd's view that population genetics can be understood as a family of models of mid-level generality.
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  6.  14
    Projectibility and Group Concepts in Population Genetics and Genomics.Lisa Gannett - 2013 - Biological Theory 7 (2):130-143.
    Although the category “race” fails as a postulated natural kind, racial, ethnic, national, linguistic, religious, and other group designations might nonetheless be considered projectible insofar as they support inductive inferences in biomedicine. This article investigates what it might mean for group concepts in population genetics and genomics to be projectible and whether the projectibility of such predicates licenses the representation of their corresponding classes as natural kinds according to currently prevailing projectibility-based accounts of natural kinds. The article draws (...)
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  7. The Proper Role of Population Genetics in Modern Evolutionary Theory.Massimo Pigliucci - 2008 - Biological Theory 3 (4):316-324.
    Evolutionary biology is a field currently animated by much discussion concerning its conceptual foundations. On the one hand, we have supporters of a classical view of evolutionary theory, whose backbone is provided by population genetics and the so-called Modern Synthesis (MS). On the other hand, a number of researchers are calling for an Extended Synthe- sis (ES) that takes seriously both the limitations of the MS (such as its inability to incorporate developmental biology) and recent empirical and theoretical (...)
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  8.  2
    Women and Partnership Genealogies in Drosophila Population Genetics.Marta Velasco Martín - 2020 - Perspectives on Science 28 (2):277-317.
    Drosophila flies began to be used in the study of species evolution during the late 1930s. The geneticists Natasha Sivertzeva-Dobzhansky and Elizabeth Reed pioneered this work in the United States, and María Monclús conducted similar studies in Spain. The research they carried out with their husbands enabled Drosophila population genetics to take off and reveals a genealogy of women geneticists grounded in mutual inspiration. Their work also shows that women were present in population genetics from the (...)
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  9.  29
    The so-Called Extended Synthesis and Population Genetics.Lindsay R. Craig - 2010 - Biological Theory 5 (2):117-123.
    In recent years, several prominent biologists have pointed to the relatively new field of evolutionary developmental biology as evidence of an Extended Synthesis in evolutionary biology. More particularly, these biologists claim that theoretical and empirical EvoDevo research is extending the Modern Synthesis framework of evolutionary theory through investigation of evolutionarily important concepts that are not part of the framework developed during the 20th century. To describe the current changes in evolutionary biology as an Extended Synthesis, however, is incorrect. Through review (...)
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  10.  12
    The So-Called Extended Synthesis and Population Genetics.Lindsay R. Craig - 2010 - Biological Theory 5 (2):117-123.
    In recent years, several prominent biologists have pointed to the relatively new field of evolutionary developmental biology as evidence of an Extended Synthesis in evolutionary biology. More particularly, these biologists claim that theoretical and empirical EvoDevo research is extending the Modern Synthesis framework of evolutionary theory through investigation of evolutionarily important concepts that are not part of the framework developed during the 20th century. To describe the current changes in evolutionary biology as an Extended Synthesis, however, is incorrect. Through review (...)
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  11.  60
    Wayward Modeling: Population Genetics and Natural Selection.Bruce Glymour - 2006 - Philosophy of Science 73 (4):369-389.
    Since the introduction of mathematical population genetics, its machinery has shaped our fundamental understanding of natural selection. Selection is taken to occur when differential fitnesses produce differential rates of reproductive success, where fitnesses are understood as parameters in a population genetics model. To understand selection is to understand what these parameter values measure and how differences in them lead to frequency changes. I argue that this traditional view is mistaken. The descriptions of natural selection rendered by (...)
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  12. A Semantic Approach to the Structure of Population Genetics.Elisabeth A. Lloyd - 1984 - Philosophy of Science 51 (2):242-264.
    A precise formulation of the structure of modern evolutionary theory has proved elusive. In this paper, I introduce and develop a formal approach to the structure of population genetics, evolutionary theory's most developed sub-theory. Under the semantic approach, used as a framework in this paper, presenting a theory consists in presenting a related family of models. I offer general guidelines and examples for the classification of population genetics models; the defining features of the models are taken (...)
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  13. Arbitrariness and Causation in Classical Population Genetics.Peter Gildenhuys - 2014 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 65 (3):429-444.
    I criticize some arguments against the causal interpretability of population genetics put forward by Denis Walsh ([2007], [2010]). In particular, I seek to undermine the contention that population genetics exhibits frame of reference relativity or subjectivity with respect to its formal representations. I also show that classical population genetics does not fall foul of some criteria for causal representation put forward by James Woodward ([2003]), although those criteria do undermine some causalist stances. 1 Introduction2 (...)
