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Madison Powers [26]John Powers [21]Thomas M. Powers [20]William T. Powers [16]
Lawrence H. Powers [14]James Powers [12]James F. Powers [11]Jonathan Powers [10]

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Thomas M. Powers
University of Delaware
John Powers
Australian National University
Carol Powers
Harvard University
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  1. Social Justice: The Moral Foundations of Public Health and Health Policy.Madison Powers & Ruth Faden - 2008 - Oup Usa.
    In bioethics, discussions of justice have tended to focus on questions of fairness in access to health care: is there a right to medical treatment, and how should priorities be set when medical resources are scarce. But health care is only one of many factors that determine the extent to which people live healthy lives, and fairness is not the only consideration in determining whether a health policy is just. In this pathbreaking book, senior bioethicists Powers and Faden confront foundational (...)
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  2. Behavior: The Control of Perception.William T. Powers - 1973
     
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  3.  12
    Quantitative Analysis of Purposive Systems: Some Spadework at the Foundations of Scientific Psychology.William T. Powers - 1978 - Psychological Review 85 (5):417-435.
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  4. Liberty, Mill and the Framework of Public Health Ethics.Madison Powers, Ruth Faden & Yashar Saghai - 2012 - Public Health Ethics 5 (1):6-15.
    In this article, we address the relevance of J.S. Mill’s political philosophy for a framework of public health ethics. In contrast to some readings of Mill, we reject the view that in the formulation of public policies liberties of all kinds enjoy an equal presumption in their favor. We argue that Mill also rejects this view and discuss the distinction that Mill makes between three kinds of liberty interests: interests that are immune from state interference; interests that enjoy a presumption (...)
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  5. Creation and Divine Providence in Plotinus.Christopher Noble & Nathan Powers - 2015 - In Anna Marmodoro & Brian Prince (eds.), Causation and Creation in Late Antiquity. pp. 51-70.
    In this paper, we argue that Plotinus denies deliberative forethought about the physical cosmos to the demiurge on the basis of certain basic and widely shared Platonic and Aristotelian assumptions about the character of divine thought. We then discuss how Plotinus can nonetheless maintain that the cosmos is «providentially» ordered.
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  6.  15
    Neurophysiological and Neurocognitive Mechanisms Underlying the Effects of Yoga-Based Practices: Towards a Comprehensive Theoretical Framework.Laura Schmalzl, Chivon Powers & Eva Henje Blom - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
  7.  24
    Social Niche Construction and Evolutionary Transitions in Individuality.P. A. Ryan, S. T. Powers & R. A. Watson - 2016 - Biology and Philosophy 31 (1):59-79.
    Social evolution theory conventionally takes an externalist explanatory stance, treating observed cooperation as explanandum and the positive assortment of cooperative behaviour as explanans. We ask how the circumstances bringing about this positive assortment arose in the first place. Rather than merely push the explanatory problem back a step, we move from an externalist to an interactionist explanatory stance, in the spirit of Lewontin and the Niche Construction theorists. We develop a theory of ‘social niche construction’ in which we consider biological (...)
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  8.  56
    Integrating Moral and Social Development Within Middle School Social Studies: A Social Cognitive Domain Approach.Larry Nucci, Michael W. Creane & Deborah W. Powers - 2015 - Journal of Moral Education 44 (4):479-496.
    Eleven teachers and 254 urban middle-school students comprised the sample of this study examining the social and moral development outcomes of the integration of social cognitive domain theory within regular classroom instruction. Participating teachers were trained to construct and implement history lessons that stimulated students’ moral reasoning and conceptions of societal convention. In comparison with baselines and controls, teachers reduced didactic instruction and increased the proportion of class time devoted to small group discussions. Student engagement in transactive discourse significantly increased (...)
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  9.  60
    Real Wrongs in Virtual Communities.Thomas M. Powers - 2004 - Ethics and Information Technology 5 (4):191-198.
    Beginning with the well-knowncyber-rape in LambdaMOO, I argue that it ispossible to have real moral wrongs in virtualcommunities. I then generalize the account toshow how it applies to interactions in gamingand discussion communities. My account issupported by a view of moral realism thatacknowledges entities like intentions andcausal properties of actions. Austin's speechact theory is used to show that real people canact in virtual communities in ways that bothestablish practices and moral expectations, andwarrant strong identifications betweenthemselves and their online identities. Rawls'conception (...)
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  10. Prospects for a Kantian Machine.Thomas M. Powers - 2006 - IEEE Intelligent Systems 21 (4):46-51.
    This paper is reprinted in the book Machine Ethics, eds. M. Anderson and S. Anderson, Cambridge University Press, 2011.
     
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  11. Social Practices, Public Health and the Twin Aims of Justice: Responses to Comments.Madison Powers & Ruth Faden - 2013 - Public Health Ethics 6 (1):45-49.
