Results for 'pre-human'

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  1.  9
    Sensory Pre-Conditioning and Incidental Learning in Human Subjects.Harry W. Karn - 1947 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 37 (6):540.
  2.  5
    The Effect of Instructions Upon Sensory Pre-Conditioning of Human Subjects.Rube Chernikoff & W. J. Brogden - 1949 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 39 (2):200.
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  3.  15
    An Exploratory Study of Human Rights Knowledge: A Sample of Kindergarten and Elementary School Pre-Service Teachers in Spain. [REVIEW]Claudia Messina & Liliana Jacott - 2013 - Human Rights Review 14 (3):213-230.
    This study aims to explore the level of information and knowledge 150 Spanish kindergarten and elementary school teachers in pre-service training have about human rights. We compared two groups of students: students with no specific training and students with specific training (the students with specific training study with the new training teaching programme that includes a compulsory subject related to citizenship education). The contents are organized around three thematic areas. Human rights are included in the first area ‘Basic concepts to (...)
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  4. 先秦儒家关于“欲”的理论 (Pre-Qin Confucian Theory on Human Desires).Keqian Xu - 2006 - 中州学刊 (Academic Journal of Zhongzhou) 2006 (1):166-170.
    The theory about human desire is one important component in early Confucian theory of humanity. It is worth our attention that Pre-Qin Confucians never put human desire at the absolute opposite position to the Heavenly Principle, as their successors do. Contrarily, they generally believe that the desire is the inseparable property of normal human nature, and making efforts to satisfy the human desire is reasonable. Only in terms of reducing the conflicts between human desire and the limited resources they advocate (...)
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  5.  47
    Human Immortality and Pre-Existence.John McTaggart Ellis McTaggart - 1916 - Kraus Reprint.
    HUMAN IMMORTALITY AND PRE-EXISTENCE PART I HUMAN IMMORTALITY I do not propose to offer here any arguments in support of the positive assertion that men are ...
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  6. ""The Frontal Feedback Model of the Evolution of the Human Mind: Part 1, the" Pre"-Human Brain and the Perception-Action Cycle.Raymond A. Noack - 2006 - Journal of Mind and Behavior 27 (3):247.
     
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  7.  27
    A Fortnight of My Life is Missing: A Discussion of the Status of the Human 'Pre-Embryo'.Alan Holland - 1990 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 7 (1):25-37.
    ABSTRACT Summed up in the coinage of the term ‘pre‐embryo’is the denial that human beings, as such, begin to exist from the moment of conception. This denial, which may be thought to have significant moral implications, rests on two kinds of reason. The first is that the pre‐embryo lacks the characteristics of a human being. The second is that the pre‐embryo lacks what it takes to be an individual human being. The first reason, I argue, embodies an untenable view of (...)
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  8.  13
    The Conflict of Pre-Paradigm Schools in Modern Human Origins Research.Goran Strkalj - 2000 - Acta Biotheoretica 48 (1):65-71.
    The debate on the origins of modern humans is one of the oldest and most controversial in the field of palaeoanthropology. In the 1860s the debate was established in the evolutionary context and, as a conflict between two major schools and various sub-schools, it has continued up until the present day. The opposing schools were and still are, at best, in only partial alignment on the major scientific issues. Each of them is founded in its own metaphysics and focuses on (...)
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  9.  6
    Pre-Hunt Communication Provides Context for the Evolution of Early Human Language.Szabolcs Számadó - 2010 - Biological Theory 5 (4):366-382.
    The origin of human language is one of the most fascinating and most difficult problems of evolution. Here I argue that pre-hunt communication was the starting context of the evolution of human language. Hunting of big game created a shared interest; animals and hunting actions are easy to imitate; the need to plan created a pressure for increasing complexity; and finally, cultural inheritance of hunting tools and know-how made the transition unique. I further argue that this “first step” was actually (...)
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  10. A Fortnight of My Life is Missing: A Discussion of the Status of the Human ‘Pre‐Embryo’.Alan Holland - 1990 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 7 (1):25-37.