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  14.  54
    Calibration of Laboratory Models in Population Genetics.Robert Skipper - 2004 - Perspectives on Science 12 (4):369-393.
    : This paper explores the calibration of laboratory models in population genetics as an experimental strategy for justifying experimental results and claims based upon them following Franklin (1986, 1990) and Rudge (1996, 1998). The analysis provided undermines Coyne et al.'s (1997) critique of Wade and Goodnight's (1991) experimental study of Wright's (1931, 1932) Shifting Balance Theory. The essay concludes by further demonstrating how this analysis bears on Diamond's (1986) claims regarding the weakness of laboratory experiments as evidence, and (...)
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  15.  81
    Explanation in Classical Population Genetics.Anya Plutynski - 2004 - Philosophy of Science 71 (5):1201-1214.
    The recent literature in philosophy of biology has drawn attention to the different sorts of explanations proffered in the biological sciences—we have molecular, biomedical, and evolutionary explanations. Do these explanations all have a common structure or relation that they seek to capture? This paper will answer in the negative. I defend a pluralistic and pragmatic approach to explanation. Using examples from classical population genetics, I argue that formal demonstrations, and even strictly “mathematical truths,” may serve as explanatory in (...)
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  16.  85
    Population Genetics.Roberta L. Millstein & Robert A. Skipper - 2006 - In David L. Hull & Michael Ruse (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to the Philosophy of Biology. Cambridge University Press.
    Population genetics attempts to measure the influence of the causes of evolution, viz., mutation, migration, natural selection, and random genetic drift, by understanding the way those causes change the genetics of populations. But how does it accomplish this goal? After a short introduction, we begin in section (2) with a brief historical outline of the origins of population genetics. In section (3), we sketch the model theoretic structure of population genetics, providing the flavor (...)
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  17.  21
    On Mechanistic Reasoning in Unexpected Places: The Case of Population Genetics.Lucas Matthews - 2017 - Biology and Philosophy 32 (6):999-1018.
    A strong case has been made for the role and value of mechanistic reasoning in process-oriented sciences, such as molecular biology and neuroscience. This paper shifts focus to assess the role of mechanistic reasoning in an area where it is neither obvious nor expected: population genetics. Population geneticists abstract away from the causal-mechanical details of individual organisms and, instead, use mathematics to describe population-level, statistical phenomena. This paper, first, develops a framework for the identification of mechanistic (...)
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  18.  81
    Population Genetics and Population Thinking: Mathematics and the Role of the Individual.Margaret Morrison - 2004 - Philosophy of Science 71 (5):1189-1200.
    Ernst Mayr has criticised the methodology of population genetics for being essentialist: interested only in “types” as opposed to individuals. In fact, he goes so far as to claim that “he who does not understand the uniqueness of individuals is unable to understand the working of natural selection” (1982, 47). This is a strong claim indeed especially since many responsible for the development of population genetics (especially Fisher, Haldane, and Wright) were avid Darwinians. In order to (...)
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  19.  7
    Drift as Constitutive: Conclusions From a Formal Reconstruction of Population Genetics.Ariel Jonathan Roffé - 2019 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 41 (4):55.
    This article elaborates on McShea and Brandon’s idea that drift is unlike the rest of the evolutionary factors because it is constitutive rather than imposed on the evolutionary process. I show that the way they spelled out this idea renders it inadequate and is the reason why it received some objections. I propose a different way in which their point could be understood, that rests on two general distinctions. The first is a distinction between the underlying mathematical apparatus used to (...)
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  20.  6
    Chance, Variation and Shared Ancestry: Population Genetics After the Synthesis.Michel Veuille - 2019 - Journal of the History of Biology 52 (4):537-567.
    Chance has been a focus of attention ever since the beginning of population genetics, but neutrality has not, as natural selection once appeared to be the only worthwhile issue. Neutral change became a major source of interest during the neutralist–selectionist debate, 1970–1980. It retained interest beyond this period for two reasons that contributed to its becoming foundational for evolutionary reasoning. On the one hand, neutral evolution was the first mathematical prediction to emerge from Mendelian inheritance: until then evolution (...)
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  21.  4
    Drift as constitutive: conclusions from a formal reconstruction of population genetics.Ariel Jonathan Roffé - 2019 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 41 (4):1-24.
    This article elaborates on McShea and Brandon’s idea that drift is unlike the rest of the evolutionary factors because it is constitutive rather than imposed on the evolutionary process. I show that the way they spelled out this idea renders it inadequate and is the reason why it received some objections. I propose a different way in which their point could be understood, that rests on two general distinctions. The first is a distinction between the underlying mathematical apparatus used to (...)
