Results for 'practical reasoning, moral nihilism, moral abolitionism'

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  1.  14
    Reason and Ethics: The Case Against Objective Value.Joel Marks - forthcoming - New York and Abington, Oxon: Routledge.
    Reason and Ethics defends the theoretical claim that all values are subjective and the practical claim that human affairs can be conducted fruitfully in full awareness of this. This work goes beyond the author's previous work defending moral skepticism to question the existence of all objective values. This leads him to suggest a novel answer to the Companions in Guilt argument that the denial of morality would mean relinquishing rationality as well.
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  2. Why Moral Reasoning Is Insufficient for Moral Progress.Agnes Tam - 2020 - Journal of Political Philosophy 28 (1):73-96.
    A lively debate in the literature on moral progress concerns the role of practical reasoning: Does it enable or subvert moral progress? Rationalists believe that moral reasoning enables moral progress, because it helps enhance objectivity in thinking, overcome unruly sentiments, and open our minds to new possibilities. By contrast, skeptics argue that moral reasoning subverts moral progress. Citing growing empirical research on bias, they show that objectivity is an illusion and that moral (...)
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  3.  86
    Rethinking the Good: Moral Ideals and the Nature of Practical Reasoning.Larry S. Temkin - 2012 - Oxford University Press.
    Temkin's book is a very original and deeply unsettling work of skeptical philosophy that mounts an important new challenge to contemporary ethics.
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  4.  40
    Ethics Done Right: Practical Reasoning as a Foundation for Moral Theory.Elijah Millgram - 2005 - Cambridge University Press.
    Ethics Done Right examines how practical reasoning can be put into the service of ethical and moral theory. Elijah Millgram shows that the key to thinking about ethics is to understand generally how to make decisions. The papers in this volume support a methodological approach and trace the connections between two kinds of theory in utilitarianism, in Kantian ethics, in virtue ethics, in Hume's moral philosophy, and in moral particularism. Unlike other studies of ethics, Ethics Done (...)
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  5.  33
    Moral Reasoning as Naturally Good: A Qualified Defense of Foot's Conception of Practical Rationality.Steven Hendley - 2015 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 53 (4):427-449.
    Philippa Foot 's version of ethical naturalism, centered on the idea of “natural goodness,” has received a good deal of critical scrutiny. One pervasive criticism contends that less than virtuous modes of conduct may be described as naturally good or, at least, not naturally defective on her account. If true, this contradicts the most ambitious aspect of Foot 's naturalistic approach to ethics: to show that judgments of moral goodness are a subclass of judgments of natural goodness. But even (...)
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  6.  50
    Practical Reasoning and Normative Relevance: A Reply to McKeever and Ridge.Alan Thomas - 2007 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 4 (1):77-84.
    A putative problem for the moral particularist is that he or she fails to capture the normative relevance of certain considerations that they carry on their face, or the intuitive irrelevance of other considerations. It is argued in response that mastery of certain topic-specific truisms about a subject matter is what it is for a reasonable interlocutor to be engaged in a moral discussion, but the relevance of these truisms has nothing to do with the particularist/generalist dispute. Given (...)
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  7. Rethinking the Good: Moral Ideals and the Nature of Practical Reasoning.Larry S. Temkin - 2011 - Oxford University Press USA.
    In choosing between moral alternatives -- choosing between various forms of ethical action -- we typically make calculations of the following kind: A is better than B; B is better than C; therefore A is better than C. These inferences use the principle of transitivity and are fundamental to many forms of practical and theoretical theorizing, not just in moral and ethical theory but in economics. Indeed they are so common as to be almost invisible. What Larry (...)
     
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  8. Practical Reasoning and Moral Judgment.Robert Audi - 2011 - Analytica 5:94-111.
    Russian translation of the Chpater 9 of Audi R. Practical Reasoning and Ethical Decision. – London, N. Y., 2006. Translated by Andrei Zavaliy with kind permission of the author.
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  9.  27
    Hard Atheism and the Ethics of Desire: An Alternative to Morality.Marks Joel - 2016 - New York, USA: Palgrave Macmillan.