    ABSTRACT Summed up in the coinage of the term ‘pre‐embryo’is the denial that human beings, as such, begin to exist from the moment of conception. This denial, which may be thought to have significant moral implications, rests on two kinds of reason. The first is that the pre‐embryo lacks the characteristics of a human being. The second is that the pre‐embryo lacks what it takes to be an individual human being. The first reason, I argue, embodies an untenable view of (...)
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  11. Unbornness: Human Pre-Existence and the Journey Toward Birth.Peter Selg - 2010 - Steinerbooks.
    The Sistine Madonna and the chorus of the unborn : Raphael and Nelly Sachs -- The human soul and the cosmos : life before conception -- From spiritual to earthly community : entering earthly existence -- Appendix : Rudolf Steiner : the transition from cosmic to earthly existence in the development of the human being.
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  12.  10
    Tests of Sensory Pre-Conditioning with Human Subjects.W. J. Brogden - 1942 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 31 (6):505.
  13.  6
    Improving the Quality of Host Country Ethical Oversight of International Research: The Use of a Collaborative ‘Pre‐Review’ Mechanism for a Study of Fexinidazole for Human African Trypanosomiasis.Carl H. Coleman, Chantal Ardiot, Séverine Blesson, Yves Bonnin, Francois Bompart, Pierre Colonna, Ames Dhai, Julius Ecuru, Andrew Edielu, Christian Hervé, François Hirsch, Bocar Kouyaté, Marie‐France Mamzer‐Bruneel, Dionko Maoundé, Eric Martinent, Honoré Ntsiba, Gérard Pelé, Gilles Quéva, Marie‐Christine Reinmund, Samba Cor Sarr, Abdoulaye Sepou, Antoine Tarral, Djetodjide Tetimian, Olaf Valverde, Simon Van Nieuwenhove & Nathalie Strub‐Wourgaft - 2015 - Developing World Bioethics 15 (3):241-247.
    Developing countries face numerous barriers to conducting effective and efficient ethics reviews of international collaborative research. In addition to potentially overlooking important scientific and ethical considerations, inadequate or insufficiently trained ethics committees may insist on unwarranted changes to protocols that can impair a study's scientific or ethical validity. Moreover, poorly functioning review systems can impose substantial delays on the commencement of research, which needlessly undermine the development of new interventions for urgent medical needs. In response to these concerns, the Drugs (...)
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  14.  41
    Reichsrundschreiben 1931: Pre-Nuremberg German Regulations Concerning New Therapy and Human Experimentation.Hans-Martin Sass - 1983 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 8 (2):99-112.
    This is the first re-publication and first English translation of regulations concerning Human Experimentation which were binding law prior to and during the Third Reich, 1931 to 1945. The introduction briefly describes the duties of the Reichsgesundheitsamt, which formulated these regulations. It then outlines the basic concept of the Richtlinien for protecting subjects and patients on the one hand and for encouraging New Therapy and Human Experimentation on the other hand. Major issues, like personal responsibility of the physician or researcher, (...)
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  15.  21
    Pre-AP English 10 17 February 2009 Human Nature According to Golding, Freud, and Katrina In His Novel Lord of the Flies, William Golding Examines the Relationship Between Civilization and Savagery by Illustrating How Society's Mores Lose Their Hold When People Are Reduced to Basic Survival. His Characters Represent Different Facets of Human Nature, Including Peace, Logic, Violence, and Power, but Eventually They Succumb to the Selfish, Power-Driven Aspect of Their Personalities. [REVIEW]Carrie Misenheimer - forthcoming - Human Nature.
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  16.  2
    M'Taggart's Human Immortality and Pre-Existence.George P. Adams - 1918 - Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 15 (10):277.
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  17.  13
    Human Pre-Existence.J. Ellis McTaggart - 1904 - International Journal of Ethics 15 (1):83-95.
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  18.  4
    Human Rights in Pre-Affluent Societies.Diana T. Meyers - 1981 - Philosophical Quarterly 31 (123):139-144.