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  22.  1
    Modern Evolutionary Biology and Brazilian Population Genetics: Theodosius Dobzhansky at the University of São Paulo.Tito Brige de Carvalho - 2020 - Perspectives on Science 28 (2):223-243.
    On the one hand, much has been written on Theodosius Dobzhansky’s central role in the development of the field of population genetics and modern evolutionary theory, as well as on his sociopolitical worldview in the middle of the Twentieth Century. On the other hand, much has also been written on Dobzhansky’s role in the institutionalization of genetics in Brazil, where he spent a considerable amount of time. Unfortunately, these literatures developed without any points of intersection or cross-reference. (...)
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  23.  22
    Probability in Classical Population Genetics.Peter Gildenhuys - unknown
    The reason why population genetics is a probabilistic theory has attracted considerable attention from philosophers. In what follows, I offer a novel account of what motivates the introduction of probabilities into classical population genetics. Probabilities make the theory easier to apply for researchers given their epistemic limitations and give the theory a recursive structure, thereby making possible inferences about the dynamics of systems over multiple generations. I argue that probabilities in population genetics can be (...)
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  24. Strategies of Model Building in Population Genetics.Anya Plutynski - 2006 - Philosophy of Science 73 (5):755-764.
    In 1966, Richard Levins argued that there are different strategies in model building in population biology. In this paper, I reply to Orzack and Sober’s (1993) critiques of Levins, and argue that his views on modeling strategies apply also in the context of evolutionary genetics. In particular, I argue that there are different ways in which models are used to ask and answer questions about the dynamics of evolutionary change, prospectively and retrospectively, in classical versus molecular evolutionary (...). Further, I argue that robustness analysis is a tool for, if not confirmation, then something near enough, in this discipline. (shrink)
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  25.  2
    Dobzhansky and Dreyfus’s Group: The Introduction of Natural Population Genetics Studies in Brazil.José Franco Monte Sião & Lilian Al-Chueyr Pereira Martins - 2020 - Perspectives on Science 28 (2):244-276.
    An important center in which genetic research started and was carried out in Brazil during the 20th century was situated at the Faculty of Philosophy, Sciences and Linguistics of the University of São Paulo, led by André Dreyfus. Beginning in 1943, the Ukrainian geneticist Theodosius Dobzhansky visited Dreyfus’s group four times. This paper evaluates the impact of Dobzhansky’s visits on the studies of genetics and evolution developed by the members of Dreyfus’s group during the 1940s and the 1950s. The (...)
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  26.  59
    Monte Carlo Experiments and the Defense of Diffusion Models in Molecular Population Genetics.Michael R. Dietrich - 1996 - Biology and Philosophy 11 (3):339-356.
    In the 1960s molecular population geneticists used Monte Carlo experiments to evaluate particular diffusion equation models. In this paper I examine the nature of this comparative evaluation and argue for three claims: first, Monte Carlo experiments are genuine experiments: second, Monte Carlo experiments can provide an important meansfor evaluating the adequacy of highly idealized theoretical models; and, third, the evaluation of the computational adequacy of a diffusion model with Monte Carlo experiments is significantlydifferent from the evaluation of the emperical (...)
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  27.  55
    Does Nothing in Evolution Make Sense Except in the Light of Population Genetics?: Michael Lynch: Origins of Genome Architecture, Sinauer Associates, Sunderland Mass, 2007, 340 Pp, Hardback, ISBN-10: 0878934847.Lindell Bromham - 2009 - Biology and Philosophy 24 (3):387-403.
    “ The Origins of Genome Architecture ” by Michael Lynch (2007) may not immediately sound like a book that someone interested in the philosophy of biology would grab off the shelf. But there are three important reasons why you should read this book. Firstly, if you want to understand biological evolution, you should have at least a passing familiarity with evolutionary change at the level of the genome. This is not to say that everyone interested in evolution should be a (...)
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  28. Philosophy of Race Meets Population Genetics.Quayshawn Spencer - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 52:46-55.
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  29. 6.5. Unesco Ibc and an Ethical Oversight Committee on Population Genetics.Darryl Macer - forthcoming - Bioethics in Asia: The Proceedings of the Unesco Asian Bioethics Conference (Abc'97) and the Who-Assisted Satellite Symposium on Medical Genetics Services, 3-8 Nov, 1997 in Kobe/Fukui, Japan, 3rd Murs Japan International Symposium, 2nd Congress of the Asi.