    This book challenges the widespread assumption that the ethical life and society must be moral in any objective sense. In his previous works, Marks has rejected both the existence of such a morality and the need to maintain verbal, attitudinal, practical, and institutional remnants of belief in it. This book develops these ideas further, with emphasis on constructing a positive alternative. Calling it “desirism”, Marks illustrates what life and the world would be like if we lived in accordance (...)
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  10. Moral Reasoning.Henry S. Richardson - 2013 - The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Moral reasoning is individual or collective practical reasoning about what, morally, one ought to do. Philosophical examination of moral reasoning faces both distinctive puzzles — about how we recognize moral considerations and cope with conflicts among them and about how they move us to act — and distinctive opportunities for gleaning insight about what we ought to do from how we reason about what we ought to do.
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  11. Practical Reasoning the Structure and Foundations of Prudential and Moral Arguments and Their Exemplification in Discourse.David P. Gauthier - 1963 - Clarendon Press.
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  12.  11
    Practical Reasoning: The Structure and Foundations of Prudential and Moral Arguments and Their Exemplification in Discourse.Bernard Mayo - 1965 - Philosophical Quarterly 15 (59):184.
  13.  32
    Symposium on Larry Temkin’s Rethinking the Good: Moral Ideals and the Nature of Practical Reasoning.Larry S. Temkin - 2015 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 12 (4):363-392.
  14. Ultimate Ends in Practical Reasoning: Aquinas's Aristotelian Moral Psychology and Anscombe's Fallacy.Scott MacDonald - 1991 - Philosophical Review 100 (1):31-66.
  15.  42
    Practical Reasoning and Moral Judgment.Joseph M. Boyle - 1984 - Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 58:37.
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  16. Ethics Done Right: Practical Reasoning as a Foundation for Moral Theory.Elijah Millgram - 2006 - Philosophy 81 (318):685-690.
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  17.  3
    Addressing Moral Problems Through Practical Reasoning.Katie Atkinson & Trevor Bench-Capon - 2008 - Journal of Applied Logic 6 (2):135-151.
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  18.  34
    Practical Reasoning: The Structure and Foundations of Prudential and Moral Arguments and Their Exemplification in Discourse.Judith Jarvis Thomson - 1965 - Journal of Philosophy 62 (7):183-187.
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  19.  5
    Review of "Rethinking The Good: Moral Ideals and the Nature of Practical Reasoning". [REVIEW]Eric Rovie - 2012 - Essays in Philosophy 13 (2):15.
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  20.  8
    Practical Reasoning: The Structure and Foundations of Prudential and Moral Arguments and Their Exemplification in Discourse.Anthony Kenny - 1966 - Philosophical Review 75 (2):235.
  21.  31
    Ethics Done Right: Practical Reasoning as a Foundation for Moral Theory - By Elijah Millgram.Richard Joyce - 2007 - Philosophical Books 48 (1):90-92.
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  22.  30
    Book Reviews:Ethics Done Right: Practical Reasoning as a Foundation for Moral Theory. [REVIEW]Garrett Cullity - 2009 - Ethics 119 (3):581-585.
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  23.  15
    Rethinking the Good: Moral Ideals and the Nature of Practical Reasoning. By Larry S. Temkin. Oxford University Press, 2012, Pp. 640, £45.00 ISBN: 9780199759446. [REVIEW]David Kaspar - 2014 - Philosophy 89 (1):176-180.
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  24.  17
    Review of Elijah Millgram, Ethics Done Right: Practical Reasoning As a Foundation for Moral Theory[REVIEW]Alison Hills - 2006 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2006 (3).
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  25. Elijah Millgram, Ethics Done Right: Practical Reasoning as a Foundation of Moral Theory Reviewed By.Emer O'Hagan - 2006 - Philosophy in Review 26 (4):273-275.
     
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  26. Considering the Roles of Values in Practical Reasoning Argumentation Evaluation.Michael D. Baumtrog - 2013 - Virtues of Argumentation. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference of the Ontario Society for the Study of Argumentation (OSSA).
    Building upon the role values take in Walton’s theory of practical reasoning, this paper will frame the question of how values should be evaluated into the broader question of what reasonable practical argumentation is. The thesis argued for is that if a positive evaluation of practical reasoning argumentation requires that the argument avoid a morally negative conclusion, then the role of values should be given a central, rather than supportive, position in practical argument evaluation.