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  19.  1
    Human Discourse About Nature; Nature's Processes as Discourse: The Pre‐Columbian Peruvian Myth of Cavillaca.Claudette Kemper Columbus - 1998 - Anthropology of Consciousness 9 (2‐3):17-33.
  20. Human Immortality and Pre-Existence. [REVIEW]George P. Adams - 1918 - Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 15 (10):277-278.
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  21. 'Taggart's Human Immortality and Pre-Existence. [REVIEW]George P. Adams - 1918 - Journal of Philosophy 15 (10):277.
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  22. Human Pre-Existence.J. Ellis McTaggart - 1904 - Ethics 15 (1):83.
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  23. Human Pre-Existence.J. Ellis McTaggart - 1904 - International Journal of Ethics 15 (1):83-95.
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  24. Human Pre-Existence.J. Ellis Mctaggart - 1905 - Philosophical Review 14:388.
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  25. Creations of Pre-Modern Human Minds: Stone Tool Manufacture and Use by Homo Habilis, Heidelbergensis, Andneanderthalensis.Steven Mithen - 2007 - In Eric Margolis & Stephen Laurence (eds.), Creations of the Mind: Theories of Artifacts and Their Representaion. Oxford University Press. pp. 289.
     
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  26. Pre-Meditated Man: Bioethics and the Control of Future Human Life.Richard M. Restak - 1975 - Penguin Books.
     
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  27.  33
    Human Rights in the Perspective of Traditional Africa: A Cosmotheandric Approach.Igboin Benson - 2011 - Sophia 50 (1):159-173.
    The notion of human rights is highly controversial and contested in modern scholarship. However, human rights have been defined as ‘the rational basis… for a justified demand.’ What constitutes demand should be understood as that which is different from favor or privilege but one's due, free from racial, religious, gender, political inclinations. But since rights are basic due to the fact that they are necessary for the enjoyment of something else, we are poised to examine it from the pre-figurative, configurative (...)
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  28.  21
    Hormonal Mechanisms for Regulation of Aggression in Human Coalitions.Mark V. Flinn, Davide Ponzi & Michael P. Muehlenbein - 2012 - Human Nature 23 (1):68-88.
    Coalitions and alliances are core aspects of human behavior. All societies recognize alliances among communities, usually based in part on kinship and marriage. Aggression between groups is ubiquitous, often deadly, fueled by revenge, and can have devastating effects on general human welfare. Given its significance, it is surprising how little we know about the neurobiological and hormonal mechanisms that underpin human coalitionary behavior. Here we first briefly review a model of human coalitionary behavior based on a process of runaway social (...)
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  29.  7
    Pre- and Perinatal Brain Development and Enculturation.Charles D. Laughlin - 1991 - Human Nature 2 (3):171-213.
    Ample evidence from various quarters indicates that the perceptual-cognitive competence of the pre- and perinatal human being is significantly greater than was once thought. Some of the evidence of this emerging picture of early competence is reviewed, and its importance both as evidence of the biogenetic structural concept of “neurognosis” and for a theory of enculturation is discussed. The literature of pre- and perinatal psychology, especially that of developmental neuropsychology, psychobiology, and social psychophysiology, is incorporated, and some of the implications (...)
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  30.  28
    Reflection and Text: Revisiting the Relation Between Pre-Reflective and Reflective Experience. [REVIEW]Wenjing Cai - 2013 - Human Studies 36 (3):339-355.
    The paper presents the prevailing understanding of pre-reflective and reflective experience as a “data-description model”. According to this model, pre-reflective experience is the original datum, the meaning of which is fully determined in the very beginning, whereas reflection is a secondary layer that purports to recover faithfully the meaning of the pre-reflective. The paper spells out the difficulty of this model by looking into the scepticism on reflection. Despite its contribution to explicating the basic level of human consciousness, the data-description (...)
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  31. Humanist and Political Perspectives on Human Rights.Pablo Gilabert - 2011 - Political Theory 39 (4):439-467.