    Articles by Lyn Horn and Alison Thompson highlight several points crucial to understanding how our theory figures in wider debates about social justice as well as the particular relevance of our theory for assessing the overall practice of public health (Horn, 2013; Thompson, 2013). We begin with these two articles, first to respond to and concur with many of their central points, and second to set the stage for dealing more efficiently with some points raised in the other articles.
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  12.  17
    Purposive Explanation in Psychology.Margaret A. Boden & William T. Powers - 1975 - Philosophy of Science 42 (1):103-106.
  13. Handbook of Cognition and Emotion.Tim Dalgleish & M. J. Powers (eds.) - 1999 - Wiley.
  14.  9
    The Effect of Movement-Focused and Breath-Focused Yoga Practice on Stress Parameters and Sustained Attention: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study.Laura Schmalzl, Chivon Powers, Anthony P. Zanesco, Neil Yetz, Erik J. Groessl & Clifford D. Saron - 2018 - Consciousness and Cognition 65:109-125.
  15.  37
    Bioethics as Politics: The Limits of Moral Expertise.Madison Powers - 2005 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 15 (3):305-322.
    : The increasing reliance upon, and perhaps the growing public and professional skepticism about, the special expertise of bioethicists suggests the need to consider the limits of moral expertise. For all the talk about method in bioethics, we, bioethicists, are still rather far off the mark in understanding what we are doing, even when we may be going about what we are doing fairly well. Quite often, what is most fundamentally at stake, but equally often insufficiently acknowledged, are inherently political, (...)
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  16.  31
    Corporate and Individual Influences on Managers' Social Orientation.Joachim W. Marz, Thomas L. Powers & Thomas Queisser - 2003 - Journal of Business Ethics 46 (1):1 - 11.
    This paper reports research on the influence of corporate and individual characteristics on managers'' social orientation in Germany. The results indicate that mid-level managers expressed a significantly lower social orientation than low-level managers, and that job activity did not impact social orientation. Female respondents expressed a higher social orientation than male respondents. No impact of the political system origin (former East Germany versus former West Germany) on social orientation was shown. Overall, corporate position had a significantly higher impact on social (...)
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  17. On the Moral Agency of Computers.Thomas M. Powers - 2013 - Topoi 32 (2):227-236.
    Can computer systems ever be considered moral agents? This paper considers two factors that are explored in the recent philosophical literature. First, there are the important domains in which computers are allowed to act, made possible by their greater functional capacities. Second, there is the claim that these functional capacities appear to embody relevant human abilities, such as autonomy and responsibility. I argue that neither the first (Domain-Function) factor nor the second (Simulacrum) factor gets at the central issue in the (...)
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  18.  46
    A Social Justice Framework For Health And Science Policy.Ruth Faden & Madison Powers - 2011 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 20 (4):596-604.
    The goal of this article is to explore how a social justice framework can help illuminate the role that consent should play in health and science policy. In the first section, we set the stage for our inquiry with the important case of Henrietta Lacks. Without her knowledge or consent, or that of her family, Mrs. Lacks’s cells gave rise to an enormous advance in biomedical science—the first immortal human cell line, or HeLa cells.
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  19.  81
    Computer Systems and Responsibility: A Normative Look at Technological Complexity.Deborah G. Johnson & Thomas M. Powers - 2005 - Ethics and Information Technology 7 (2):99-107.
    In this paper, we focus attention on the role of computer system complexity in ascribing responsibility. We begin by introducing the notion of technological moral action (TMA). TMA is carried out by the combination of a computer system user, a system designer (developers, programmers, and testers), and a computer system (hardware and software). We discuss three sometimes overlapping types of responsibility: causal responsibility, moral responsibility, and role responsibility. Our analysis is informed by the well-known accounts provided by Hart and Hart (...)
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  20.  12
    Choice and Self-Control in Children: A Test of Rachlin’s Model.Dennis J. Burns & Richard B. Powers - 1975 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 5 (2):156-158.
  21.  54
    Persuasion and Coercion: A Critical Review of Philosophical and Empirical Approaches. [REVIEW]Penny Powers - 2007 - HEC Forum 19 (2):125-143.
  22.  9
    Discourse Analysis as a Methodology for Nursing Inquiry.Penny Powers - 1996 - Nursing Inquiry 3 (4):207-217.
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  23.  78
    Justice in the Genetic Age. [REVIEW]Madison Powers - 2001 - Hastings Center Report 31 (5):47.
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  24.  47
    The One Fallacy Theory.Lawrence H. Powers - 1995 - Informal Logic 17 (2).
    My One Fallacy theory says there is only one fallacy: equivocation, or playing on an ambiguity. In this paper I explain how this theory arose from rnetaphilosophical concerns. And I contrast this theory with purely logical, dialectical, and psychological notions of fallacy.