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  27.  33
    Nonassertive Moral Abolitionism.Jason Dockstader - 2019 - Metaphilosophy 50 (4):481-502.
    Proponents of moral abolitionism, like Richard Garner, qualify their view as an â assertiveâ version of the position. They counsel moral realists and anti-realists alike to accept moral error theory, abolish morality, and encourage others to abolish morality. In response, this paper argues that moral error theorists should abolish morality, but become quiet about such abolition. It offers a quietist or nonassertive version of moral abolitionism. It does so by first clarifying and addressing (...)
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  28.  17
    Personal Moral Reasoning and Impersonal Practical Wisdom.Patrick J. Coffey - 1966 - Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 40:144.
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  29. Peter Olivi on Practical Reasoning.Juhana Toivanen - 2012 - In A. Musco (ed.), Universality of Reason, Plurality of Philosophies in the Middle Ages: Proceedings of the 12th International Congress of Medieval Philosophy (S.I.E.P.M.), vol. II-2. Palermo: Officina di Studi Medievali. pp. 1033-1045.
    The subject matter of this essay is Peter of John Olivi’s (ca.1248–98) conception of reason from the viewpoint of human action.
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  30.  3
    Indignation, Practical Rationality and Our Moral Life: A Grammatical Investigation.Jônadas Techio - 2016 - Ethic@ - An International Journal for Moral Philosophy 15 (2):260-278.
    This paper offers a grammatical investigation of some important aspects of our moral life taking a scene from the movie Mr. Deeds Goes to Town as a test case. The main question I try to answer is whether there are situations in our moral discussions in which the proper and rational attitude is to show disagreement, as opposed to continuing the dialogue. Many philosophers seem committed to a conception of moral reasoning that takes as its end rational (...)
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  31. The Infectiousness of Nihilism.William MacAskill - 2013 - Ethics 123 (3):508-520.
    In “Rejecting Ethical Deflationism,” Jacob Ross argues that a rational decision maker is permitted, for the purposes of practical reasoning, to assume that nihilism is false. I argue that Ross’s argument fails because the principle he relies on conflicts with more plausible principles of rationality and leads to preference cycles. I then show how the infectiousness of nihilism, and of incomparability more generally, poses a serious problem for the larger project of attempting to incorporate moral uncertainty into expected (...)
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  32. Measuring Moral Reasoning Using Moral Dilemmas: Evaluating Reliability, Validity, and Differential Item Functioning of the Behavioral Defining Issues Test (bDIT).Youn-Jeng Choi, Hyemin Han, Kelsie J. Dawson, Stephen J. Thoma & Andrea L. Glenn - 2019 - European Journal of Developmental Psychology 16 (5):622-631.
    We evaluated the reliability, validity, and differential item functioning (DIF) of a shorter version of the Defining Issues Test-1 (DIT-1), the behavioral DIT (bDIT), measuring the development of moral reasoning. 353 college students (81 males, 271 females, 1 not reported; age M = 18.64 years, SD = 1.20 years) who were taking introductory psychology classes at a public University in a suburb area in the Southern United States participated in the present study. First, we examined the reliability of the (...)
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  33. Meta-Reasoning in Making Moral Decisions Under Normative Uncertainty.Tomasz Żuradzki - 2016 - In Dima Mohammed & Marcin Lewiński (eds.), Argumentation and Reasoned Action. College Publications. pp. 1093-1104.
    I analyze recent discussions about making moral decisions under normative uncertainty. I discuss whether this kind of uncertainty should have practical consequences for decisions and whether there are reliable methods of reasoning that deal with the possibility that we are wrong about some moral issues. I defend a limited use of the decision theory model of reasoning in cases of normative uncertainty.
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  34.  66
    Practical Reasoning and Ethical Decision.Robert Audi - 2005 - Routledge.
    Presenting the most comprehensive and lucid account of the topic currently available, Robert Audi's "Practical Reasoning and Ethical Decision" is essential reading for anyone interested in the role of reason in ethics or the nature of human action. The first part of the book is a detailed critical overview of the influential theories of practical reasoning found in Aristotle, Hume and Kant, whilst the second part examines practical reasoning in the light of important topics in moral (...)
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  35. Ethics in the Conflicts of Modernity: An Essay on Desire, Practical Reasoning, and Narrative.Alasdair MacIntyre - 2016 - Cambridge University Press.