    This essay explores the relation between two perspectives on the nature of human rights. According to the "political" or "practical" perspective, human rights are claims that individuals have against certain institutional structures, in particular modern states, in virtue of interests they have in contexts that include them. According to the more traditional "humanist" or "naturalistic" perspective, human rights are pre-institutional claims that individuals have against all other individuals in virtue of interests characteristic of their common humanity. This essay argues that (...)
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  32. Not so Fast. On Some Bold Neuroscientific Claims Concerning Human Agency.Andrea Lavazza & Mario De Caro - 2010 - Neuroethics 3 (1):23-41.
    According to a widespread view, a complete explanatory reduction of all aspects of the human mind to the electro-chemical functioning of the brain is at hand and will certainly produce vast and positive cultural, political and social consequences. However, notwithstanding the astonishing advances generated by the neurosciences in recent years for our understanding of the mechanisms and functions of the brain, the application of these findings to the specific but crucial issue of human agency can be considered a “pre-paradigmatic science” (...)
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  33. Brain, Mind and Limitations of a Scientific Theory of Human Consciousness.Alfred Gierer - 2008 - Bioessays 30 (5):499-505.
    In biological terms, human consciousness appears as a feature associated with the func- tioning of the human brain. The corresponding activities of the neural network occur strictly in accord with physical laws; however, this fact does not necessarily imply that there can be a comprehensive scientific theory of conscious- ness, despite all the progress in neurobiology, neuropsychology and neurocomputation. Pre- dictions of the extent to which such a theory may become possible vary widely in the scien- tific community. There are (...)
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  34.  71
    Minimally Conscious State and Human Dignity.Jukka Varelius - 2009 - Neuroethics 2 (1):35-50.
    Recent progress in neurosciences has improved our understanding of chronic disorders of consciousness. One example of this advancement is the emergence of the new diagnostic category of minimally conscious state (MCS). The central characteristic of MCS is impaired consciousness. Though the phenomenon now referred to as MCS pre-existed its inclusion in diagnostic classifications, the current medical ethical concepts mainly apply to patients with normal consciousness and to non-conscious patients. Accordingly, how we morally should stand with persons in minimally conscious state (...)
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  35.  10
    Religion, Violence, and Human Rights.James Turner Johnson - 2013 - Journal of Religious Ethics 41 (1):1-14.
    Beginning with the support given by religious groups to humanitarian intervention for the protection of basic human rights in the debates of the 1990s, this essay examines the use of the human rights idea in relation to international law on armed conflict, the “Responsibility To Protect” doctrine, and the development of the idea of sovereignty associated with the “Westphalian system” of international order, identifying a dilemma: that the idea of human rights undergirds both the principle of non-intervention in the internal (...)
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  36.  33
    Exposure Ethics: Does Hiv Pre‐Exposure Prophylaxis Raise Ethical Problems for the Health Care Provider and Policy Maker?Francois Venter, Lucy Allais & Marlise Richter - 2014 - Bioethics 28 (6):269-274.
    The last few years have seen dramatic progress in the development of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). These developments have been met by ethical concerns. HIV interventions are often thought to be ethically difficult. In a context which includes disagreements over human rights, controversies over testing policies, and questions about sexual morality and individual responsibility, PrEP has been seen as an ethically complex intervention. We argue that this is mistaken, and that in fact, PrEP does not raise new ethical concerns. Some (...)
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  37.  15
    On the Origin and Development of the Idea of “de” in Pre-Qin Times.Chao Fulin - 2006 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China 1 (2):161-184.
    In ancient Chinese thoughts, de is a comparatively complicated idea. Most of the researchers translated it directly into "virtue", but this translation is not accurate for our understanding of the idea of "de" in pre-Qin times. Generally speaking, in Pre-Qin times, the idea of"de" underwent three developmental periods. The first is the de of Heaven, the de of ancestors; the second the de of system; and the third the de of spirit and moral conducts. In a long period of history, (...)