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  25. Morality, Rules, and Consequences: A Critical Reader.Brad Hooker, Elinor Mason, Dale E. Miller, D. W. Haslett, Shelly Kagan, Sanford S. Levy, David Lyons, Phillip Montague, Tim Mulgan, Philip Pettit, Madison Powers, Jonathan Riley, William H. Shaw, Michael Smith & Alan Thomas (eds.) - 2000 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    What determines whether an action is right or wrong? Morality, Rules, and Consequences: A Critical Reader explores for students and researchers the relationship between consequentialist theory and moral rules. Most of the chapters focus on rule consequentialism or on the distinction between act and rule versions of consequentialism. Contributors, among them the leading philosophers in the discipline, suggest ways of assessing whether rule consequentialism could be a satisfactory moral theory. These essays, all of which are previously unpublished, provide students in (...)
     
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  26.  60
    Inequalities in Health, Inequalities in Health Care: Four Generations of Discussion About Justice and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.Madison Powers & Ruth R. Faden - 2000 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 10 (2):109-127.
    : The focus of questions of justice in health policy has shifted during the last 20 years, beginning with questions about rights to health care, and then, by the late 1980s, turning to issues of rationing. More recently, attention has focused on alternatives to cost-effectiveness analysis. In addition, health inequalities, and not just inequalities in access to health care, have become the subject of moral analysis. This article examines how such trends have transformed the philosophical landscape and encouraged some in (...)
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  27.  36
    Moral Judgement Development Within the Family.Sally I. Powers - 1988 - Journal of Moral Education 17 (3):209-219.
    Abstract This paper examines research and theory regarding the process of moral judgement development within the family environment. Four major issues in research on the family's influence on moral judgement development are outlined and the existing data relevant to these issues are briefly presented. The author's approach to studying these issues is described. The implications of research on moral development within the family for moral education are also addressed.
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  28. The Ethics of Expansion.H. H. Powers - 1900 - International Journal of Ethics 10 (3):288-306.
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  29.  56
    Cultures' Structures: Making Meaning in the Public Sphere. [REVIEW]Marshall Battani, David R. Hall & Rosemary Powers - 1997 - Theory and Society 26 (6):781-812.
  30. Incremental Machine Ethics.Thomas M. Powers - 2011 - IEEE Robotics and Automation 18 (1):51-58.
    Approaches to programming ethical behavior for computer systems face challenges that are both technical and philosophical in nature. In response, an incrementalist account of machine ethics is developed: a successive adaptation of programmed constraints to new, morally relevant abilities in computers. This approach allows progress under conditions of limited knowledge in both ethics and computer systems engineering and suggests reasons that we can circumvent broader philosophical questions about computer intelligence and autonomy.
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  31.  63
    Knowledge by Deduction.Lawrence H. Powers - 1978 - Philosophical Review 87 (3):337-371.
  32.  30
    Computers as Surrogate Agents.Deborah G. Johnson & Thomas M. Powers - 2008 - In M. J. van den Joven & J. Weckert (eds.), Information Technology and Moral Philosophy. Cambridge University Press. pp. 251.
  33.  80
    Biotechnology, Justice and Health.Ruth Faden & Madison Powers - 2013 - Journal of Practical Ethics 1 (1):49-61.
    New biotechnologies have the potential to both dramatically improve human well-being and dramatically widen inequalities in well-being. This paper addresses a question that lies squarely on the fault line of these two claims: When as a matter of justice are societies obligated to include a new biotechnology in a national healthcare system? This question is approached from the standpoint of a twin aim theory of justice, in which social structures, including nation-states, have double-barreled theoretical objectives with regard to human well-being. (...)
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  34. Ethics and Technology: A Program for Future Research.Deborah G. Johnson & Thomas M. Powers - 2009 - In M. Winston and R. Edelbach (ed.), Society, Ethics, and Technology, 4th edition.
    This chapter is reprinted from our lead essay in the Encyclopedia of Science, Technology, and Ethics, ed. C. Mitcham, Gale, 2005.
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  35. Mothering: Moral Cultivation in Buddhist and Feminist Ethics.John Powers & Deane Curtin - 1994 - Philosophy East and West 44 (1):1-18.
  36.  26
    The Community Speaks: Continuous Deep Sedation as Caregiving Versus Physician-Assisted Suicide as Killing.Carol L. Powers & Paul C. McLean - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics 11 (6):65 - 66.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 11, Issue 6, Page 65-66, June 2011.
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  37. The Stoic Argument for the Rationality of the Cosmos.Nathan Powers - 2012 - Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 43:245-269.
     
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  38.  29
    A Cognitive Access Definition of Privacy.Madison Powers - 1996 - Law and Philosophy 15 (4):369 - 386.