     
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  30. Mapping Origins : Race and Relatedness in Population Genetics and Genetic Genealogy.Catherine Nash - 2006 - In Paul Atkinson (ed.), New Genetics, New Indentities. Routledge.
  31.  16
    The Emergence of Human Population Genetics and Narratives About the Formation of the Brazilian Nation.Vanderlei Sebastião de Souza & Ricardo Ventura Santos - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 47:97-107.
  32.  33
    Probability and Manipulation: Evolution and Simulation in Applied Population Genetics.Marshall Abrams - 2015 - Erkenntnis 80 (S3):519-549.
    I define a concept of causal probability and apply it to questions about the role of probability in evolutionary processes. Causal probability is defined in terms of manipulation of patterns in empirical outcomes by manipulating properties that realize objective probabilities. The concept of causal probability allows us see how probabilities characterized by different interpretations of probability can share a similar causal character, and does so in such way as to allow new inferences about relationships between probabilities realized in different chance (...)
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  33.  59
    Population Genetics.Samir Okasha - unknown - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  34.  64
    How Wide and How Deep is the Divide Between Population Genetics and Developmental Evolution?Günter P. Wagner - 2007 - Biology and Philosophy 22 (1):145-153.
  35. Population Genetics and Sociobiology: Conflicting Views of Evolution.James Schwartz - 2002 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 45 (2):224-240.
  36.  21
    Lindsay Craig—The So-Called Extended Synthesis and Population Genetics : Extended Synthesis: Theory Expansion or Alternative?Gerd B. Müller & Massimo Pigliucci - 2010 - Biological Theory 5 (3):275-276.
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  37.  21
    Lindsay Craig—The So-Called Extended Synthesis and Population Genetics : Extended Synthesis: Theory Expansion or Alternative?Massimo Pigliucci & Gerd B. Müller - 2010 - Biological Theory 5 (3):275-276.
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  38.  32
    Testability of the Role of Natural Selection Within Theories of Population Genetics and Evolution.Gerhard D. Wassermann - 1978 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 29 (3):223-242.
  39.  13
    Metaphysics and Population Genetics: Karl Pearson and the Background to Fisher's Multi-Factorial Theory of Inheritance.B. Norton - 1975 - Annals of Science 32 (6):537-553.
    This paper traces the background to R. A. Fisher's multi-factorial theory of inheritance. It is argued that the traditional account is incomplete, and that Karl Pearson's well-known pre-Fisherian objections to the theory were in fact overcome by Pearson himself. It is further argued that Pearson's stated reasons for not accepting his own achievement has to be seen as a rationalization, standing in for deeper-seated metaphysical objections to the Mendelian paradigm of a type not readily discussed in a formal scientific paper. (...)
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  40.  31
    The Founding of Population Genetics: Contributions of the Chetverikov School 1924?1934.Mark B. Adams - 1968 - Journal of the History of Biology 1 (1):23-39.
  41. Principles of Population Genetics. 3rd Edition . By Daniel L. Hartl and Andrew G. Clark. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer 519 Pp. [REVIEW]Brian Charlesworth - 1998 - Bioessays 20 (12):1055-1055.
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  42.  8
    Population Genetics, Cybernetics of Difference, and Pasts in the Present.Susanne Bauer - 2015 - History of the Human Sciences 28 (5):146-167.
  43.  9
    The Development of Population Genetics.Margaret Morrison - 2007 - In Mohan Matthen & Christopher Stephens (eds.), Philosophy of Biology. Elsevier. pp. 309.
  44.  4
    The Origins of the Stochastic Theory of Population Genetics: The Wright-Fisher Model.Yoichi Ishida & Alirio Rosales - 2020 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 79:101226.
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  45.  48
    Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology. Volume XX. Population Genetics: The Nature and Causes of Genetic Variability in Populations. [REVIEW]C. O. Carter - 1957 - The Eugenics Review 49 (2):90.
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  46.  1
    Population Genetics in Israel in the 1950s.Nurit Kirsh - 2003 - Isis 94 (4):631-655.
  47.  29
    A Too Simple View of Population Genetics.Daniel L. Hartl - 1982 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 5 (1):13-14.
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  48.  19
    The Origins of Theoretical Population Genetics. William B. Provine.Frederick B. Churchill - 1972 - Isis 63 (4):572-574.
  49.  21
    Modern Trends in the Population Genetics of Man.A. C. Stevenson - 1961 - The Eugenics Review 53 (1):9.
  50.  10
    Population Genetics, Molecular Evolution, and the Neutral Theory: Selected Papers. Motoo Kimura, Naoyuki Takahata.Vassilki Betty Smocovitis - 1995 - Isis 86 (4):685-685.
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