    Alasdair MacIntyre explores some central philosophical, political and moral claims of modernity and argues that a proper understanding of human goods requires a rejection of these claims. In a wide-ranging discussion, he considers how normative and evaluative judgments are to be understood, how desire and practical reasoning are to be characterized, what it is to have adequate self-knowledge, and what part narrative plays in our understanding of human lives. He asks, further, what it would be to understand the (...)
     
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  36.  32
    Casuistry and Modern Ethics: A Poetics of Practical Reasoning.Richard B. Miller - 1996 - University of Chicago Press.
    Did the Gulf War defend moral principle or Western oil interests? Is violent pornography an act of free speech or an act of violence against women? In _Casuistry and Modern Ethics_, Richard B. Miller sheds new light on the potential of casuistry—case-based reasoning—for resolving these and other questions of conscience raised by the practical quandaries of modern life. Rejecting the packaging of moral experience within simple descriptions and inflexible principles, Miller argues instead for identifying and making sense (...)
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  37.  96
    “Music to the Ears of Weaklings”: Moral Hydraulics and the Unseating of Desire.Louise R. Chapman & Constantine Sandis - forthcoming - Manuscrito: Revista Internacional de Filosofía.
    Psychological eudaimonism (PE) is the view that we are constituted by a desire to avoid the harmful. This entails that coming to see a prospective or actual object of pursuit as harmful to us will unseat our positive evaluative belief about (and coinstantiated desire for) that object (§I). There is more than one way that such an 'unseating' of desire may be caused on an intellectualist picture (§II). This paper arbitrates between two readings of Socrates' 'attack on laziness' in the (...)
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  38.  49
    Moral Reasoning and Decisions on the Ground.David K. Chan - 2012 - Philosophy in the Contemporary World 19 (2):15-25.
    In this paper, I examine the difference between decision-making by soldiers and commanders, compared with leaders of the nation. Decision-making in the armed forces is prudential reasoning concerned with the best means to achieve given military objectives. I argue that those in the military cannot rationally make the moral choice to risk the lives of their own soldiers or jeopardize their mission in order to protect the lives of enemy civilians. This does not vindicate the realists who deny that (...)
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  39.  29
    Practical Reasoning in a Social World: How We Act Together.Keith Graham - 2002 - Cambridge University Press.
    In this book Keith Graham examines the philosophical assumptions behind the ideas of group membership and loyalty. Drawing out the significance of social context, he challenges individualist views by placing collectivities such as committees, classes or nations within the moral realm. He offers an understanding of the multiplicity of sources which vie for the attention of human beings as they decide how to act, and challenges the conventional division between self-interest and altruism. He also offers a systematic account of (...)
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  40.  31
    The Role of Professional Knowledge in Case-Based Reasoning in Practical Ethics.Rosa Lynn Pinkus, Claire Gloeckner & Angela Fortunato - 2015 - Science and Engineering Ethics 21 (3):767-787.
    The use of case-based reasoning in teaching professional ethics has come of age. The fields of medicine, engineering, and business all have incorporated ethics case studies into leading textbooks and journal articles, as well as undergraduate and graduate professional ethics courses. The most recent guidelines from the National Institutes of Health recognize case studies and face-to-face discussion as best practices to be included in training programs for the Responsible Conduct of Research. While there is a general consensus that case studies (...)
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  41.  1
    Indignation, Practical Rationality and Our Moral Life: A Grammatical Investigation.Jônadas Techio - 2016 - Ethic@: An International Journal for Moral Philosophy 15 (2):260-278.
    This paper offers a grammatical investigation of some important aspects of our moral life taking a scene from the movie Mr. Deeds Goes to Town as a test case. The main question I try to answer is whether there are situations in our moral discussions in which the proper and rational attitude is to show disagreement, as opposed to continuing the dialogue. Many philosophers seem committed to a conception of moral reasoning that takes as its end rational (...)
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  42.  84
    Varieties of Practical Reasoning.Elijah Millgram (ed.) - 2001 - MIT Press.
    This book covers a broad spectrum of positions on practical reasoning—from the nihilist view that there are no legitimate forms of practical inference, and ...
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  43. Practical Reasoning and Weakness of the Will.Michael Bratman - 1979 - Noûs 13 (2):153-171.