    Many of the contemporary disagreements regarding privacy are conceptual in nature. They concern the meaning or definition of privacy and the analytic basis of distinguishing privacy rights from other kinds of rights recognized within moral, political, or legal theories. The two main alternatives within this debate include reductionist views, which seek a narrow account of the kinds of invasions or intrusions distinctly involving privacy losses, and anti-reductionist theories, which treat a much broader array of interferences with a person as separate (...)
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  39.  50
    Diagramming Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics.Jonathan Powers - 2000 - Teaching Philosophy 23 (4):343-352.
    While it is customary for instructors when teaching a philosophical text to point to where a philosopher lays out their overall plan and then let students fill in the pieces, no such passage exists in Aristotle’s “Nicomachean Ethics.” While many philosophy courses focus on analyzing arguments, Aristotle’s work provides students a unique opportunity to learn how to assemble the parts into a coherent whole. This paper describes an assignment where students are asked to construct a diagram that visually represents the (...)
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  40.  65
    The Origins of Purpose: The First Metasystem Transitions.William T. Powers - 1995 - World Futures 45 (1):125-137.
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  41.  21
    Intentionality: No Mystery.William T. Powers - 1986 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (1):152-153.
  42. Deontological Machine Ethics.Thomas M. Powers - 2005 - In M. Anderson, S. L. Anderson & C. Armen (eds.), Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence Fall Symposium Technical Report.
    Rule-based ethical theories like Kant's appear to be promising for machine ethics because of the computational structure of their judgments. On one formalist interpretation of Kant's categorical imperative, for instance, a machine could place prospective actions into the traditional deontic categories (forbidden, permissible, obligatory) by a simple consistency test on the maxim of action. We might enhance this test by adding a declarative set of subsidiary maxims and other "buttressing" rules. The ethical judgment is then an outcome of the consistency (...)
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  43.  28
    Approval and Withdrawal of New Antibiotics and Other Antiinfectives in the U.S., 1980–2009.Kevin Outterson, John H. Powers, Enrique Seoane-Vazquez, Rosa Rodriguez-Monguio & Aaron S. Kesselheim - 2013 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (3):688-696.
    Numerous reports have noted decreasing numbers of antibiotic approvals. To determine the context for this decline, we examined all new molecule entities (NMEs) and new biologic licenses (NBLs) approved by the FDA from 1980–2009, and compared approval rates of the 61 approved antibiotics to trends in other drug classes. We also tracked withdrawals of approved drugs and found more withdrawals for antibiotics than other drug classes. After adjusting for drugs subsequently withdrawn, the record for antibiotic innovation is less dire than (...)
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  44.  44
    The Decline of Public Interest Agricultural Science and the Dubious Future of Crop Biological Control in California.Keith D. Warner, Kent M. Daane, Christina M. Getz, Stephen P. Maurano, Sandra Calderon & Kathleen A. Powers - 2011 - Agriculture and Human Values 28 (4):483-496.
    Drawing from a four-year study of US science institutions that support biological control of arthropods, this article examines the decline in biological control institutional capacity in California within the context of both declining public interest science and declining agricultural research activism. After explaining how debates over the public interest character of biological control science have shaped institutions in California, we use scientometric methods to assess the present status and trends in biological control programs within both the University of California Land (...)
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  45.  17
    Approval and Withdrawal of New Antibiotics and Other Antiinfectives in the U.S., 1980–2009.Kevin Outterson, John H. Powers, Enrique Seoane-Vazquez, Rosa Rodriguez-Monguio & Aaron S. Kesselheim - 2013 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (3):688-696.
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  46.  14
    The Anthropology of Justice: Law as Culture in Islamic Society.David S. Powers & Lawrence Rosen - 1991 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 111 (4):790.
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  47.  19
    Dividing by Zero—and Other Mathematical Fallacies.Lawrence H. Powers - 2013 - In Andrew Aberdein & Ian J. Dove (eds.), The Argument of Mathematics. Springer. pp. 173--179.
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  48.  93
    Justice and the Market for Health Insurance.Madison Powers - 1991 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 1 (4):307-323.
  49.  29
    Ad Hominem Arguments.Lawrence H. Powers - unknown
    Ad hominem arguments argue that some opponent should not be heard and no argument of that opponent should be heard or considered. The opponent has generally pernicious views, false and harmful. Moreover he is diabolically clever at arguing for his views. Thus, the ad hominem argument is essentially a device by which non-intellectuals try to wrest control of a dialectical situation from intellectuals. Stifling intellectuals, disrupting the dialectical situation, is an unpleasant conclusion, but no fallacy has been shown in what (...)
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  50.  35
    Some Deontic Logicians.Lawrence Powers - 1967 - Noûs 1 (4):381-400.
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