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  38.  39
    The True or the Artificial: Theories on Human Nature Before Mencius and Xunzi-Based on “ Sheng is From Ming , and Ming is From Tian ”. [REVIEW]Youguang Li - 2010 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China 5 (1):31-50.
    When speaking of pre-Qin Dynasty theories on human nature, past scholars divided Confucius, Mencius and Xunzi into three categories, and they tended to divide the theories into moral categories of good and evil. The discovery of bamboo and silk sheets from this period, however, has offered some valuable literature, providing a historical opportunity for the thorough research of pre-Qin Dynasty theories on human nature. Based on the information on the recently excavated bamboo and silk sheets, especially the essay titled “Xing (...)
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  39.  4
    Religious Scholars’ Attitudes and Views on Ethical Issues Pertaining to Pre-Implantation Genetic Diagnosis in Malaysia.A. Olesen, S. N. Nor & L. Amin - 2016 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 13 (3):419-429.
    Pre-Implantation Genetic Diagnosis represents the first fusion of genomics and assisted reproduction and the first reproductive technology that allows prospective parents to screen and select the genetic characteristics of their potential offspring. However, for some, the idea that we can intervene in the mechanisms of human existence at such a fundamental level can be, at a minimum, worrying and, at most, repugnant. Religious doctrines particularly are likely to collide with the rapidly advancing capability for science to make such interventions. This (...)
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  40.  2
    Habituation and Hermeneutics: Toward a Thomistic Account of Pre‐Understanding.Jeffrey Walkey - 2017 - New Blackfriars 98 (1077):510-520.
    Human existence entails that our encounter with the world is mediated by the context, historicity, and concrete particularities of that existence. Consequently, this situatedness, which contributes to our pre-understanding, makes us more or less capable of “seeing” the truth of the world we encounter. The hermeneutical principle of pre-understanding is sometimes presupposed to be ambivalent toward, if not in opposition to, traditional metaphysics. The present essay shows how traditional metaphysics, specifically of a Thomistic sort, need not be pitted against hermeneutics, (...)
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  41.  4
    Before Identity, Gender and Human Rights.Andreas Philippopoulos-Mihalopoulos - 2006 - Feminist Legal Studies 14 (3):271-291.
    This is the beginning of an exploration of before as the thesis ‘before’ (temporally) and ‘be-fore’ (spatially) difference. Before denotes the origin and the desired destination. Before (in the double sense of ‘before’ and ‚be-in-the-fore’) opens up a space of pre-difference, of origin and of forgotten memory, as well as a space of desire, objective, illusion of teleology, unity, completion. Applied to the two domains of Human Rights and Sex/Gender, the space of ‘before’ yields two slightly different vistas: in human (...)
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  42. Pre-Modern Ethics, Authoritative Narratives, and the Tribunal.Jenifer Booth - 2014 - The Oxford Handbook of Psychiatric Ethics.
    This chapter applies the modified philosophy of Alasdair MacIntyre to mental health law, and in particular to the mental health tribunal. The natural law approach of Thomas Aquinas is used to assist in this. It is argued that, for law to be just in pre-modern terms, it requires that it be assessed as rational together with the care it supports as a single entity. As such, according to a modified version of the Thomistic Aristotelian ethics of MacIntyre, justice would require (...)
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  43. Wittgenstein, Politics and Human Rights.Robin Holt - 1997 - Routledge.
    Do human rights make sense? They have been central to post-war political life, and our picture of moral self. But this is being eroded, Holt argues, and with it the viability of human rights discourse. The pre-social individual and its mental armoury is being challenged by an increasing awareness of genealogical forces in which the self is less a lone claimant than an exponent or rebel. Using Wittgenstein's philosophy, this book considers the liberal position on human rights, along with the (...)
     
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  44. Habituation and Hermeneutics: Toward a Thomistic Account of Pre‐Understanding.Jeffrey Walkey - 2016 - New Blackfriars 97 (1072).