    In a case of weak-willed action the agent acts-freely, deliberately, and for a reason-in a way contrary to his best judgment, even though he thinks he could act in accordance with his best judgment. The possibility of such actions has posed one problem in moral philosophy, the exact nature of the problem it poses another. In this essay I offer an answer to the latter problem: an explanation of why a plausible account of free, deliberate and purposive action seems (...)
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  44.  51
    Improving Practical Reasoning and Argumentation.Michael D. Baumtrog - 2015 - Dissertation, Universidade Nova de Lisboa
    This thesis justifies the need for and develops a new integrated model of practical reasoning and argumentation. After framing the work in terms of what is reasonable rather than what is rational (chapter 1), I apply the model for practical argumentation analysis and evaluation provided by Fairclough and Fairclough (2012) to a paradigm case of unreasonable individual practical argumentation provided by mass murderer Anders Behring Breivik (chapter 2). The application shows that by following the model, Breivik is (...)
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  45.  21
    Practical Implications of Empirically Studying Moral Decision-Making.Nora Heinzelmann, Giuseppe Ugazio & Philippe Tobler - 2012 - Frontiers in Neuroscience 6:94.
    This paper considers the practical question of why people do not behave in the way they ought to behave. This question is a practical one, reaching both into the normative and descriptive domains of morality. That is, it concerns moral norms as well as empirical facts. We argue that two main problems usually keep us form acting and judging in a morally decent way: firstly, we make mistakes in moral reasoning. Secondly, even when we know how (...)
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  46.  50
    Educating for Practical Reasoning.Thomas Magnell - 2001 - The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 11:233-239.
    Some decisions can be made employing closed systems of practical reasoning. Other decisions require open systems of practical reasoning. These kinds of practical reasoning differ epistemically. Closed systems of practical reasoning can rely on thinking with a basis that is epistemically robust. Open systems of practical reasoning must also allow for thinking with a basis that is epistemically slight. In making moral and prudential decisions about what we are to make of our lives, we (...)
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  47.  50
    Points of View and Practical Reasoning.Robert Brandom - 1982 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 12 (2):321 - 333.
    Problems of practical reasoning often arise as the result of a clash between two different points of view. What do we mean when we say that while from the point of view of prudence there is no reason to rescue one's drowning enemy, from the point of view of morality there is reason to do so? In this essay we examine how the idiom of points of view arises in practical discourse, and offer a clarification of it. We (...)
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  48.  46
    The Fundamental Principle of Practical Reasoning.Ralph Wedgwood - 1998 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 6 (2):189 – 209.
    The fundamental principle of practical reasoning (if there is such a thing) must be a rule which we ought to follow in all our practical reasoning, and which cannot lead to irrational decisions. It must be a rule that it is possible for us to follow directly - that is, without having to follow any other rule of practical reasoning in order to do so. And it must be a basic principle, in the sense that the explanation (...)
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  49.  26
    Oppositional Defiance, Moral Reasoning and Moral Value Evaluation as Predictors of Self-Reported Juvenile Delinquency.Marinus Gcj Beerthuizen, Daniel Brugman & Karen S. Basinger - 2013 - Journal of Moral Education 42 (4):1-15.
    This study investigated the relationships among oppositional defiant attitudes, moral reasoning, moral value evaluation and self-reported delinquent behaviour in adolescents. Of particular interest were the moderating effects of age, educational environment and gender on the relationship between moral reasoning and delinquency. The results indicate that oppositional defiance was a strong positive correlate of delinquent behaviour, particularly in late adolescence. Furthermore, moral reasoning was modestly and negatively related to delinquency, but only for males. No moderating effects for (...)
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  50.  32
    Developmental Delay or Regression in Moral Reasoning by Juvenile Delinquents?Daniel Brugman * & A. Elisabeth Aleva - 2004 - Journal of Moral Education 33 (3):321-338.
    This study extends research on moral reasoning competence in juvenile delinquents to their practical reasoning and perception of an institutional moral atmosphere in order to find out whether a delay in moral competence is one of the causes of the offence or one of the consequences of institutionalization or both. The study involved 64 delinquent adolescents from a modern, humane, high security detention centre and 81 secondary school pupils, all males. Delinquent adolescents exhibited lower moral (...)
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