    Human existence entails that our encounter with the world is mediated by the context, historicity, and concrete particularities of that existence. Consequently, this situatedness, which contributes to our pre-understanding, makes us more or less capable of “seeing” the truth of the world we encounter. The hermeneutical principle of pre-understanding is sometimes presupposed to be ambivalent toward, if not in opposition to, traditional metaphysics. The present essay shows how traditional metaphysics, specifically of a Thomistic sort, need not be pitted against hermeneutics, (...)
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  45. Habituation and Hermeneutics: Toward a Thomistic Account of Pre‐Understanding.Jeffrey Walkey - 2017 - New Blackfriars 98 (1077):510-520.
    Human existence entails that our encounter with the world is mediated by the context, historicity, and concrete particularities of that existence. Consequently, this situatedness, which contributes to our pre-understanding, makes us more or less capable of “seeing” the truth of the world we encounter. The hermeneutical principle of pre-understanding is sometimes presupposed to be ambivalent toward, if not in opposition to, traditional metaphysics. The present essay shows how traditional metaphysics, specifically of a Thomistic sort, need not be pitted against hermeneutics, (...)
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  46. Is Human Information Processing Conscious?Max Velmans - 1991 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (4):651-69.
    Investigations of the function of consciousness in human information processing have focused mainly on two questions: (1) where does consciousness enter into the information processing sequence and (2) how does conscious processing differ from preconscious and unconscious processing. Input analysis is thought to be initially "preconscious," "pre-attentive," fast, involuntary, and automatic. This is followed by "conscious," "focal-attentive" analysis which is relatively slow, voluntary, and flexible. It is thought that simple, familiar stimuli can be identified preconsciously, but conscious processing is needed (...)
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  47.  11
    Human Values and Consciousness: Towards a New Social Order in the Light of Sri Aurobindo.S. Ambirajan - 1995 - Journal of Human Values 1 (2):249-264.
    In the first part of his paper, published in the previous issue of this journal, the author dwelt on Sri Aurobindo's social, economic, political and nationalistic writings in Aurobindo's pre-Pondicherry days . In this second part, the paper crystallizes Sri Aurobindo's ideas and writings during the four decades he spent in Pondicherry. This paper looks at Aurobindo's metaphysical search for answers to the most fundamental questions of existence. The future that Sri Aurobindo was seeking out was not a particular future (...)
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  48.  9
    Human Values and Consciousness: Towards a New Social Order in the Light of Sri Aurobindo.S. Ambirajan - 1995 - Journal of Human Values 1 (1):127-138.
    In the first part of his paper, published in the previous issue of this journal, the author dwelt on Sri Aurobindo's social, economic, political and nationalistic writings in Aurobindo's pre-Pondicherry days . In this second part, the paper crystallizes Sri Aurobindo's ideas and writings during the four decades he spent in Pondicherry. This paper looks at Aurobindo's metaphysical search for answers to the most fundamental questions of existence. The future that Sri Aurobindo was seeking out was not a particular future (...)
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  49.  2
    Human Rights in the Post-September 11th Era: Between Hegemony and Emancipation.Shadi Mokhtari - 2006 - Muslim World Journal of Human Rights 3 (1).
    The post-September 11th era has presented immense challenges and disappointing setbacks for the advancement of human rights. Yet, the era has also been marked by complexity, paradoxes and ample opportunities for introspection as events expose contemporary human rights' various weaknesses and contradictions. This article provides an overview of the interplay between the human rights concept's various instrumental appropriations and its more autonomous emancipatory capacity manifested in post-September 11th developments. Instead of an exhaustive examination, the article simply poses and juxtaposes different (...)
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  50.  5
    Solving the “Human Problem”: The Frontal Feedback Model.Raymond A. Noack - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (2):1043-1067.
    This paper argues that humans possess unique cognitive abilities due to the presence of a functional system that exists in the human brain that is absent in the non-human brain. This system, the frontal feedback system, was born in the hominin brain when the great phylogenetic expansion of the prefrontal cortex relative to posterior sensory regions surpassed a critical threshold. Surpassing that threshold effectively reversed the preferred direction of information flow in the highest association regions of the neocortex, producing the (...)
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